Vaccines For Your Young Children
During the early years of life, your children need vaccines to protect them from 14 diseases that can be serious and sometimes life-threatening. Parents who choose not to vaccinate their children increase the risk of disease not only for their own children, but also for other children and adults throughout the entire community. For example, vulnerable newborns too young to receive the maximum protection of vaccines or people with weakened immune systems, such as transplant recipients or some people with cancer, are also at higher risk of disease.
Flu vaccines are recommended for children 6 months and older. Getting the flu vaccine for yourself and your children can help protect infants younger than 6 months old who are too young to be vaccinated. Ask your health care provider about getting a yearly flu vaccine to protect against flu.Parents can find out what vaccines their children need and when by reviewing CDCs recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule.
What Is Tort Law
A tort is defined as a civil wrong other than a breach of contract that causes injury, for which a victim can get a judicial remedy . This judicial remedy typically entails requiring the wrongdoer to pay compensatory monetary damages to the victim sufficient to restore the victim to status quo ante i.e., to the position the victim would have occupied had the injury not been caused by the defendants wrong . Such damages typically will cover economic losses suffered by the victim such as medical bills and lost income as well as non-economic losses, such as mental or emotional distress . Furthermore, in exceptionally egregious cases, courts also may award punitive damages as a means of deterring such conduct .
Is Tort Law A Desirable Remedy
Although some may question whether tort law is the appropriate remedy for this problem, one must acknowledge that allowing such causes of action would be consistent with the primary purposes of tort law. The specter of tort liability provides a strong deterrent to engaging in risky behavior that may have a negative impact on other members of society . Just as the defamation torts deter newspapers and other media from recklessly publishing lies about individuals and products liability doctrine deters manufacturers from developing and selling unsafe products, finding individuals liable for using religious and philosophical exemptions to vaccinating their children would deter many parents, particularly those who use such exemptions merely for convenience and not due to a sincere religious objection, from the risky practice of not immunizing their children a very desirable outcome, given the benefits of herd immunity and the high costs of treating otherwise preventable diseases.
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Mandatory Vaccinations: The Canadian Picture
As might be expected in Canada, vaccination policies are as diverse as the geogra-high immunization rates by educating their populations about the benefits of vaccines. Just three have legislated vaccination policies, applying strictly to children about to enrol in school. Ontario and New Brunswick require immunization for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, and rubella immunization, while Manitoba requires a measles vaccination.
In each case, though, the legislation includes an exemption clause. Essentially, each of the three provinces allows parents to request that their child be exempted from the vaccination requirement on medical or religious grounds, or simply out of conscience. In such instances, in the event of a disease outbreak, unvaccinated children can be excluded from entering a school.
The exclusion of nonimmunized individuals from entry during an outbreak situation is to protect the public and to contain the outbreak as quickly as possible, Andrew Morrison, spokesperson for the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, writes in an email.
Phillips adds that if actions ever had to be taken against individuals, they would probably be in the form of isolation, quarantine or directly observed treatment.
For the most part, vaccination compliance rates appear high in most provinces.
In Ontario, Manitoba and New Brunswick, unvaccinated children can be excluded from entering a school in the event of a disease outbreak.
Canadian Medical Association
What Will Happen To My Child During An Outbreak Of A Vaccine Preventable Disease
Once the outbreak is over or your child has developed protection through immunization, you and the school or daycare administrator will be notified that your child may return.
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The Hpv Vaccine And Lawsuits Against Specific Individuals
Since an extremely large number of individuals suffer damages resulting from and contribute to the loss of herd immunity, most potential lawsuits seeking to recover monetary damages from individuals who used religious and philosophical exemptions as an excuse to not vaccinate their children would have to be class actions. However, the unique nature of the HPV vaccine may allow for specific individuals to file suit against other specific individuals for damages resulting from a refusal to vaccinate children.
Religious, cultural, and philosophical opposition to the HPV vaccine is thus distinct from opposition to other vaccines. Though genuine opposition to mandatory vaccination for diseases such as polio is primarily rooted in religious objections to the act of vaccination, most opposition to the HPV vaccine stems not from the actual act, but from a fear of the message the vaccination sends to children who are on the verge of becoming physically capable of sexual activity. Given that such opposition comes from groups traditionally not opposed to vaccination, it is possible that in many areas, the HPV vaccine, even if mandated, will never result in herd immunity being achieved at all in a large number of communities.
Is Consent Required For My Child To Be Immunized
Yes. Consent is required from a parent or legal guardian of a child before immunization. At the beginning of each school year, the regional health authority creates information packages that are sent home to the families of children who will be part of the school immunization program. These packages typically include a letter to the parents or guardians, a consent form for them to review, sign, and return to the school, and fact sheets on the immunizations being offered.
