Thursday, September 21, 2023

Are Vaccines Mandatory In The United States

Breakthrough Infections Might Not Be A Big Transmission Risk Here’s The Evidence

U.S. health-care workers face mandatory vaccinations

Limaye said that particularly among Republicans, the idea of freedom a core tenet of the American ideal has given people a basis on which to pin anti-science rhetoric.

“This idea of liberty and autonomy this comes up a lot as those underlying values of individuals that feel as though we don’t really need to be mandating vaccines,” she said,

“I don’t think it’s an issue that they hate vaccines themselves. They hate the idea that vaccines are essentially forcing them into doing something they don’t want to do. Vaccines are just sort of the casualty of all this.”

Whats Happening Inside North Korea Since The Pandemic The Window Has Slammed Shut

TOKYO North Korean leader Kim Jong Un and President Donald Trump were sitting across a circular wooden table for a brief photo opportunity at their 2019 summit in Vietnam when a U.S. reporter asked a question of Kim.

To the worlds surprise, he responded the first time that Kim, the leader of the worlds most closed society, engaged with the foreign media.

In the 2½ years since, North Korea has basically clammed up again. It has become so opaque that Kims stunning exchange in Hanoi seems unimaginable in the current information vacuum.

North Korea sealed its borders shut in the pandemic, even to its major trade partner, China, a move that the U.N.human rights watchdog saidexacerbated shortages of food and medical supplies. But the harsh measure has also led to a loss of firsthand insights into the country that helped policymakers connect the dots about internal pressures and trends that inform U.S. policy toward the nuclear-armed regime.

The Republican National Committee on Thursday announced it would sue the Biden administration over the sweeping new coronavirus vaccine mandates the president unveiled earlier in the day, arguing they were unconstitutional.

McDaniel also charged that Biden had told Americans he would not impose vaccine mandates. Biden administration officials have repeatedly stated there would not be a national mandate or vaccine passports, but encouraged mandates at the local level.

Covid Vaccine And Test Requirements For Us Entry

Air Travel to the United States

Presidential Proclamation 10294 of October 25, 2021, Advancing the Safe Resumption of Global Travel During the COVID-19 Pandemic, effective November 8, 2021, revoked the four prior geographic travel ban restrictions that had limited entry from 33 specific countries, and replaced them with a global requirement that “noncitizens who are nonimmigrants” traveling to the United States by air from any part of the world establish that they are fully vaccinated, with some limited exceptions.

A separate CDC order also continues to require all air travelers to show results of a negative coronavirus test performed on a specimen taken three days or one day preceding their flight’s departure from a foreign country traveling to the United States.

“Noncitizens who are nonimmigrants” who are traveling by air will have to show both the negative COVID viral test and documentation that they are either fully vaccinated or are eligible for an exception to the vaccination requirement.

Entry to the United States through Land or Ferry Ports of Entry

In a separate but related announcement , the controls on non-essential travel through land ports of entry on the Canadian and Mexican borders have also been modified.

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Compulsory School Vaccinations And Forced Sterilizations

The Jacobson decision provided a powerful and controversial precedent for the extent of government authority in the early 20th century.

In 1922, the Supreme Court heard another vaccination case, this time concerning a Texas student named Rosalyn Zucht who was barred from attending public school because her parents refused to have her vaccinated. Zuchts lawyers argued that the school districts ordinance requiring proof of vaccination denied Rosalyn equal protection of the laws as guaranteed by the 14th Amendment.

The Supreme Court disagreed. Justice Louis Brandeis wrote in the unanimous decision: Long before this suit was instituted, Jacobson v. Massachusetts had settled that it is within the police power of a state to provide for compulsory vaccination. These ordinances confer not arbitrary power, but only that broad discretion required for the protection of the public health.

In a far darker chapter, the Jacobson decision also provided judicial cover for a Virginia law that authorized the involuntary sterilization of feeble-minded individuals in state mental institutions. In the 1920s, eugenics enjoyed wide support in scientific and medical circles, and the Supreme Court justices were not immune.

In the infamous 1927 case Buck v. Bell, the Supreme Court accepted the questionable facts presented in the lower court cases that a young Virginia woman named Carrie Bell hailed from a long line of mental defectives whose offspring were a burden on public welfare.

Us Mandates Vaccines Or Tests For Big Companies By Jan 4

Vaccination Coverage by Age 24 Months Among Children Born ...

Tens of millions of Americans who work at companies with 100 or more employees will need to be fully vaccinated against COVID-19 by Jan. 4 or get tested for the virus weekly under government rules issued Thursday.

The new requirements are the Biden administrations boldest move yet to persuade reluctant Americans to finally get a vaccine that has been widely available for months or face financial consequences. If successful, administration officials believe it will go a long way toward ending a pandemic that has killed more than 750,000 Americans.

First previewed by President Joe Biden in September, the requirements will apply to about 84 million workers at medium and large businesses, although it is not clear how many of those employees are unvaccinated.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations will force the companies to require that unvaccinated workers test negative for COVID-19 at least once a week and wear a mask while in the workplace.

