Why Get The Hpv Vaccine
The HPV vaccine has been proven to be safe and effective. It protects against four types of HPV – HPV 16, 18, 6 and 11.
HPV 16 and 18 are two of the most common high-risk types of HPV, which cause about 7 out of 10 cervical cancers. There isnt a cervical cancer injection that directly stops all cervical cancer cases. But as most cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV, the HPV vaccine plays an important role in reducing the risk of developing cervical cancer.
A 2021 UK study found that cervical cancer rates were reduced by almost 90% in women in their 20s in England, who were offered the vaccine aged 12-13.
Cancers of the vagina, vulva, penis and anus, and some types of mouth and throat cancer, are also linked to high-risk HPV. This means the vaccine should also protect against these cancer types.
The vaccine also provides protection against genital warts, as HPV 6 and 11 are responsible for the majority of cases.
Questions About Who Should Get Hpv Vaccine
Who should get the HPV vaccine and how many doses?
The HPV vaccine is recommended for adolescents between 9 and 12 years of age, and all teenagers and adults between 13 and 26 years of age who did not get the vaccine when they were younger. Individuals between 27 and 45 years of age can also discuss vaccination with their healthcare provider and receive the vaccine if they decide it can protect them from HPV infection.
- Younger than 15 years old: Two doses separated by 6 months
- 15 years and older: Three doses of HPV vaccine with the second dose given one to two months after the first, and the third dose given six to 12 months after the first
If I have received the first dose of HPV vaccine, is it safe to be intimate? Am I protected from HPV?
People who have received one dose of the HPV vaccine may have some protection, but the additional dose or doses offer additional protection. Further, if you or your partner were already infected with a type of HPV, the vaccine will not prevent transmission of that HPV type.
I think I had the HPV vaccine about six years ago, but I am not certain. Should I get the shot? And if I do, but I was vaccinated before, will anything happen?
I had the HPV vaccine but have since given birth to a child. Do I need the HPV vaccine again?
No, people who have been vaccinated against HPV do not need to be revaccinated after giving birth.
How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given
The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.
If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.
But if you get your 1st vaccine dose at the age of 15 or over, you’ll need to have 3 injections.
Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will need 3 doses of the vaccine .
If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:
- the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
- the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose
It’s important to have all 3 vaccine doses to be properly protected.
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Why Is Hpv Vaccination Only Recommended For Women Through Age 26
HPV vaccination is not currently recommended for women over age 26 years. Clinical trials showed that, overall, HPV vaccination offered women limited or no protection against HPV-related diseases. For women over age 26 years, the best way to prevent cervical cancer is to get routine cervical cancer screening, as recommended.
Benefits Of Hpv Vaccination
There is ongoing, active scientific inquiry and clinical trials to extend the vaccine to include activity against more of the oncogenic viral subtypes for cancers invading the oropharyngeal and anogenital regions. Merck has a 9-valent vaccine including 5 additional cancer-causing subtypes to increase activity against these types of cancer . Sales for the Gardasil vaccine have increased over the past 3 years . This measure serves as a surrogate for total vaccine doses produced by the pharmaceutical company. Numbers of patients actually vaccinated are difficult to extrapolate. The current data regarding estimated HPV vaccination coverage among adolescent boys and girls aged 13-17 details an increase in completed vaccine series from 5.9% in 2007 to 37.6% in 2013 for girls and 1.3% to 13.9% in boys from 2011 to 2013 .
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A Boost For Vaccinations
The Swedish study does have some limitations. For example, it couldnt account for factors such as the extent to which women followed in the study were screened for cervical cancer, the study team reported. The researchers also couldnt capture the number of vaccine doses each person in the vaccination group received.
But thats not a big limitation for this type of study. Its not a dose question, Dr. Kreimer said. For this study, she continued, They were saying, We established a vaccine program in a population, and this is how it worked.
Although rates of HPV vaccination have increased among adolescents and teens in the United States, they still are lower than public health officials would like. Dr. Berenson said shes hopeful that the findings from the Swedish study can provide a boost.
provide a very good discussion point around age of vaccination, she said. And thats needed, she added, because parents sometimes are reluctant to have their daughters receive the HPV vaccine at the recommended age, which is 11-12 years old.
They often tell us they want to wait until shes olderuntil shes 18saying, She can make the decision for herself, Dr. Berenson said. This study gives good evidence to say, We understand why you may feel that way, but you are missing the opportunity of much higher efficacy if she gets vaccinated at a younger age.
