Monday, June 5, 2023

Can Pneumonia Vaccine Cause Elevated Liver Enzymes

Step : Consider Liver Biopsy

COVID19: Types Of Blood Tests You Can Go For | News Mo

If liver transaminase levels remain elevated despite treatment and lifestyle modifications for at least six months, further diagnostic testing and referral for potential liver biopsy should be considered.30

Data Sources: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key terms elevated, liver function tests, transaminases, and aminotransferases. The search included the diagnosis clinical study category and related articles in PubMed. Also searched were the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality evidence reports, Clinical Evidence, the Cochrane database, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Essential Evidence Plus, and UpToDate. Search date: August 1, 2010, to October 7, 2010.

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The Fda Just Warned About These 13 Covid Vaccine Side Effects

With the arrival of the first coronavirus vaccine came the arrival of the first reported severe side effectstwo medical workers in the U.K. had a bad allergic reaction, leading to the FDA today to warn Americans that if they have a history of severe allergic reactions, they should not take the vaccine, either. Other than that, “we have not seen any severe adverse events that we could relate to the vaccine thus far,” says Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s leading infectious disease expert. “Safety is a very important issue,” he said, adding that “when you look at the hundreds and hundreds of millions of people who’ve been vaccinated, the long-term adverse events have been less than minuscule in the big picture of the protection that you get from a vaccine.” Nonetheless, they exist. The FDA just announced them publicly for the first time. Read on to see their warning, and to ensure your health and the health of others, don’t miss theseSure Signs You’ve Already Had Coronavirus.

More Information About The Vaccine

The PCV is a conjugate vaccine . Sugars are taken from the capsule around the pneumococcal bacteria and joined to a non-toxic diphtheria protein called CRM197. The protein helps to stimulate the immune system in a broader way to respond well to the vaccine. This gives a better immune response in individuals of all ages.

In recent years, there have been several changes to the pneumococcal vaccination schedule in the UK:

  • 2002: a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protecting against 7 types of pnemococcal bacteria was recommended forimmunisation of babies and children in at-risk groups under the age of two years
  • 2003: pneumococcal polysaccharide immunisation was recommended for all people aged 65 and over
  • 2004: PCV7 was extended to at-risk babies and children under five years of age
  • 2006: PCV7 was added to the routine childhood immunisation programme
  • 2010: a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protecting against 13 types of pnemococcal bacteria replaced PCV7.

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How Are The Complications Of Cirrhosis Treated

Portal hypertension: Portal hypertension is mainly the result of chronic end-stage liver disease. Treatment consists of treating its many complications. Treatments of portal hypertension include:

  • Giving beta blockers or nitrates to lower blood pressure in your veins.
  • Cutting off blood flow through the varices to stop or reduce further bleeding with procedure using tiny elastic bands or with sclerotherapy.
  • Redirecting blood from the portal vein to reduce pressure in the portal vein and to control variceal bleeding. This is achieved using either one of two techniques distal splenorenal shunt or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.
  • Prescribing lactulose to absorb toxins in the blood that result from hepatic encephalopathy, which cause symptoms including confusion and other mental changes.
  • Draining excess fluid in your abdomen in a procedure called paracentesis or taking a diuretic medication to decrease extra fluids in your legs and other areas of your body.

Bacterial peritonitis: Antibiotics and infusion of a protein will be prescribed. Typically patients are admitted to the hospital for treatment and monitoring. Following a diagnosis of bacterial peritonitis, an oral antibiotic will be prescribed for daily use to prevent recurrence of infection.

Kidney failure: Treatment may include medication, dialysis and kidney transplant, depending on the cause and extent of failure.

Booster Doses Of Pneumococcal Vaccine


If you’re at increased risk of a pneumococcal infection, you’ll be given a single dose of the PPV vaccine.

But if your spleen does not work properly or you have a chronic kidney condition, you may need booster doses of PPV every 5 years.