If any consent forms are not completed or returned to the school, public health nurses will contact the parents or legal guardians to seek verbal consent.
Age of Consent:
- Children 16 years and younger can get an immunization without their parents consent if the health care provider determines that the child is competent to make the decision on their own with all the information provided to them.
- Children 16 years of age and older can get an immunization without a parents consent unless a health care provider determines that the child is not competent to make their own decisions.
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What Are Some Reliable Resources Of Vaccine Information
It can be difficult to know where to locate reliable information on questions you may have on immunization. It is always best to speak to your health care provider or local public health nurse about any questions you may have about immunizations.
Health care providers are dependable sources of information. They have access to the most current health and vaccine information and they are there to serve the best interests of your family.
There are also reliable online sources of information on vaccines and immunization, including:
- Government of Manitoba: www.gov.mb.ca/health/publichealth/cdc/div/index.html
What Is Human Papilloma Virus
Human papilloma virus, also known as HPV, is a common virus with over 150 subtypes, each designated by its own number. It is transmitted by skin to skin contact with someone who is infected with HPV. Often, transmission is through sexual contact but other means of contact can result in transmission.
There are high-risk and low-risk types of this virus, and HPV can cause a number of infections. According to CancerCare Manitoba, over 80 per cent of Canadians will have at least one HPV infection in their lifetime.1
Most HPV infections go away by themselves within two years. However, HPV infections sometimes last longer, and later in life can lead to cancers in both men and women.
The HPV vaccine protects against many of the high-risk types of HPV infection. You can protect your child from ever developing these infections or cancers by ensuring they get the HPV vaccine as early as possible.
If an HPV vaccine is received before exposure, it is almost 100 per cent effective in preventing infection. HPV vaccine is recommended at ages 11 to 12 to ensure children are protected before they are potentially exposed to the virus.
1CancerCare Manitoba: Human Papilloma Virus & the Vaccine: www.cancercare.mb.ca/screening/cervix. Accessed May 24, 2019
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Back To School Immunization Requirements
Beginning fall of 2014, all students entering, transferring, or advancing into kindergarten through 12th grades will be required to show proof of receipt of 2 doses of mumps and 2 doses of rubella vaccine. In addition, students entering, transferring, or advancing into kindergarten, 6th, or 9th grades are required to show proof of receipt of 2 doses of varicella vaccine. Most students likely have already received the vaccine and simply need to provide the school with verifying documentation from their healthcare provider. To learn more, see Fall 2021 School Immunization Requirements.
Staying Up To Date Protects Yourself And Others
The importance of vaccinating K-12 students cannot be overstated â staying up to date on vaccinations protects yourself and others. In fact, vaccine administration is estimated to prevent 4-5 million deaths per year, according to 2020 World Health Organization research.
Parents and guardians can ensure that their children comply with state- and school-mandated vaccine requirements by checking with their schools and state’s health department. Nurses advise guardians to schedule annual physicals for school-aged children in early summer so students are vaccinated in time for the school year.
“Vaccines are a safe and effective way to prevent the spread of serious diseases,” says Wilhelm. “Your child may need vaccines that protect against deadly diseases as they return to the classroom.”
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Comic: If History Is A Guide Schools Will Start Requiring Covid Vaccines
Because almost every child attends school, vaccine mandates have been uniquely effective against diseases like smallpox, polio, pertussis, and most recently chickenpox. But school mandates have also always brought pushback and that has intensified to a new level in the 21st century.
“Vaccines have been controversial since the very first vaccine was developed against smallpox,” says Elena Conis, a historian of medicine at the University of California, Berkeley. “And vaccination became increasingly controversial when states began to make it mandatory.”
Here’s a whirlwind tour of the past, present and future of vaccine mandates, with some surprises along the way.
1. The first school vaccine mandates date back more than 200 years
In 1818, the King of Wittenberg, in east-central Germany, issued what appears to have been the first school vaccination requirement, for smallpox. The king decreed: “No person to be received into any school, college or charitable institution be bound apprentice to any trade or hold any public office, who has not been vaccinated.” In 1827, Boston became the first city in the United States to do the same. As the country became more urban toward the end of the 19th century, vaccine requirements increased, and mortality rates from smallpox plummeted.
2. The first vaccine mandates gave rise to the first anti-vaccinationists.
3. The Supreme Court upheld school vaccine mandates a century ago.
Why We Need School Immunization Laws
- Vaccination of school-age children is one of the most important ways we can protect children against vaccine-preventable diseases.
- Outbreaks of diseases such as polio, diphtheria, measles, mumps, and rubella were common occurrences in schools before vaccines were available.
- In 1980 an outbreak of measles in Oklahoma resulted in 775 cases of measles and one death. The majority of the measles cases occurred in school-aged children,
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The Washington Dc Region Is An Epicenter Of Omicron In The Us
Coronavirus positivity rates have surged in the Washington, D.C., region, urged on by the Omicron variant, which has steadily gained dominance in the United States throughout the holiday season.