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Everyone Affected By The Covid

Announcing “a new plan to require more Americans to be vaccinated to combat those blocking public health,” Biden on Sept. 9 rolled out his administration’s Path Out of the Pandemic program, which aims to increase the vaccination rate by requiring shots across public and private sectors. Roughly 80 million Americans who are eligible for a COVID-19 vaccine have not been vaccinated. And as of July, 99% of COVID deaths were among the unvaccinated, who also made up 97% of hospitalizations.

Here’s who’s required to be vaccinated under the plan:

  • Employers with 100 or more employees will be required to have their employees either be fully vaccinated or get tested weekly to come to work. Biden said the Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration would implement the requirements that will affect 84 million workers.
  • Federal workers and employees of contractors that do business with the federal government will be required to be vaccinated.
  • The Department of Health and Human Services will require vaccinations in Head Start Programs, as well as schools run by the Department of Defense and the Bureau of Indian Education.
  • Workers in health care facilities that receive Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements, including hospitals and home health agencies, will also have to be fully vaccinated.
  • Individuals applying to become lawful permanent US residents must be fully vaccinated, US Citizenship and Immigration Services announced on Sept. 14.

Private Organizations Requiring Proof Of Vaccination

In order to protect their employees and patrons, some businesses and entities may mandate that their on-site employees be vaccinated. Some employers were initially hesitant to impose vaccine requirements, citing concerns over their validity due to the present EUAs among other factors. A June 2021 survey of companies found that only 3% planned to implement a vaccine mandate.

However, by late-July 2021 due to the threat of Delta variant, a number of major private employers across many industries announced vaccination requirements for employees. Similar mandates were announced for California state employees, and federal employees and contractors.

In an effort to protect their employees and other customers, some businesses may voluntarily require that their customers or patrons present proof of vaccination or a recent negative test in order to receive service or access.

Many U.S. colleges and universities, both public and privately owned, have started requiring students to be vaccinated before attending in-person classes in fall 2021. This has led to a black market in counterfeit CDC vaccination cards for students who want to violate this requirement instead of attending a different school.

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Germany Reports First Omicron Case With No Travel History

From CNN’s Sara Mazloumsaki and Nadine Schmidt

A 39-year-old man from Leipzig has been diagnosed with the Omicron variant, the first confirmed case in Germany with no travel history, according to health officials.

The infected man had not traveled abroad recently nor had any contact with anyone who had traveled overseas, Leipzig Health Department director Regine Krause-Döring said.

It’s the fourth Omicron case to be discovered in Germany. Two previous infections were detected in Munich and a third case was found in the state of Hesse.

History Of Vaccine Mandates In The Us

U.S. To Require Covid Vaccinations For Arriving International Travelers
History of vaccine mandates in the US
1777: George Washington mandates smallpox vaccines for all his soldiers
1809: Massachusetts institutes the first vaccine mandate
1813: Congress establishes the US Vaccine Agency
1855: Massachusetts institutes the first school vaccine mandates
1867: The Urbana, Ohio, board of health passes a law requiring citizens to get available vaccines in the event of future epidemics
1898: The UKs Vaccination Act allows objections and exemptions to vaccine mandates
1902: Congress passes the Biologics Control Act
1905: The US Supreme Court decides Jacobson v. Massachusetts
1922: The US Supreme Court decides Zucht v. King
1944: The US Supreme Court decides Prince v. Massachusetts
1977: The nationwide Childhood Immunization Initiative begins
1980: All 50 states have laws requiring vaccines for children to attend public schools
1987: The Arizona Court of Appeals decides Maricopa County Health Department v. Harmon
2015: California becomes the first state to eliminate personal belief exemptions to vaccines for children in public and private schools
2021: President Biden announces a sweeping COVID-19 vaccine mandate

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When Did Mandatory Vaccinations Become Common

Cristina Valldejuli, a graduate of theUniversity of Iowa, is an HNN intern.

Herbal panaceas, special cloths, strictdiets, cool drinks, eschewing fireplaces, and the edict that apatients bedclothes be no higher than the patients waistthesewere the prescriptions of the pre-inoculation era when someonecontracted smallpox.For centuries pandemic diseases devastated much of mankind. Hardlymore than a century ago, 20% of children fell to disease before theage of five, a staggering 20% more died before entering intoadolescence, survivors finding little recourse in adulthood from thescourges of the agediphtheria, yellow fever, small pox, measles,pertussis, and a deadly handful of others.It was in such a dire period that the first federal health mandateswere made and bore the political origins of compulsory vaccination.

Astring of yellow fever outbreaks erupted between 1793 and 1798,taking thousands of lives and leaving the nation dizzy with loss.Shortly after the outbreaks, John Adams signed and established thefirst federal quarantine law against the recurrent epidemics ofyellow fever. Accordingto Carleton B. Chapman, an MD, the Federal Quarantine Proposal of1796 met virtually no opposition.

Since its inception compulsory publichealth laws have generated skepticism and resistance. Today, recentmeasles outbreaks176affected from January 1rst to March 13th, 2015have revitalizeda long-lived debate and precipitated discussion about new approachesto public education.

