What Are Meningococcal Quadrivalent Vaccines
Meningococcal quadrivalent vaccines protect against 4 types of meningococcal bacteria: types A, C, Y and W-135. The vaccines are either polysaccharide or conjugate vaccines. While both types of vaccines are approved by Health Canada, the conjugate vaccines are used in B.C. because they provide longer lasting protection against disease.
How To Prevent Bacterial Meningitis
The best way to prevent bacterial meningitis is to get vaccinated, according to the CDC. Vaccines are available for some of the deadliest types of bacterial meningitis, including pneumococcal, Haemophilus influenzae b , and meningococcal.
“The most important thing you can do is get the vaccines that are available,” explains Wright.
Why Are Meningococcal Vaccines Recommended
Meningococcal disease is caused by a type of bacteria. It can lead to an infection of the bloodstream or meningitis, or both, and can be life-threatening if not quickly treated. The MenACWY vaccine is very effective at protecting against four strains of the bacteria, while the MenB vaccine protects against a fifth strain.
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Does The Vaccine Work
The MenB vaccine has been tested on thousands of adults and children, and from these clinical trials it is thought that the new vaccine will prevent a high proportion of cases of group B meningococcal disease. However because the disease is rare, the exact number of cases that will be prevented will not be known until the vaccine has been used routinely.
In February 2016 Public Health England published research which showed that the MenB vaccine should help to provide protection against the aggressive strain of MenW disease circulating in the UK , as well as protecting against MenB disease.
In September 2016 Public Health England reported on research carried out on babies in the UK who were eligible to receive the new MenB vaccine. The research showed that the number of cases of meningitis and septicaemia caused by MenB infection in these babies had nearly halved over the previous year . See the research published in The Lancet in October 2016.
Public Health England estimates that the MenB programme prevented about 250 cases of invasive MenB disease in the first three years of the programme. In the second year of the programme, there was an estimated 72% reduction in the number of cases of invasive MenB disease in infants, and in the third year of the programme there was a further estimated 60% reduction in cases of invasive MenB disease in infants.
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Meningococcal disease can cause serious infection of the blood and the tissues around the spinal cord and brain.Neisseria meningitidis bacteria also called meningococcus, are spread through saliva or spit and close or ongoing contact. Though not the only cause of meningitis, meningococcus is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the U.S. for children 2 to 18 years old. Of the more than 1,000 individuals affected each year, 10-15% will die as a result of this disease. Nearly 20% of the remaining survivors will lose a limb, develop nervous system disorders, become deaf, or suffer cognitive disabilities, seizures, or strokes.
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Anyone can acquire meningococcal disease, but it is most common in infants less than a year old and individuals aged 16-21. Certain medical conditions, such as a lack of a spleen, can create increased risk. Recent outbreaks on college campuses nationwide have highlighted the threats to students living in dorms, and therefore have amplified the number of vaccinations being given. In the United States, there are two kinds of meningococcal vaccines available. Meningococcal conjugate vaccine is given to individuals 55 years of age and younger.
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What Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease is a serious illness caused by a bacterium. It can cause meningitis, which is an infection of the brain and spinal cord, and it can also cause blood infections. The infection can cause death or lifelong disability.
About 375 people get the disease each year, and about 10 to 15 out of 100 people infected with meningococcal disease die. Of those who survive, up to one out of five will have permanent disabilities, such as deafness, brain damage, loss of limbs, or seizures.
A person with meningococcal disease may become seriously ill very quickly. Antibiotics can treat meningococcal infections, but often cant be given soon enough to help.
Anyone can get meningococcal disease, but it is most common in infants less than 1 year of age. Teens are less likely to be infected than infants, but disease levels increase in adolescence starting around age 11, and peak around age 19 years.
Who Is Entitled To The Menb Vaccine
All babies are offered this vaccine as part of the routine immunisation schedule. It is also recommended for people with certain long-term health conditions who are at greater risk. These include individuals with no spleen, or a spleen that does not work properly, sickle cell anaemia, coeliac disease and complement disorders .
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Who’s Eligible For The Vaccine
The MenB vaccine is part of the routine childhood immunisation programme in Scotland since 1 September 2015. You’ll be sent an appointment to bring your child in for their routine childhood immunisations.
Babies born on or after 1 July 2015 will be offered the MenB vaccine when they come in for their other routine immunisations at 8, 16 weeks and 12 to 13 months.
The MenB vaccine will be given at the same time as the other routine immunisations your baby will be due at these times.
