Who Should Get Hpv Vaccine
HPV vaccination is recommended for all preteens at age 1112 years. All preteens need HPV vaccination, so they are protected from HPV infections that can cause cancer later in life.
- Teens and young adults through age 26 years who didnt start or finish the HPV vaccine series also need HPV vaccination.
CDC recommends that 11- to 12-year-olds receive two doses of HPV vaccine 6 to 12 months apart.
- The first dose is routinely recommended at age 1112 years old the series can be started at age 9 years.
- Only two doses are recommended if vaccination started at age 9 and through age 14.
Teens and young adults who start the series later, at ages 15 through 26 years, need three doses of HPV vaccine.
- Adolescents aged 9 through 14 years who have already received two doses of HPV vaccine less than 5 months apart will require a third dose.
- Three doses are recommended for people with weakened immune systems aged 9 through 26 years.
Vaccination is not recommended for everyone older than age 26 years. However, some adults age 27 through 45 years who are not already vaccinated may decide to get HPV vaccine after speaking with their doctor about their risk for new HPV infections and the possible benefits of vaccination. HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit, as more people have already been exposed to HPV.
Would New Laws Empower Teens Or Split Families
Advocates say that the right to be vaccinated against a sexually transmitted infection makes sense in light of public health laws allowing teens to get diagnosis and treatment for STIs without parental consent. However, states need to make this right explicit with new laws that specifically name vaccines or immunizations, and lower the age of consent for vaccines to 12 or 14, said Ross Silverman, professor of health policy and management at Indiana University’s Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health.
And in order to make these new laws most effective, teens need better information about how the vaccine can protect them, said Fred Wyand, a spokesman for the American Sexual Health Association and the National Cervical Cancer Coalition.
We dont just give kids drivers licenses when they turn 16 and say OK, have at it! Wyand said. We have to teach them the rules of the road, how to safely operate their vehicle, how to change a tire and so forth. That approach works with health topics, too.
Men Who Have Sex With Men
If you are a man who has sex with men, you may be able to get the HPV vaccine for free in sexual health clinics across the UK:
- In England, Scotland and Northern Ireland there is no lower age limit. You can have the HPV vaccine up to age 45.
- In Wales, you can have the HPV vaccine between ages 15 and 45.
It is best to speak with a doctor or nurse at your local clinic for more details.
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What Experts Have To Say
Healthline spoke with Cynthia Leifer, PhD, associate professor in the department of microbiology and immunology at Cornell University in New York.
She supports the FDAs new guidelines but also knows that adults tend not to think about vaccinations.
She said that many adults forget, or are unaware, that they still need vaccines.
So, in order for this to have an impact, Leifer said, Primary care physicians need to let their patients know about this new option.
Dr. Ian Frazer, an immunologist and professor best known for co-inventing the base technology behind the HPV vaccines, isnt so sure a new age range guideline will spur increased vaccination rates.
While he admitted hes not an expert on U.S. policies, he did mention that his U.S. colleagues say that success depends on the need for insurance companies to reimburse the cost of the vaccine.
Comparative analysis of coverage and vaccine rates across the globe confirm that argument. High-income countries with higher insurance coverage rates see increased vaccination rates.
Right now, the vaccine is covered in select U.S. states by some insurance companies and the onus is on the patient to find this information. This creates a barrier to access.
In cases where insurance coverage is available, it is not immediate.
Patients have to pay the up-front cost and wait to be reimbursed, providing another financial barrier that could decrease the likelihood of someone getting vaccinated.
What Research Is Being Done On Strategies To Prevent Hpv Infection
If a single dose of HPV vaccine were effective, that would be an important advance. A large observational study using national data from women across Australia found that one dose of HPV vaccine was as effective as two or three doses in preventing high-grade cervical lesions . An analysis of data from a community-based clinical trial of Cervarix in Costa Rica, found that even one dose of the vaccine caused the body to produce approximately nine times more antibodies against HPV than the body produces in response to a natural HPV infection, and those antibody levels persisted for 11 years . In addition, the rates of HPV infection remained low for at least 10 years .
Two NCI-led clinical trials have been launched in Costa Rica to confirm and extend these findings. The ESCUDDO study, a randomized double-blind controlled trial involving 20,000 girls ages 1216 years, is testing whether one dose of either Cervarix or Gardasil 9 is as effective as two doses at preventing persistent cervical infection with HPV. PRIMAVERA-ESCUDDO, a non-randomized open-label trial, will provide earlier and complementary results to ESCUDDO about the immunogenicity of one dose of Cervarix in girls ages 914 years compared with three doses of Gardasil in women ages 1825 years.