This is because your levels of antibodies against the infection decrease over time.

Your GP surgery will advise you on whether you’ll need a booster dose.

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Increased Risk Of Infection When Used With Abatacept

In controlled trials, the concurrent administration of TNF-blockers and abatacept was associated with a greater proportion of serious infections than the use of a TNF-blocker alone the combination therapy, compared to the use of a TNF-blocker alone, has not demonstrated improved clinical benefit in the treatment of RA. Therefore, the combination of abatacept with TNF-blockers including Humira is not recommended .

How Do You Catch Pneumococcus

Pneumococcus is a bacterium that is commonly found lining the surface of the nose and the back of the throat in fact, about 25 of every 100 people are colonized with pneumococcus. Many children will come in contact with pneumococcus sometime in the first two years of life. Because most adults have immunity to pneumococcus, a mother will passively transfer antibodies from her own blood to the blood of her baby before the baby is born. The antibodies that the baby gets before birth usually last for a few months. However, as these maternal antibody levels diminish, the baby becomes vulnerable. Most children who first come in contact with pneumococcus don’t have a problem. But every year tens of thousands of children suffer severe, often debilitating, and occasionally fatal infections with pneumococcus most of these children were previously healthy and well nourished.

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Whats The Life Expectancy For People With Cirrhosis

Life expectancy depends on several factors including the cause and severity of your cirrhosis, your response to treatments, presence of cirrhosis complications, your age and any other existing general health problems. Ask your liver specialist about your life expectancy since every person is unique, with unique overall health issues and specific liver health issues.

If your cirrhosis is advanced, liver transplantation may be an option. You and your doctors will discuss if this is an option for you.

Potential Effects Of Coronaviruses On The Liver: An Update

Answers to Questions about COVID-19 and Your Liver with Dr. Sammy Saab
  • 1Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
  • 2Liver Surgery Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

The coronaviruses that cause notable diseases, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome , middle east respiratory syndrome and coronavirus disease 2019 , exhibit remarkable similarities in genomic components and pathogenetic mechanisms. Although coronaviruses have widely been studied as respiratory tract pathogens, their effects on the hepatobiliary system have seldom been reported. Overall, the manifestations of liver injury caused by coronaviruses typically involve decreased albumin and elevated aminotransferase and bilirubin levels. Several pathophysiological hypotheses have been proposed, including direct damage, immune-mediated injury, ischemia and hypoxia, thrombosis and drug hepatotoxicity. The interaction between pre-existing liver disease and coronavirus infection has been illustrated, whereby coronaviruses influence the occurrence, severity, prognosis and treatment of liver diseases. Drugs and vaccines used for treating and preventing coronavirus infection also have hepatotoxicity. Currently, the establishment of optimized therapy for coronavirus infection and liver disease comorbidity is of significance, warranting further safety tests, animal trials and clinical trials.

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Other Possible Side Effects

“These may not be all the possible side effects of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. Serious and unexpected side effects may occur. Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine is still being studied in clinical trials,” reports the FDA. “If you experience a severe allergic reaction, call 9-1-1, or go to the nearest hospital. Call the vaccination provider or your healthcare provider if you have any side effects that bother you or do not go away.”

Who Else Should Get The Pneumococcal Vaccination

For adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends pneumococcal vaccination for:

  • Anyone 65 years of age and older

  • Adults with any of these health conditions:

  • Chronic illnesses such as lung, heart, liver or kidney disease asthma diabetes or alcoholism

  • Conditions that weaken the immune system cochlear implants or cerebro-spinal fluid leaks asplenia

  • Adults who smoke cigarettes

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How To Stay Healthy During The Pandemic

As for yourself, discuss these issues with a medical professional if you have cause for concern, and until we’re all vaccinated: Wear aface mask, social distance, avoid large crowds, don’t go indoors with people you’re not sheltering with , practice good hand hygiene and to protect your life and the lives of others, and don’t visit any of these35 Places You’re Most Likely to Catch COVID.

