What Are Causes And Risk Factors Of Meningitis In Adults
Usually, the brain is protected naturally from the body’s immune system by the barrier that the meninges create between the bloodstream and the brain itself. Normally, this helps prevent the body from mounting an immune reaction to attack itself. In meningitis, however, this can become a problem.
Once bacteria or other organisms have found their way to the brain, they are somewhat isolated from the immune system and can spread. However, when the body eventually begins to fight the infection, the problem can worsen.
As the body tries to fight the infection, blood vessels become leaky and allow fluid, white blood cells, and other infection-fighting particles to enter the meninges and the brain. This causes brain swelling and can eventually lead to decreased blood flow to parts of the brain, worsening the symptoms of infection.
- Classic symptoms
Youll Have To Comparison Shop
It’s not always the case that the lowest price for adult vaccines can be found in public or community health clinics. Invest half an hour of time calling vaccination centers in your area to get price quotes.
Before you call, know which vaccines you need so that you can ask for a price quote on each of those vaccines. You can look up which vaccines are recommended for adults on the Center for Disease Controls adult immunization schedules page.
When comparison shopping vaccination prices, be sure to ask if there are any extra charges to expect in addition to the cost of the vaccine, such as a fee for the office visit.
Some vaccination centers charge an all-inclusive price for each vaccination. Others have a charge for the vaccine itself, a charge for administering the vaccine , an additional charge for the office or clinic visit. These additional charges sometimes cost more than the vaccine.
Some vaccines require a prescription, some dont. Which vaccines require a prescription varies from state to state. For vaccines that require a prescription, you may get the prescription from your primary care physician.
Here are some other resources for low-cost adult vaccinations:
When Do I Need To Get The Meningitis Vaccine And How Often
âIt is routine for children who go to the pediatrician at age 11 or 12 to receive this vaccine. When children get older and leave home, almost every college requires or strongly recommends that students be vaccinated before they come to campus.â
âAt the moment, this is a one-dose immunization, but the CDC is now discussing whether children who receive the vaccine at 11 or 12 years old need a booster shot just before college. I recommend students and parents stay tuned for more info, which could be coming as soon as mid-2011.â
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Are There Meningitis Vaccinations
- A vaccine is available for meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitides. Meningococcal conjugate vaccine is routinely recommended for all 11- through 18-year-olds and is often administered as part of a well-child checkup at 11-12 years of age.
- The CDC has recommended this vaccine for the following groups of people:
- College freshmen living in dormitories
- Military recruits
- Those whose spleen has been removed or is damaged for any other reason to due to disease or injury
- Those with a specific blood problem called “complement deficiency”
- Travelers to areas where meningitis is common
Is The Meningitis B Vaccine Safe
In the same 2021 study mentioned above, researchers found the vaccine demonstrated an acceptable level of safety. No safety concerns have been raised based on current data, which includes more than 3 million doses administered in the United Kingdom.
Data from Quebec revealed four cases of a kidney disorder called nephrotic syndrome in children age 2 to 5 within 13 months of receiving their vaccine. Researchers are still trying to understand if theres a link, but a lack of similar findings from other countries suggests these cases may have occurred by chance.
Side effects of meningitis B are usually mild and last for
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What Are The Risks Of The Meningococcal Vaccine
The most common problems are redness, warmth, swelling, or pain where the shot was given. You may feel tired, or you may get a headache, mild fever, or chills. You may also have muscle or joint pain, or nausea or diarrhea. These symptoms may last up to 7 days. Rarely, you may develop severe shoulder pain that lasts longer than 2 days. Also rarely, you may have a severe allergic reaction to the vaccine. This can be life-threatening.
Meningococcal Acwy Vaccine Side Effects
The meningococcal ACWY vaccine is effective and safe, although all medications can have unwanted side effects.
Side effects from this vaccine are uncommon and are usually mild, but may include:
- localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
- occasionally, an injection-site lump that may last many weeks
- low-grade temperature
- children being unsettled, irritable, tearful, or generally unhappy, drowsy and tired.
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Why The Meningitis B Vaccine Is Used
There are many reasons that the meningitis B vaccine was developed and why you would want to protect yourself and those you love against it.
Meningitis B is a serious disease that progresses quickly and can lead to death. The mortality rate from meningitis B in the United States is about 10 to 15 percent when treated and up to 50 percent when untreated. Its also possible to develop long-term conditions such as hearing loss or even brain damage after recovering from meningitis B.
The MenB bacterial infection is passed between people through saliva and respiratory fluids. Activities like sharing drinks, kissing, or coughing can spread the bacterium. The meningitis B vaccine can help reduce transmission between people and prevent or manage outbreaks.