Koutsky LA, Ault KA, Wheeler CM, et al. A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 2002 347:16451651.
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Recommendations For Young Adults
The CDC also recommends a three-dose series of the HPV vaccine for certain people who have not completed the early two-dose series. These include:
- Females through age 26
- Men who have sex with men through age 26
In addition, the HPV vaccine is recommended for young adults up to age 26 who are immunocompromised, such as those living with HIV.
Although men get HPV-associated diseases less often than women, vaccination is still recommended. This is especially true for MSM, who are up to 38 times more likely to get anal cancer compared to the general population that jumps to 130 times more likely if they have HIV.
Are Hpv Vaccines Safe
All of the HPV vaccines were tested in thousands of people around the world before they were approved. And they continue to be constantly monitored for safety. So far, all studies show no deaths have been linked to any HPV vaccine. Common, mild side effects include headache, fever, nausea, and dizziness. Sometimes pain and redness can happen where the shot was given.
As with any medication or injection, people may have an allergic reaction afterwards. Anyone who has a severe allergy to any ingredient in the HPV vaccine should not get the vaccine, including a severe allergy to yeast. Some people may faint after getting any vaccine, including HPV vaccines. Fainting after getting a shot is more common in teens than in young children or adults. To keep people from getting hurt from fainting, a 15-minute waiting period for people of all ages is recommended after any vaccination.
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Who Can Have The Hpv Vaccine Through The Nhs Vaccination Programme
The 1st dose of the HPV vaccine is routinely offered to girls and boys aged 12 and 13 in school Year 8. The 2nd dose is offered 6 to 24 months after the 1st dose.
If you miss either of your HPV vaccine doses, speak to your school immunisation team or GP surgery and make an appointment to have the missed dose as soon as possible.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be fully protected.
People who were eligible for HPV vaccination in school Year 8 but who missed it can still be vaccinated on the NHS up to their 25th birthday.
People who have the 1st dose of the HPV vaccine at 15 years of age or above will need to have 3 doses of the vaccine. This is because they do not respond as well to 2 doses as younger people do.
Read more about HPV vaccination safety and the possible side effects.
How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given
The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.
If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.
But if you get your 1st vaccine dose at the age of 15 or over, you’ll need to have 3 injections.
Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will need 3 doses of the vaccine .
If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:
- the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
- the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose
It’s important to have all 3 vaccine doses to be properly protected.
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How Is Gardasil 9 Vaccine Given
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle in your upper arm or thigh. A healthcare provider will give you this injection.
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given in a series of 2 or 3 shots. You may have the first shot at any time as long as you are between the ages of 9 and 45 years. The second dose is given 2 to 6 months after your first shot. A third dose may be given 6 to 12 months after your first shot.
Be sure to receive all recommended doses of this vaccine or you may not be fully protected against disease.
Gardasil 9 vaccine should not be used in place of having a routine pelvic exam, Pap smear, anal, or head and neck exam to screen for cervical, anal, or head and neck cancer.
How Long Will The Vaccine Prevent Hpv Infection
How long a vaccine will protect people is never known when the vaccine is first introduced. Current research shows that the vaccine is effective, and theres no sign that the protection decreases with time. Research will continue to look at how long protection against HPV lasts, and if booster shots will be needed.
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Opinionwhy I Wish I Didn’t Avoid An Awkward Conversation About Hpv In Men
Thanks, however, to a October 2018 decision by the Food & Drug Administration, women and men aged 27 through 45 finally have the opportunity to obtain Gardasil 9 protect ourselves from nine of the 200 strains of human papilloma virus, some of which are spread through vaginal, anal or oral sex and cause warts and cancer. This means that people between the ages of 38 and 45, who were above the age limit in 2006, can now get vaccinated.
Thus, Ive begun the 3-shot course of Gardasil 9.
Anyone like me who missed the age window previously might think they do not need protection from HPV because they have already been exposed to various HPV types, have suffered no consequences or are in a committed relationship with no plans to have a new sex partner.
Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide
For health professionals
Last complete chapter revision: May 2017
New recommendation: HPV9 vaccine may be administered to immunocompetent males and females 9 to 14 years of age according to a 2-dose or 3-dose immunization schedule. The second dose of HPV9 vaccine in a 2-dose schedule should not be administered earlier than 24 weeks following the first dose. Immunocompromised individuals should continue to receive a 3-dose immunization schedule, as previously recommended.
