Who Should Be Vaccinated For Hpv
Females between 9 and 45 years of age can be vaccinated with Cervarix, Gardasil or Gardasil 9 to prevent cervical cancer and precancerous cervical changes. Gardasil and Gardasil 9 may also prevent vaginal, vulvar and anal cancers and their precancers, as well as anogenital warts.
Its important to know that HPV vaccines do not replace cervical cancer screening. Your doctor will still. HPV vaccines prevent infection from the most common types of HPV related to cancer, but not all.
Monitoring For Possible Side Effects
Like all vaccines, even old vaccines approved many years ago, the HPV vaccines are continuously monitored for side effects. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Food and Drug Administration review all serious side effects reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System to watch for potential safety concerns that may need further study.
What Are The Risks And Side Effects Of The Hpv Vaccine
In clinical trials and in real-world use, the HPV vaccine appears to be very safe. More than 40 million doses of the vaccine — mostly Gardasil, which was approved in 2006 — have been given in the U.S. Gardasil 9 was approved in 2014 and is now the only HPV vaccine available in the U.S.
From 2006 to 2014, there were about 25,000 reports to the government of HPV vaccine side effects. Over 90% of these were classified as nonserious. The most common side effects of the HPV vaccine are minor:
- About one in 10 people will have a mild fever after the injection.
- About one person in 30 will get itching at the injection site.
- About one in 60 people will experience a moderate fever.
These symptoms go away quickly without treatment. Other mild-to-moderate side effects resulting from the HPV vaccine include:
- Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome)
Government, academic, and other public health investigators could not identify the HPV vaccine as the cause of any severe adverse event. There were 117 deaths as of September 2015, none of which could be directly tied to the HPV vaccine. The conclusion of public health investigators was that the HPV vaccine was unlikely to be the cause of these events. Such events occur at a certain rate in any group of tens of millions of people. The vaccination before each adverse event seemed to be a simple coincidence.
National Cancer Institute: ”Human Papillomavirus Vaccines.”
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What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
It’s common to have questions prior to getting a vaccine. Some questions you may want to ask your healthcare provider about the HPV vaccine are:
- When should I get the HPV vaccine?
- Are there any side effects of the HPV vaccine?
- How does the HPV vaccine work?
- Where is the HPV vaccine given?
- How effective is the HPV vaccine?
- Is there any reason to not get the HPV vaccine?
How Does The Hpv Vaccine Work
Gardasil has been the HPV vaccine used in the NHS vaccination programme since 2012.
Sometime during the 2021 to 2022 academic year, the HPV vaccine used in the NHS programme will switch to Gardasil 9.
Gardasil 9 protects against 9 types of HPV: 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Between them, types 16 and 18 are the cause of most cervical cancers in the UK . Types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 cause an additional 15% of cervical cancers.
These types of HPV also cause most anal cancers, and some genital and head and neck cancers.
HPV types 6 and 11 cause around 90% of genital warts, so using Gardasil 9 helps protect girls and boys against both cancer and genital warts.
HPV vaccination does not protect against other infections spread during sex, such as chlamydia, and it will not stop girls getting pregnant, so it’s still very important to practise safe sex.
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Having The Hpv Vaccine In School Faqs
What type of consent do I need in order to receive the HPV vaccine?
You should have been given a consent form and leaflet by your school. Your parent or guardian is asked to sign the consent form, but you can do it yourself. Its a good idea to read and talk about the information with someone you trust before making a decision about having the HPV vaccine.
Once your consent form has been signed, you will be asked to return it to your school, even if you aren’t going to have the vaccine.
Im nervous about needles or having an injection. What can I do?
We know lots of people get nervous about injections, so you arent alone in feeling that way. It may help to know that the injection is over quickly. Here are some tips that might help:
- Talk to the school nurse or a teacher, so they can give you some extra support.
- Ask to have a friend with you for some support.
- Ask to have the HPV vaccine early in the day, so you dont have to wait for a long time.
- Have a bottle of water with you and take regular, small sips.
You should also sit down for about 15 minutes after having the HPV vaccine. This gives the school nurse a chance to check that you feel okay.
My child is not sexually active. Should they have the HPV vaccine?
The HPV vaccine is offered in schools at a young age because:
- the immune response to the vaccine is stronger when people are younger
- it is more effective before someone is exposed to HPV through sexual activity.
Can boys and men have the HPV vaccine?
About Our Hpv Service
The Boots HPV Vaccination Service is suitable for adults and children aged 12 to 44 inclusive, subject to eligibility criteria.
Our service offers protection against nine HPV types , and so helps protect against the virus types responsible for:
90% of cervical, 85-90% of vulvar and 80-85% of HPV related vaginal cancers
90-95% of HPV related anal cancers
90% of genital warts
Patients aged 12 to 14 require a course of two vaccinations. One on the first visit and the second between five and thirteen months afterwards.