What Are The Options For Meningococcal Vaccine
Meningococcal vaccine is highly effective at protecting against four strains of the meningococcal bacteria. Three strains are common in the United States and the fourth strain protects travelers to certain countries where the disease is more common.
The MenACWY vaccine does not contain the meningococcal B strain that is more commonly found in infants and may cause some cases in adolescents. There is an additional vaccine, meningococcal B vaccine , that contains the B strain. If your clinic does not carry the MenB vaccine, you can ask them to order it for you, or to refer you to another clinic that has the vaccine. Talk to your health care provider about getting this additional vaccine.
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Potential Serious Side Effect
Very rarely, serious side effects can occur with any vaccine. Speak with your healthcare provider immediately if you or your child experience:
- Dizziness, ringing in the ears, or vision changes after the vaccine is administered. This could indicate that you are going to faint.
- Severe pain in your shoulder or trouble moving your arm where the shot was administered.
- Symptoms of an allergic reaction, including changes to breathing. This can happen even hours after a shot is given.
Menb Vaccine And Paracetamol
It’s recommended that you give your baby liquid paracetamol to reduce the risk of fever after vaccination.
Giving paracetamol reduces the chances of your baby getting fever by more than a half. Nearly all these fevers are mild.
Your nurse will give you more information about paracetamol at your vaccination appointment.
You’ll also be given aleafletwhich includes instructions onwhat dose to give your baby. The leaflet for parents about paracetamol is available on GOV.UK.
It’s a good idea to have some liquid paracetamol at home before the 2-month vaccination visit. You can buy it from your local pharmacy or supermarket.
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Experiencing Shoulder Pain After A Vaccine Or Surgical Procedure
If you are experiencing a rotator cuff injury, frozen shoulder, and/or brachial neuritis after a surgical procedure or after receiving a vaccine, you may be entitled to compensation. Oftentimes, these procedures can causesharp shoulder pain at the site of the injection. If you’ve felt permanent swelling or tenderness that lasts 6 or more months after the procedure, contact our firm immediately.
Who Needs A Meningococcal Vaccine
The CDC recommends a meningococcal vaccine for:
- All children ages 11-18 or certain younger high-risk children
- Anyone who has been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak
- Anyone traveling to or living where meningitis is common, such as in sub-Saharan Africa
- Military recruits
- People with certain immune system disorders or a damaged or missing spleen
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Many Colleges Require Proof Of Menacwy Vaccination Within 5 Years Before Starting School
Regardless of school requirements, CDC recommends a booster dose for all teens who received the first dose before their 16th birthday. The booster dose provides the best protection during the ages when teens are at highest risk. Teens who receive their first MenACWY vaccine dose at or after age 16 years do not need a booster dose.
How And When To Receive Meningitis Vaccine
The two forms of vaccines are administered differently. MCV4 is given as a single-dose injection to the muscle while the MPSV4 is administered under the skin.
The vaccines provide protection for at least 3 years. Most people need only one dose. However, people who remain at risk may need a second dose at least 5 years after the first shot.
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You Are Pregnant Or Breastfeeding
- Pregnant women who are at increased risk for serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease may get MenACWY vaccines.
- Pregnant or breastfeeding women who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease may get MenB vaccines. However, they should talk with a doctor to decide if the benefits of getting the vaccine outweigh the risks.
How And When Should You Receive The Meningococcal Vaccine
In most cases, adults only need one dose. But if you remain at risk, you may need a booster.
Some adults may need another type of meningitis vaccine, the serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, if they are exposed to this virus through work or travel or if they have a damaged or missing spleen, or certain immune system disorders.
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What Are The Meningococcal Vaccine Side Effects
As with any other vaccine, you may have side effects after getting a meningococcal vaccine. The most common reactions are mild and go away after a few days without any problems.
Mild reactions to MenB vaccines seem to last slightly longer than mild reactions to MenACWY vaccines .
Common side effects of the MenACWY vaccines include:
Skin irritation at the location of the shot
Chills or fever
Diarrhea or nausea
Serious but rare side effects from any injected vaccine include severe allergic reactions and fainting. Sit or lay down for about 15 minutes after receiving a vaccine if youre feeling dizzy or lightheaded.
Meningococcal Acwy Vaccine Side Effects
The meningococcal ACWY vaccine is effective and safe, although all medications can have unwanted side effects.