How Is The Hpv Vaccine Made
The HPV vaccine is made using a protein that resides on the surface of the virus. The protein is grown in the lab in yeast cells. Once the protein is grown, it assembles itself to look like the HPV virus however, importantly, it does not contain HPV genetic material, so it cant reproduce itself or cause illness. The vaccine is composed of the surface protein from nine different types of HPV.
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At What Age Should People Get The Hpv Vaccine
The CDC says the HPV vaccine is recommended for children, teenagers, and adults ages 926. The earlier someone gets the vaccine, the better, says Dr. Perkins, who recommends children are vaccinated before the ages of 12 for the most protection.
“This is because younger adolescents produce very good immune responses to the vaccine, so they only need two doses to be fully protected,” says Dr. Perkins. She also points out that almost no child has been exposed to HPV at this age, and since vaccines offer prevention, not treatment, the HPV vaccine will be less effective if someone has already been exposed to the virus.
When younger children receive the vaccine, they will also need fewer doses: The CDC says children ages 914 only need two doses given six to 12 months apart. Anyone over the age of 15 or those who are immunocompromised, however, will need three total doses, given over the course of six months, to make up for a lessened immune response.
Why Is The Hpv Vaccine Important
Genital HPV is a common virus that is passed from one person to another through direct skin-to-skin contact during sexual activity. Most sexually active people will get HPV at some time in their lives, though most will never even know it. HPV infection is most common in people in their late teens and early 20s. There are about 40 types of HPV that can infect the genital areas of men and women. Most HPV types cause no symptoms and go away on their own. But some types can cause cervical cancer in women and other less common cancers like cancers of the anus, penis, vagina, and vulva and oropharynx. Other types of HPV can cause warts in the genital areas of men and women, called genital warts. Genital warts are not life-threatening. But they can cause emotional stress and their treatment can be very uncomfortable. Every year, about 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 4,000 women die from this disease in the U.S. About 1% of sexually active adults in the U.S. have visible genital warts at any point in time.
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How Effective Are The Vaccines
The HPV vaccines have demonstrated very high efficacy in preventing the types of HPV infection for which they are indicated . If you are infected with one of the HPV types in the vaccine, the vaccine will still protect against the other type in the vaccine. HPV DNA testing is not recommended prior to vaccination.
How Much Does The Hpv Vaccine Cost
Each dose of the vaccine can cost about $250. Luckily, many health insurance companies cover the HPV vaccine. There are also programs that help some people without insurance get the vaccine for low or no cost.
You deserve to be healthy, regardless of whether you have health insurance. Talk with the staff at your local Planned Parenthood health center or another nurse or doctor to get more information about ways to make the vaccine more affordable.
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Hpv Vaccine Information For Young Women
CDC recommends HPV vaccination at age 11 or 12 years and for everyone through age 26 years, if not vaccinated already. For more information on the updated recommendations, see Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Adults: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.
A vaccines is available to prevent the human papillomavirus types that cause most cervical cancers as well as some cancers of the anus, vulva , vagina, and oropharynx . The vaccine also prevents HPV types that cause most genital warts.
Could The Hpv Vaccine Treat Warts
ByRachael Rettnerpublished 4 September 15
The human papillomavirus vaccine is intended to prevent people from getting infected with the virus, but in some cases, it may actually work as a treatment, clearing warts in people who are already infected, a new report suggests.
The report describes several cases of people who had persistent oral warts that went away soon after they received the HPV vaccine. While it’s too early to say for certain whether the HPV vaccine treated the warts, the researchers said formal studies should look at this question.
“There remains a critical need for randomized clinical trials to assess efficacy of quadrivalent HPV vaccination for treatment” of oral warts, the researchers said.
The report highlights the case of a man in his 60s who had recurrent warts on his lips, tongue and cheeks for 18 months. The man tried to have the warts removed, but they kept coming back. Doctors diagnosed the man with an HPV infection. There are more than 150 strains of HPV, and although most infections go away on their own, some can linger and lead to health problems, such as genital warts, oral warts, cervical cancer or oral cancer.
The man received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, which protects against four HPV strains. “We immunized him not with any therapeutic benefit in mind,” Stern said. The vaccine is typically given to children before they become sexually active it is not thought to help with existing HPV infections.
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Who Should Get Hpv Vaccination
The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices develops recommendations regarding all vaccination in the United States, including HPV vaccination. The current ACIP recommendations for HPV vaccination are :
- Children and adults ages 9 through 26 years. HPV vaccination is routinely recommended at age 11 or 12 years vaccination can be started at age 9 years. HPV vaccination is recommended for all persons through age 26 years who were not adequately vaccinated earlier.