Unlike many diseases, meningitis B is most common in young people. Infants and young children are at the highest risk. Adolescents and young adults are at the next highest risk of infection.
Between 2013 and 2018, meningococcal disease outbreaks occurred at 10 universities and led to two deaths. All 10 universities implemented MenB vaccination to prevent further spread.
What Are The New York State School Requirements For Meningitis Vaccines
Starting with the 2016-17 school year, New York State students entering grades seven and twelve will be required to have been administered adequate doses of the meningococcal meningitis vaccine for school entry. All New York state requirements related to school entry will apply. Learn more about New York States current immunization requirements for school entry.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Meningococcal Disease
Signs and symptoms of meningococcal disease include sudden onset of fever, stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and/or mental confusion. A rash may also be present. Changes in behavior such as confusion, sleepiness, and unresponsiveness are important symptoms of illness. Anyone who has these symptoms should be seen by a healthcare provider immediately. In fatal cases, death can occur in as little as a few hours, even with appropriate medical treatment. Less common presentations include pneumonia and arthritis.
What Is The Prognosis Of Meningitis In Adults
The prognosis of meningitis depends on the severity and the cause of the illness.
- In those with severe bacterial meningitis or a very fast onset of illness, the death rate can be as high as 90%. If the person survives, even with proper treatment, long-term disabilities can result, including deafness, seizures, paralysis, blindness, or loss of limbs.
- In those with less severe cases of bacterial meningitis, the death rate can still approach 25%. Long-term disabilities are possible. The person may require a prolonged period of hospitalization and rehabilitation.
- For a person with viral meningitis, full recovery can take place in seven to 10 days.
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Who Should Not Get The Meningococcal Vaccine Or Should Wait To Get It
- You should not get the vaccine if you have had an allergic reaction to the vaccine or any component of the vaccine, such as thimerosal . Tell your healthcare provider if you have any severe allergies.
- You should wait to get the vaccine if you are sick or have a fever of 101°F or higher.
- You should talk to your healthcare provider first if you are a pregnant or breastfeeding woman. Your provider will tell you if you should wait to get the vaccine until after you deliver or stop breastfeeding. He or she can talk to you about the possible risks from the vaccine. You may still need to get the vaccine if your risk for meningitis is high.
Vaccines For People Who Could Become Pregnant
Vaccination is important for everyone of reproductive age, whether planning a pregnancy or not.
During pregnancy, your immune system changes and this can put you at risk for a number of serious infectious diseases and complications. Your baby can also be affected by these infections, which can result in:
- birth defects
Since an unplanned pregnancy can happen, it’s important to keep your vaccinations up to date at all times. This will help protect you and your baby from certain infections that could cause serious complications. Talk to your health care provider about your vaccination status.
Learn more about vaccination and pregnancy.
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How Are Meningitis And Encephalitis Diagnosed
Following a physical exam and medical history to review activities of the past several days or weeks , the doctor may order various diagnostic tests to confirm the presence of infection or inflammation. Early diagnosis is vital, as symptoms can appear suddenly and escalate to brain damage, hearing and/or speech loss, blindness, or even death.
Diagnostic tests include:
- A neurological examination involves a series of physical examination tests designed to assess motor and sensory function, nerve function, hearing and speech, vision, coordination and balance, mental status, and changes in mood or behavior.
- Laboratory screening of blood, urine, and body secretions can help detect and identify brain and/or spinal cord infection and determine the presence of antibodies and foreign proteins. Such tests can also rule out metabolic conditions that may have similar symptoms.
- Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord can detect infections in the brain and/or spinal cord, acute and chronic inflammation, and other diseases. A small amount of cerebrospinal fluid is removed by a special needle that is inserted into the lower back and the fluid is tested to detect the presence of bacteria, blood, and viruses. The testing can also measure glucose levels and white blood cells , as well as protein and antibody levels.
What Are The Different Types Of Vaccines For Meningitis B
In the United States, two types of meningitis B vaccines are Food and Drug Administration -approved Bexsero and Trumenba.
To receive FDA approval, both vaccines had to undergo clinical trials showing their safety and effectiveness. Both vaccines work in a similar way but use different proteins to stimulate your immune response.
Bexsero is produced by GlaxoSmithKline. Its administered in two 0.5 milligram doses, 1 month apart.
Before approval, safety data was reviewed from 3,139 subjects in clinical trials in the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, the United Kingdom, Poland, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy. Additional safety information was collected from 15,351 people who received Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sponsored vaccines at universities.
Trumenba is produced by Pfizer and is administered in two to three doses. For the three-dose schedule, the second dose is administered 1 to 2 months after the first, and the third vaccine is given 6 months after the first dose. For the two dose schedule, the second dose is given at 6 months after the first.