Reasons For Vaccine Hesitancy

Within each of the categories described above parents present a spectrum of compliance with vaccination, including delaying vaccinations, only refusing certain ones, or refusing immunizations completely. Religious reasons tend to account for the majority of total vaccine refusal, while parents with personal beliefs against immunization tend to be more willing to compromise and at least partially vaccinate their children. Parents are concerned with doing the best for their children, and hearing reports of potential safety issues or that childhood diseases are not a large threat can hinder them from vaccinating their children.

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Where Are We On Vaccine Passes For Venues Such As Nightclubs And Restaurants

While Boris Johnsons government flip-flopped wildly on the idea of vaccine passports for nightclubs before ruling them out, they have been adopted elsewhere. In Greece as part of new measures only vaccinated customers are allowed in bars, cinemas, theatres and other enclosed spaces.

France made it mandatory to show a Covid pass at cafes, bars and restaurants as the country battled a new wave of coronavirus infections, with the vaccine pass seen as contributing to flattening that surge. A month after that system took effect, coronavirus infections had dropped and millions of people were encouraged to get vaccinated.

Since July, Italy has also required a so-called green pass to attend any indoor activity, including at museums, hotels and restaurants, as well as to travel on trains and planes.

Is Tort Law A Desirable Remedy


Although some may question whether tort law is the appropriate remedy for this problem, one must acknowledge that allowing such causes of action would be consistent with the primary purposes of tort law. The specter of tort liability provides a strong deterrent to engaging in risky behavior that may have a negative impact on other members of society . Just as the defamation torts deter newspapers and other media from recklessly publishing lies about individuals and products liability doctrine deters manufacturers from developing and selling unsafe products, finding individuals liable for using religious and philosophical exemptions to vaccinating their children would deter many parents, particularly those who use such exemptions merely for convenience and not due to a sincere religious objection, from the risky practice of not immunizing their children a very desirable outcome, given the benefits of herd immunity and the high costs of treating otherwise preventable diseases.

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Ecuador Imposes Travel Restrictions Due To Omicron Variant

From CNN’s Kiarinna Parisi and Karol Suarez

Ecuador announced new travel restrictions Monday on arrivals from a number of African countries in response to the emergence of the Omicron variant.

President Guillermo Lasso said people coming from any country on the banned list would be refused entry to Ecuador, even if they had only stopped over or transited through those countries.

The countries include South Africa, Botswana, Egypt, Mozambique, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Eswatini and Namibia. The measures will go into effect Wednesday.

At the same time, Lasso said Ecuador’s border with Colombia would be reopened in phases, starting with the transport of goods.

In order to enter Ecuador, all travelers must present their vaccination certificate and a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours. Children under the age of 16 must present a negative PCR test.

At least 70 countries and territories have now imposed travel restrictions to curb the spread of the new variant.

Recommencement Of Federal Vaccination Coverage Assessment

In 1991, CDC recommenced assessment of national vaccination coverage in the U.S. using the NHIS. From 1991 to 1993, household-reported vaccination histories were collected for children aged < 6 years in sampled households between 1994 and 1999, the household used vaccination provider-reported vaccination histories from sampled children. Data from the 1992 NHIS provided estimates for the first published reports of national vaccination coverage that followed the measles, mumps, and rubella resurgence.

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Mandatory School Vaccinations: The Role Of Tort Law

The United States is on the verge of a public health crisis. For decades, all 50 states have required that parents vaccinate their children against various diseases, including polio and measles, as a prerequisite to enrolling them in public schools . While virtually all states have tailored their immunization statutes to exempt those with religious objections to vaccines from these requirements , widespread use of these exemptions threatens to undermine many of the benefits of mandatory vaccinations, such as preserving herd immunity . Since it is unlikely that state governments will eliminate such exemptions outright, society must consider other methods of providing incentives for vaccination and compensating those who have suffered due to a disease outbreak caused by a communitys loss of herd immunity.

This essay will propose using tort law as a mechanism for prevention and victim compensation while still preserving religious and philosophical exemptions to mandatory school vaccinations. Part I will provide a short overview of mandatory school vaccinations and the dangers posed by widespread use of religious and philosophical exemptions. Part II will explore the potential role of tort law, with a particular emphasis on private causes of action against specific individuals and the possibility of defendant class action lawsuits. Part III will examine whether tort law is an appropriate remedy.

Npr Poll: The Delta Surge Pushed Americans Further Behind In All Walks Of Life

Biden announces new vaccine requirements in US to combat COVID

Opposition to vaccine mandates may even be growing among Republicans.

While Americans overall are generally favorable of Biden’s new vaccine mandates for federal workers, Republicans specifically are not.

Polling by the British market research firm YouGov published on Oct. 13 shows that fewer than half of Republicans just 46% support mandatory vaccines for children. That’s a 13-percentage-point decline since August 2020, before the current fight over the coronavirus vaccine erupted.

And when asked about the COVID-19 vaccine specifically, the difference is even more clear. An overwhelming majority of Democrats, 79%, are in favor of mandatory childhood vaccines against the virus and just 9% are opposed. This compared to just a quarter of Republicans who would support such a mandate, versus 63% who oppose it.

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