- Adults ages 27 through 45 years. Although the HPV vaccine is Food and Drug Administration approved to be given through age 45 years, HPV vaccination is not recommended for all adults ages 27 through 45 years. Instead, ACIP recommends that clinicians consider discussing with their patients in this age group who were not adequately vaccinated earlier whether HPV vaccination is right for them. HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit because more people have already been exposed to the virus.
- Persons who are pregnant. HPV vaccination should be delayed until after pregnancy, but pregnancy testing is not required before vaccination. There is no evidence that vaccination will affect a pregnancy or harm a fetus.
What Are Hpv Vaccines
HPV vaccines protect against infection with human papillomaviruses . HPV is a group of more than 200 related viruses, of which more than 40 are spread through direct sexual contact. Among these, two HPV types cause genital warts, and about a dozen HPV types can cause certain types of cancercervical, anal, oropharyngeal, penile, vulvar, and vaginal.
Three vaccines that prevent infection with disease-causing HPV have been licensed in the United States: Gardasil, Gardasil 9, and Cervarix. Gardasil 9 has, since 2016, been the only HPV vaccine used in the United States. It prevents infection with the following nine HPV types:
- HPV types 6 and 11, which cause 90% of genital warts
- HPV types 16 and 18, two high-risk HPVs that cause about 70% of cervical cancers and an even higher percentage of some of the other HPV-caused cancers
- HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, high-risk HPVs that account for an additional 10% to 20% of cervical cancers
Cervarix prevents infection with types 16 and 18, and Gardasil prevents infection with types 6, 11, 16, and 18. Both vaccines are still used in some other countries.
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Do I Still Need An Hpv Vaccine If I Get Regular Pap Smears
Yes. Getting an HPV vaccine is the best way to prevent associated infections, but it doesnt protect against all of the 100-plus strains of the virus. This is why regular Pap smears are also recommended. A Pap smear is a screening procedure that looks for the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells on your cervix.
Side Effects Of The Vaccine Against Hpv
Immunisation against HPV is effective and safe, although all medication can have unwanted sideeffects. Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.Side effects may include:
- localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
- low-grade temperature
- a burning sensation
at the injection site for one to two days. Paracetamol might be required to ease the discomfort.
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Why Adults Should Get The Hpv Vaccine
HPV infection is extremely common. Most sexually active people will be infected with HPV at some point in life. More than 42 million people in the United States are infected with HPV and most of them donât know it. It spreads easily among infected partners. HPV infection usually causes no symptoms, but can cause genital warts and anal cancer in both women and men. HPV can also cause throat cancer.
In women, HPV infection can cause cells in the cervix to grow abnormally. In a small fraction of women, these HPV-induced changes will develop into cervical cancer. About 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year and about 4,000 women die from the condition.
The HPV vaccine prevents infection by the HPV types responsible for most cervical cancers. Up until 2017, there were two vaccines available . Today, Gardasil 9 is the only available HPV vaccine in the U.S.
Gardasil 9 prevents infection by the same HPV types as Gardasil, plus HPV-31, HPV-33, HPV-45, HPV-52, and HPV-58. Collectively, these types are implicated in 90% of cervical cancers. In October 2018, the FDA approved Gardasil9 for everyone ages 9 through 45
Can Adults Older Than 26 Get The Hpv Vaccine
If you are older than 26 years old, you can still get the HPV vaccinebut there are a few caveats. First, the CDC specifically says it does not recommend HPV vaccination for everyone over the age of 26. The American Cancer Society goes a bit furtherthe organization specifically does not endorse HPV vaccination for those ages 2745.
The reasoning behind this is effectivenessspecifically the lack thereof. “People are usually exposed to HPV within a year or so of their first sexual experience,” says Dr. Perkins. That means there’s a low chance of cancer prevention from the vaccine in this age group.
Still, that doesn’t mean you can’t get the vaccine if you’re over 26: “You can still get the HPV vaccine if you’ve already had HPV,” says Dr. Perkins. “While it will not be as effective against the HPV type you currently have , you may be protected against other strains.”
In that case, some doctors even recommend the HPV vaccine for their patients, up to 45 years old. Kate White, MD, an associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Boston University School of Medicine is one of those doctorsshe tells Health she recommends all of her patients under the age of 45 to be vaccinated, even those in long-term monogamous relationships, just to err on the side of caution.
The CDC suggests adults ages 2745 who weren’t previously vaccinated against HPV speak with their doctor about their risk of new HPV infections, and any potential benefits they could reap from vaccination.
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