Patients aged 15 to 44 require a course of three vaccinations. One on the first visit, the second after two months and the third six months after the first appointment.
The service is offered by specially trained Boots pharmacists in selected Boots stores.
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Why Is Hpv Vaccine Recommended For Girls 11 To 12 Years Of Age
It is important for girls to get HPV vaccine before they become sexually active. The vaccine is most effective for girls/women who get vaccinated before their first sexual contact. It does not work as well for those who were exposed to the virus before getting the vaccine. However, most women will still benefit from getting the vaccine because they will be protected against other virus types contained in the vaccine.
Why Is Hpv Vaccination Important
The combination of HPV vaccination and cervical screening can provide the greatest protection against cervical cancer. Also, HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing cancers caused by HPV at sites other than the cervix.
Not only does vaccination protect vaccinated individuals against infection by the HPV types targeted by the vaccine that is used , but vaccination can also reduce the prevalence of the vaccine-targeted HPV types in the population, thereby reducing infection in individuals who are not vaccinated . For example, in Australia, where a high proportion of girls are vaccinated with Gardasil, the incidence of genital warts went down during the first 4 years of the vaccination program among young maleswho were not being vaccinated at the timeas well as among young females .
Further evidence that large-scale HPV vaccination confers protection for unvaccinated individuals comes from a 2019 meta-analysis of girls-only HPV vaccination programs in 14 high-income countries that included 60 million vaccinated people . That analysis showed that, up to 8 years after the start of vaccination, diagnoses of anogenital warts decreased by 31% among women aged 2529 years, by 48% among boys aged 1519 years, and by 32% among men aged 2024 years, compared with the period before vaccination began.
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Why Is The Cdc Hpv Vaccination Recommendation Uses Age Cutoff
Age is used to approximate the number of sexual partners a woman has likely had. Studies have demonstrated Gardasil-9 effectiveness in women aged 15 to 45 years with no more than 4-lifetime sexual partners, no prior pregnancies, and no history of abnormal Pap smears. The vaccine is covered by insurance for women under 45 because they are most likely to benefit from it due to fewer lifetime sexual partners. Older women who have had more than four-lifetime sex partners may not derive as much benefit as younger women with fewer sex partners, but there is still some protection that can be expected based on studies.
Do I Need To Get Tested For Hpv
- If you are 21 to 29 years old, your doctor might suggest the HPV test if you have had an unusual or unclear Pap test result. The test will help determine if HPV caused the abnormal cells on your cervix. Most women younger than 30 do not need the HPV test, because the immune system fights off HPV within two years in 90% of cases in that age group.4
- If you are 30 years or older, you may choose to have the HPV test along with the Pap test to screen for cervical cancer.
- If results of both tests are normal, your chance of getting cervical cancer in the next few years is very low. Your doctor might then say that you can wait up to five years for your next HPV screening.
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What Does The Hpv Vaccine Do
The HPV vaccine protects against six strains of the HPV virus that have been shown to cause cervical cancer as well as vagina, vulvar, anus, penile and throat cancers. Each year, there are about 35,000 cases of HPV-related cancer diagnosed. The most common among women is cervical cancer. The most common among men is throat cancer.
How Effective Are Hpv Vaccines
Clinical trials have shown that HPV vaccines are highly effective in preventing cervical infection with the types of HPV they target when given before first exposure to the virusthat is, before individuals begin to engage in sexual activity. HPV vaccines have also been found to reduce infections in other tissues that HPV infects, including the anus and oral region .
Because the cell changes and cancers caused by HPV take years to develop, it has only recently been confirmed that the vaccines reduce the risk of these outcomes as well. Trials and real-world data from population-based studies have now demonstrated that the vaccines greatly reduce the risk of precancers and cancers of the cervix, vagina, and vulva in vaccinated women . A clinical trial of Gardasil in men indicated that it can prevent anal cell changes caused by persistent infection . The trials that led to approval of Gardasil 9 found it to be nearly 100% effective in preventing cervical, vulvar, and vaginal infections and precancers caused by all seven cancer-causing HPV types that it targets .
To date, protection against infections with the targeted HPV types has been found to last for at least 10 years with Gardasil , up to 11 years with Cervarix , and at least 6 years with Gardasil 9 . Long-term studies of vaccine efficacy that are still in progress will help scientists better understand how long protection lasts .
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Why Do We Need A Vaccine For Hpv
We need a vaccine for HPV because certain high-risk strains are known to cause cancers of the cervix, mouth, throat, anus, vagina, vulva, and penis.
HPV spreads very easily via skin-to-skin contact. Genital warts and the high-risk strains can be spread during sex or genital touching. Using condoms doesn’t offer complete protection.