Washington, Maryland and Virginia all broke records on Monday in reporting their highest case counts of the pandemic. Washington reported almost 1,000 percent more new cases over the past two weeks and more than 9,000 new cases since Dec. 24. Marylands seven-day average for daily new cases stands at more than double the previous high recorded almost a year ago, in January.
The road to get through the next three or four weeks is going to be very rough, said Earl Stoddard, the assistant chief administrative officer for Montgomery County, Md., which borders Washington. There are going to be an absolute ton more cases. The hope is that were not going to see those necessarily reflected in hospitalizations that will lead to severe complications and or death.
Virginia reported more than 18,000 new cases over the Christmas weekend, with Fairfax and Arlington counties showing that positive cases had quadrupled over the past two weeks. None of the positive test counts reported in the region included at-home tests, meaning that the number of infected individuals was likely even higher.
Weve got beds here, but we dont have the nurses to staff those beds, said Marc Elrich, Montgomery Countys executive. You feel like the circle is closing in around you after a while.
Fears Of Omicron As An Unstoppable Threat Are Tempered By Signs Of Milder Symptoms
The Omicron variant is blazing around the world with such speed that even the leader of Israel, one of the most highly vaccinated countries, warned on Tuesday that it cannot be stopped.
We cant prevent it, Prime Minister Naftali Bennett said, in blunt comments that reflected a growing consensus in nations where Omicron has caught fire: The virus is moving too fast to catch.
That daunting notion backed up by data from nations where Omicron is spreading rapidly only a month after it was first detected is tempered by early evidence that the variant causes milder symptoms, with vaccinations and boosters helping prevent serious illness and death.
Many experts worldwide have expressed concern that the sheer number of people who are likely to be infected could create a flood of patients, overwhelming already stressed health care systems. But that is running up against those who argue that it is time to accept that the virus is endemic, and that countries should move away from lockdowns and toward laxer rules including shorter quarantines.
John Bell, a professor of medicine at Oxford University and an adviser to the British government, said that Omicron was not the same disease we were seeing a year ago.
The horrific scenes that we saw a year ago of intensive care units being full, lots of people dying prematurely, that is now history, in my view, and I think we should be reassured that thats likely to continue, he told the BBC on Tuesday.
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Vaccine Mandates In Schools Arent New Theyve Been Used Since 1850
- As COVID-19 continues to spread across the globe, debates have emerged about whether or not the vaccines should be required to attend school for children who are old enough to get one.
- The United States has a long history of requiring vaccines to enter school.
- Experts say that while concerns around the use of COVID-19 vaccines in kids are understandable, theyve been shown safe and effective in children ages 12 and up.
All data and statistics are based on publicly available data at the time of publication. Some information may be out of date. Visit our coronavirus hub and follow our live updates page for the most recent information on the COVID-19 pandemic.
As the landscape of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve with the Delta and Delta plus variant, debates have come up about whether COVID-19 vaccinations should be required to attend public schools in the fall.
Currently, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is authorized for use in children and teens ages 12 and older.
Both Pfizer and Moderna are conducting vaccine trials in children between the ages of 6 months and 11 years old. Experts expect young children to have access to the COVID-19 vaccines by the fall or mid-winter.
Several states, including Florida, Alabama, Arizona, Indiana, Montana, Ohio, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Utah have already enacted legislation to ban public schools and universities from requiring students to have a COVID-19 vaccine to attend classes.
Religious & Philosophical Exemptions To Mandatory Vaccinations
Although many organized religions, including Catholicism and Judaism, do not prohibit vaccinations, several smaller religious sects, most notably Christian Scientists and the Amish, oppose vaccination on religious grounds . Other individuals oppose vaccination for other reasons, ranging from non-religious philosophical or moral beliefs, such as a belief that vaccines interfere with natures genetic blueprint , to unspecified personal reasons.
Religious and other exemptions to mandatory vaccination laws are not required by the U.S. Constitution. However, since 100 percent immunization rates are not needed to achieve herd immunity, most state governments have chosen to exempt certain individuals from their mandatory vaccination requirements, believing that communities can obtain herd immunity even if such individuals do not become immunized. Most notably, 48 out of 50 states have exempted those whose religious beliefs forbid vaccination . Eighteen states also have made the more controversial decision to exempt individuals who claim to possess non-religious cultural or philosophical objections to vaccines, which in some states are granted merely by checking one box on a simple form .
Such exemptions are not surprising, iven Americans deep respect for individual freedom and the fact that absolutely mandatory immunization laws meet stiff resistance . However, continuing recognition of such exemptions may not be sustainable in the long run.
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