Before the FDA approved Tremenba, reviewers examined
People who have the highest chance of getting meningitis B include:
In the U.S. meningitis B vaccine isnt available yet for infants younger than 1 year old but is administered in the United Kingdom as part of the National Health Service vaccination schedule.
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Can Adults Older Than 26 Get The Hpv Vaccine
If you are older than 26 years old, you can still get the HPV vaccinebut there are a few caveats. First, the CDC specifically says it does not recommend HPV vaccination for everyone over the age of 26. The American Cancer Society goes a bit furtherthe organization specifically does not endorse HPV vaccination for those ages 2745.
The reasoning behind this is effectivenessspecifically the lack thereof. “People are usually exposed to HPV within a year or so of their first sexual experience,” says Dr. Perkins. That means there’s a low chance of cancer prevention from the vaccine in this age group.
Still, that doesn’t mean you can’t get the vaccine if you’re over 26: “You can still get the HPV vaccine if you’ve already had HPV,” says Dr. Perkins. “While it will not be as effective against the HPV type you currently have , you may be protected against other strains.”
In that case, some doctors even recommend the HPV vaccine for their patients, up to 45 years old. Kate White, MD, an associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Boston University School of Medicine is one of those doctorsshe tells Health she recommends all of her patients under the age of 45 to be vaccinated, even those in long-term monogamous relationships, just to err on the side of caution.
The CDC suggests adults ages 2745 who weren’t previously vaccinated against HPV speak with their doctor about their risk of new HPV infections, and any potential benefits they could reap from vaccination.
What Are Neisseria Meningitidis
Neisseria meningitidis are bacteria that may be found normally in peoples throats and noses. About 5 to 15% of people carry these bacteria and do not get sick from them. These people may be referred to as colonized. Colonized people only have bacteria for a short time. Usually, the bacteria go away and these people may have increased resistance to infection in the future. In rare cases, the bacteria may get into the blood and go to the tissue surrounding the spinal cord and brain, causing severe illness. It is not known why this occurs in certain people and not in others. A recent upper respiratory illness may be a contributing factor.
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Meningococcal B Vaccine Bexsero
Bexsero is broadly protective against meningococcal group B disease. Bexsero can be used to protect babies, children, adolescents and adults. Infants younger than twelve months of age need three doses to be fully protected. Older children, adolescents, and adults need two doses to be protected.
From 1 July 2021, Bexsero vaccine will be provided free of charge to close contacts of meningococcal cases of any meningococcal group , or people who are at higher risk of contracting meningococcal B disease because they:
are pre- or post-splenectomy
are pre- or post-solid organ transplant
are post-bone marrow transplant
are pre- or post-immunosuppression that will be/is longer than 28 days.
For others wishing to be protected against meningococcal B disease, Bexsero is available through your family doctor. The cost is approximately $150 per dose.
Bexsero is different to the MeNZB vaccine used in New Zealand between 2004 and 2011. The MeNZB vaccine was designed to target a specific type of meningococcal group B bacterium that only caused disease here in New Zealand. MeNZB was not meant for long term use. The vaccine was withdrawn once the rate of disease was significantly reduced. However, the active component of the MeNZB vaccine has contributed to the successful development of Bexsero.
Menb Vaccination Of Adults At Increased Risk
MenB vaccines are not approved for use in people under 10 years old. Adults should receive a MenB vaccine if they are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease due to
- Having certain medical conditions
- Complement component deficiency
- Functional or anatomic asplenia
Those who remain at increased risk need regular booster doses.
- Administer a booster dose of MenB vaccine 1 year after series completion and then every 2 to 3 years thereafter.
- For those at increased risk due to an outbreak who previously received the MenB vaccine series, CDC recommends a booster dose if a year or more has passed since primary series completion.
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What Is The Prognosis For These Infections
Outcome generally depends on the particular infectious agent involved, the severity of the illness, and how quickly treatment is given. In most cases, people with very mild encephalitis or meningitis can make a full recovery, although the process may be slow.
Individuals who experience only headache, fever, and stiff neck may recover in 2-4 weeks. Individuals with bacterial meningitis typically show some relief 48-72 hours following initial treatment but are more likely to experience complications caused by the disease. In more serious cases, these diseases can cause hearing and/or speech loss, blindness, permanent brain and nerve damage, behavioral changes, cognitive disabilities, lack of muscle control, seizures, and memory loss. These individuals may need long-term therapy, medication, and supportive care.
The recovery from encephalitis is variable depending on the cause of the disease and extent of brain inflammation.