What To Do If Your Child Is Unwell After The Vaccine


Its possible that your child may feel unwell after receiving a dose of the pneumococcal vaccine. Should this happen, there are ways to help ease their symptoms.

If your child has a fever, try to keep them cool. You can do this by providing cool liquids for them to drink and ensuring theyre not wearing too many layers.

Tenderness, redness or discoloration, and swelling at the site of the shot can be eased by applying a cool compress. To do this, wet a clean washcloth with cool water and place it gently on the affected area.

Symptoms like fever and pain at the site of the shot may be alleviated using over-the-counter medications like acetaminophen or ibuprofen . Be sure to use the infant formulation and to carefully follow the dosing instructions on the product packaging.

Prior to being approved for use, the safety and effectiveness of all vaccines must be rigorously evaluated in clinical trials. Lets take a look at some of the research into the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccines.

A evaluated the effectiveness of the PCV13 vaccine in children. It found that:

  • The vaccine effectiveness of PCV13 against the 13 pneumococcal strains included in the vaccine was 86 percent.
  • The vaccine effectiveness against pneumococcal disease due to any strain of S.pneumoniae was 60.2 percent.
  • The effectiveness of PCV13 didnt differ significantly between children with and without underlying health conditions.

The CDC also notes that more than

You shouldnt get the PCV13 vaccine if youre:

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Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels: Causes And Evaluation

ROBERT C. OH, MD, MPH, Martin Army Community Hospital, Fort Benning, Georgia

THOMAS R. HUSTEAD, MD, Hardin Memorial Health, Elizabethtown, Kentucky

SYED M. ALI, MD, Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, Fort Belvoir, Virginia

MATTHEW W. PANTSARI, MD, Gastroenterology Consultants of Augusta, Augusta, Georgia

Am Fam Physician. 2017 Dec 1 96:709-715.

Patient information: See related handout on elevated liver enzymes, written by the authors of this article.

Mild, asymptomatic elevations of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, defined as less than five times the upper limit of normal, are common in primary care. The prevalence of elevated transaminase levels is estimated to be approximately 10%, although less than 5% of these patients have a serious liver disease.1,2 Understanding the epidemiology of each condition that causes asymptomatic elevated transaminase levels can guide the evaluation.36 Elevations greater than five times the upper limit of normal should prompt immediate evaluation6 but are beyond the scope of this article.


The NAFLD fibrosis score is a calculator that uses clinical data to predict risk of liver-related complications and death from advanced disease. Clinicians should refer patients with a high NAFLD fibrosis score, increased risk of progression, or coexisting chronic liver disease to a gastroenterologist.

NAFLD = nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

When To See A Doctor

A person who is over 65 years of age should talk to their doctor about which pneumonia vaccine may be best for them. The doctor can help determine whether they should get the vaccination, which vaccination to get, and when to get it.

Parents and caregivers of young children should talk to a pediatrician about the schedule for the pneumonia vaccination. The pediatrician can also address any questions or concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccination.

A person does not need to see a doctor for mild reactions to the vaccine, such as tenderness at the injection site, fever, or fatigue.

However, if a person experiences any life threatening side effects, they should seek emergency help immediately.

Signs and symptoms of allergic reactions in children may include:

  • respiratory distress, such as wheezing

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What To Know About Mild Side Effects

As with any vaccine, you may experience some mild side effects after receiving the pneumococcal vaccine.

Mild side effects vary depending on which vaccine you receive. The side effects will usually go away within a few days.

Possible side effects of the PCV13 vaccine include:

  • redness or discoloration, pain, or swelling at the site of the shot
  • sleepiness or drowsiness
  • mild fever

On very rare occasions, serious side effects can occur, such as high fever, convulsions, or a skin rash. Contact your childs pediatrician right away if you notice any of these symptoms.