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Safety And Effectiveness Of Gardasil
The HPV vaccine issafe and effective in women above the recommended age of 45. Insurance coverage is not available to women over 45 because it is not considered cost-effective to give everyone the vaccine. Based on effectiveness studies, women over 45 who have had few lifetime sexual partners or been in a few long-term relationships are likely to benefit just as much as younger women. Older women may derive less benefit from Gardasil vaccination compared to younger women.
Does This Mean That If I Have Already Had Sex There Is No Point In Having The Hpv Vaccine
There are over 100 different types of HPV virus, but only a few of these cause genital warts or increase the risk of pre-cancerous changes of the genitals, anus, throat and mouth. So, even if you have had sex, you might not have come into contact with one of the harmful types of HPV.
The likelihood of this is decreased even more the fewer people you have had sex with in your lifetime, and if you have always used condoms.
So, having the HPV vaccine wont protect you from whatever youve already got, but it will lower the risk of developing warts and pre-cancerous changes from other types of HPV that you havent yet been infected with.
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About The Hpv Vaccine
The HPV vaccine helps protect you from cancers that can be caused by HPV, such as:
- over 70 per cent of cervical cancers
- some mouth and throat cancers
- some cancers of the anus and genitals
The vaccine will also protect you against the two types of HPV that cause the majority of cases of genital warts. It wont protect you against any other sexually transmitted infections. It also wont stop girls getting pregnant.
The HPV vaccine is used in 84 countries. Over 80 million people have received the vaccine worldwide.
There is evidence that the vaccine is already having a major impact on HPV infections in the UK, Australia and Denmark. In time it is expected that the vaccine will save hundreds of lives every year.
Although it is very unlikely that you will be at risk of HPV infection for many years, it is recommended you have the vaccine at age 12 to 13 years, because studies show that protection from the vaccine is better when it is given at an earlier age.
Hpv Frequently Asked Questions:
Here are some helpful facts to help you come to grips with HPV and its vaccine.
1. How many years does protection last after vaccination/ how many years protection does vaccination afford someone?
Studies suggest that HPV vaccines offer long-lasting protection against HPV infection and therefore disease caused by HPV infection. Studies of the vaccines have followed vaccinated individuals for more than 10 years and have found no evidence of protection decreasing over time. Duration of protection provided by HPV vaccination will continue to be studied.
2. Should someone have a booster?
Right now no booster is recommended as again studies of the HPV vaccines have found no evidence of protection decreasing over time. Research will continue to look at how long protection against HPV lasts, and if booster injections will be required.
3. If someone has not completed a vaccine course, with an interval of multiple years, what should they do?
According to the Centre for Disease Control in America , who monitors vaccine safety, if a single dose of the vaccine was received then the schedule to complete vaccination is as follows:
If years have passed since the one dose of the HPV vaccine was received then according to the CDC:
4. Should they continue with the vaccine type they were given previously or change e.g. to Gardasil 9 which protects against more serotypes? Is there any disadvantage to switching to Gardasil 9?
5. Am I too old to be vaccinated?
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Am I Too Old For The Hpv Vaccine
Last week, the FDA announced it had approved expanded use of the HPV vaccine to include those aged 27 through 45. Previously, approval only covered males and females aged nine through 26.
But how effective is the vaccine when you are older and is it worthwhile?
The HPV vaccine protects against nine different types of HPV viruses , but these nine cause almost 90% of all HPV-associated cancers. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, with four out of five sexually active people contracting at least one HPV virus during their lifetime.
It makes sense to vaccinate children before they are sexually active because once you acquire the virus it never really leaves your body. Most people with HPV have no symptoms until something causes their immune system to become compromised and the disease takes hold. Luckily, very few people with HPV end up with cancer.
But that doesnt mean there is no benefit in vaccinating people older than 26 who have been sexually active for several years. Gardasil 9 protects against nine different HPV viruses, so even if you have already contracted one or two, vaccination offers protection against the remainder.
Some people may argue that the immune response to vaccination is not as strong in adults. While it is true it is strongest in children, the response is still significant enough in those over 26, especially after three doses of the vaccine .
For more information see here
Monitoring For Possible Side Effects
Like all vaccines, even old vaccines approved many years ago, the HPV vaccines are continuously monitored for side effects. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Food and Drug Administration review all serious side effects reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System to watch for potential safety concerns that may need further study.
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