There is no cure for any of the HPV strains, but the vaccine can stop you from getting the high-risk strains.
Are Hpv Vaccines Safe
Yes. More than 12 years of safety monitoring show that the vaccines have caused no serious side effects. The most common problems have been brief soreness and other local symptoms at the injection site. These problems are similar to those commonly experienced with other vaccines.
The FDA and the CDC conducted a safety review of adverse side effect s related to Gardasil immunization that have been reported to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System since the vaccine was licensed . The rates of adverse side effects were consistent with what was seen in safety studies carried out before the vaccine was approved and were similar to those seen with other vaccines. The most recent safety data review for HPV vaccines continues to indicate that these vaccines are safe .
Syncope is sometimes observed with Gardasil, as with other vaccines. Falls after fainting may sometimes cause serious injuries, such as head injuries. These can largely be prevented by keeping the person seated for up to 15 minutes after vaccination. The FDA and CDC have reminded health care providers that, to prevent falls and injuries, all vaccine recipients should remain seated or lying down and be closely observed for 15 minutes after vaccination. More information is available from the CDC on its Human Papillomavirus Vaccine page.
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Safety And Adverse Events
Common and local adverse events
Based on pre-licensure clinical trials, involving more than 15,000 subjects given HPV4 vaccine and 12,000 given HPV2 vaccine, the most common adverse events in persons receiving HPV vaccines were: injection site pain , swelling or redness . These adverse events were observed significantly more often following HPV vaccine than following active vaccine or placebo controls. In over 94% of subjects who received HPV vaccine, the reactions were mild to moderate in intensity, resolved over a few days, and did not prevent completion of the immunization schedule. Systemic adverse events, such as fatigue, myalgia, headache, fever, and nausea, generally occurred with comparable frequency in vaccine and control groups. The safety profile of HPV9 vaccine is comparable to HPV4 vaccine, although mild to moderate intensity injection site reactions are more common following receipt of HPV9 vaccine.
Since vaccine licensure, hundreds of millions of doses of HPV vaccine have been distributed worldwide. Data from post-licensure safety surveillance reporting systems have consistently mirrored the pre-licensure data with the most frequently reported adverse events following immunization being vaccination site reactions and muscle pain.
Less common and serious or severe adverse events
Other reported adverse events and conditions
Guidance on Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization
Contraindications and precautions
Why Is Hpv Vaccine Now Being Offered To Boys
HPV causes cancers in men as well as women. An increasing proportion of mouth and throat cancers, which affect men at higher rates than women, are caused by HPV. HPV can also cause penile and anal cancers in men. HPV immunisation has been recommended for boys for several years in New Zealand and many other countries.
HPV vaccines are relatively expensive and were initially funded to prevent the most common HPV-related cancer, cervical cancer, which affects only women. Immunising young women can help decrease the spread of HPV among young men through community immunity. Over 72 countries provide HPV vaccine to girls through their national immunisation programmes.
As HPV vaccines can be provided as two rather than three doses to those aged 14 and under, it is now possible to extend HPV immunisation to boys in New Zealand. Australia, Austria, Brazil, Israel and some Canadian provinces also offer free HPV immunisation for boys.
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Stds Are Treatable In Nearly Every Man And Woman
At New York Urology Specialists, our urologists are specially trained in the evaluation and treatment of sexually transmitted infections . We understand the challenges that STDs such as chlamydia, herpes, gonorrhea, and ureaplasma create for our patients, their relationships, and their self-esteem. We help you find an effective treatment for your symptoms that may be caused by STD, UTI or another cause.
Urologists are doctors specializing in the treatment of infections in men and women caused by sexually transmitted diseases as well as bladder infections . By the virtue of our experience and skill, we are able to offer an effective treatment option for nearly every man and woman with urinary problems and bladder control problems.
Who Should Get Hpv Vaccination
The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices develops recommendations regarding all vaccination in the United States, including HPV vaccination. The current ACIP recommendations for HPV vaccination are :
- Children and adults ages 9 through 26 years. HPV vaccination is routinely recommended at age 11 or 12 years vaccination can be started at age 9 years. HPV vaccination is recommended for all persons through age 26 years who were not adequately vaccinated earlier.
- Adults ages 27 through 45 years. Although the HPV vaccine is Food and Drug Administration approved to be given through age 45 years, HPV vaccination is not recommended for all adults ages 27 through 45 years. Instead, ACIP recommends that clinicians consider discussing with their patients in this age group who were not adequately vaccinated earlier whether HPV vaccination is right for them. HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit because more people have already been exposed to the virus.
- Persons who are pregnant. HPV vaccination should be delayed until after pregnancy, but pregnancy testing is not required before vaccination. There is no evidence that vaccination will affect a pregnancy or harm a fetus.
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