You Might Get A Fever

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Fauci has said you might expect “a fever.” This is likely to be mild, although it was not for Choi. “When I woke up again at 5:30 am, I felt hot. Burning. I took my temperature and looked at the reading: 104.9 °F . This was the highest fever I can ever remember having, and it scared me. I took acetaminophen and drank a glass of water. When the research office opened at 9 am, I called to report my reaction to the injection. Thankfully, my fever had come down to 102.0 °F by then.”

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You Might Feel Injection Site Pain

Dr. Fauci has described this as a “pain in the arm.” For many, this will pale in comparison to the “whole lot of pain” Fauci has predicted from the coronavirus pandemic itself. If you’ve ever gotten a flu shot, it’s apparently like thatsome tenderness that fades. Although for some, it has been reported to be more painful. After getting her second dose, “my arm quickly became painful at the injection site, much more than the first time,” wrote one nurse researcher, Kristen Choi, Ph.D., RN, who wanted to raise awareness about the “worst-case scenario” side effects of the two-part vaccine, in an essay in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Do Children Need Protection Against Pneumococcal Disease

Yes. Infants and young children in the United States need to be protected against pneumococcal disease. In fact, they are routinely vaccinated for pneumococcal disease because it is part of the standard infant immunization schedule. Pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended for older children and adolescents with kidney disease, kidney failure, or an organ transplant, even if they received the vaccine as infants. If your child hasn’t been vaccinated, talk to your doctor.

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An Ounce Of Prevention Is Worth A Pound Of Cure

In the 1940s all of the strains of pneumococcus could be treated with the antibiotic, penicillin. However, over time many pneumococcal strains have become resistant not only to penicillin, but also to other antibiotics developed to combat bacterial infections. Resistance means that bacteria have changed, or evolved, so that they are no longer killed by one or more antibiotics. As a result, treatment with those antibiotics is not effective against those resistant strains.

Strains of pneumococcus have now been identified that are highly resistant to most antibiotics. Our reliance on and overuse of antibiotics have led to this resistance, backing us into a corner when treating infections caused by these and other types of bacteria. Unfortunately, we have taken our first steps into a post-antibiotic era. This makes the use of vaccines all the more important.

Plaque Psoriasis Or Adult Uveitis

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The recommended subcutaneous dosage of Humira for adult patients with plaque psoriasis or Uveitis is an initial dose of 80 mg, followed by 40 mg given every other week starting one week after the initial dose. The use of Humira in moderate to severe chronic Ps beyond one year has not been evaluated in controlled clinical studies.

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More Information On Side Effects

Reactions listed under possible side effects or adverse events on vaccine product information sheets may not all be directly linked to the vaccine. See Vaccine side effects and adverse reactions for more information on why this is the case.

If you are concerned about any reactions that occur after vaccination, consult your doctor. In the UK you can report suspected vaccine side effects to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency through the Yellow Card Scheme . See more information on the Yellow Card scheme and monitoring of vaccine safety.

Are There Stages Of Cirrhosis

If you have been diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver, you are already beyond the early stages of liver disease. Having cirrhosis means your liver has scar tissue in it because it has been damaged.

Liver specialists and researchers have developed many different scoring systems to predict outcome and to guide treatment for chronic liver disease. Some specific liver diseases also have their own scoring systems. However, not every liver disease has a scoring system and theres no scoring system if you happen to have more than one liver disease at the same time.

For these reasons, perhaps its easier to talk about cirrhosis according to a classification system you are more likely to hear from your healthcare provider. He or she may refer to you having either compensated cirrhosis or decompensated cirrhosis.

Compensated cirrhosis means you have cirrhosis but you dont yet have noticeable symptoms . Your lab work and imaging findings may not be abnormal. A liver biopsy may be the only way to confirm a diagnosis of cirrhosis. Median survival in patients with compensated cirrhosis is approximately nine to 12 years.

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