Side effects from this vaccine are uncommon and are usually mild, but may include:
- localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
- occasionally, an injection-site lump that may last many weeks
- low-grade temperature
- children being unsettled, irritable, tearful, or generally unhappy, drowsy and tired.
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Which Meningococcal Vaccines Are Available
In the U.S., three meningococcal vaccines are available:
- Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine , sold as Menomune
- Meningococcal conjugate vaccine , sold as Menactra, MenHibrix, and Menveo.
- Serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, sold asTrumenba and Bexsero.
MPSV4 and MCV4 can prevent four types of meningococcal disease, which make up about 70% of the cases in the U.S.
The MenB vaccines prevent the Meningococcal B strain.
MCV4 is preferred for people age 55 and younger. The recommendation for teens is one dose at age 11 and one dose at age 16. The doctor or nurse injects one dose into the muscle. If MCV4 is not available, you can use MPSV4. The doctor or nurse injects one dose beneath the skin.
MPSV4 is the only meningococcal vaccine approved for use in people over 55.
The MenB vaccines are recommended for ages 10-24, by the CDC for high risk patients, but can also be used in older adults. Trumenba is administered in three doses while Bexsero requires two doses.
Your Child Can Get Menacwy And Menb Vaccines At The Same Time
Your childs doctor can give both types of meningococcal vaccines during the same visit, but preferably in different arms. If you choose for your child to get a MenB vaccine, the preferred timing is between 16 and 18 years old. So its possible your child will get this vaccine and the MenACWY booster dose at the same visit.
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Common Early Warning Symptoms
Many children who are developing meningitis have nonspecific symptoms such as just feeling or looking generally unwell. These symptoms may include having a high temperature , being more tired than usual and feeling sick.
However, three symptoms that commonly develop early on – often before the more classic symptoms listed later – are:
- Leg pains. The pains can become severe and prevent a child from standing or walking.
- Cold hands or feet – even if the child has a high temperature.
- Pale, dusky or blue colour of the skin around the lips.
Shouldnt Meningococcal B Vaccine Be Required
CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has reviewed the available data regarding serogroup B meningococcal disease and the vaccines. At the current time, there is no routine recommendation and no statewide requirement for meningococcal B vaccination before going to college . As noted previously, adolescents and young adults may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, preferably at 16 through 18 years of age, to provide short term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This would be a decision between a healthcare provider and a patient. These policies may change as new information becomes available.
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Who Gets Meningococcal Disease And How
The bacteria that cause meningococcal disease can be spread from person to person through the exchange of respiratory and throat secretions, which can occur through kissing, coughing, or sharing food or drinks.1
While meningococcal disease can occur at any age, children under five and adolescents 15 to 18 years old are among the most at risk.7 Up to 10% of adolescents and adults can be carriers of meningococcal bacteria, meaning that the bacteria can be found in the back of their throat, even if it does not cause them to get sick.5
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If you or a loved one has been the victim of a vaccine side effect, you should contact a vaccine lawyer with experience in this type of complex litigation.
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The lawyers at the firm offer a Free Confidential Case Evaluation and may be able to obtain financial compensation for you or a loved one by filing a vaccine lawsuit or claim with The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Contact Schmidt & Clark today by using the form below or by calling them directly at .
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Why Do Teens Need A Meningococcal Vaccine
Of the 1,000-2,600 people who get meningococcal disease each year, one-third are teens and young adults. Ten percent to 15% of those who get sick with the disease will die, even with antibiotic treatment. As many as 20% of the survivorswill have permanent side effects, such as hearing loss or brain damage.
The immunization can help prevent this serious disease.
Making Sure Vaccines Are Safe
Vaccines must be tested to make sure theyre safe and effective before being approved for use in Canada. Once a vaccine has been approved for use in Canada, its monitored for:
- effectiveness in people
Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada share the responsibility for ongoing safety monitoring, which also involves:
- provincial, territorial and local public health authorities
- health care professionals
Experts have developed many different types of vaccines to protect us from germs .
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Commonly Asked Questions About The Meningococcal Vaccine
When Are Meningococcal Vaccines Typically Given?
For children younger than 10 and adults, MenACWY is only recommended for patients with certain risk factors. Likewise, MenB may be administered to children over 10 and adults who are at higher risk for certain types of meningitis.
Can Meningococcal Vaccines Cause Fever or Illness?
Can Meningococcal Vaccines Cause Allergic Reactions?
Can Meningococcal Vaccines Cause Meningitis?
How Can I Get Help After a Vaccine Injury?
What Can I Get From a Vaccine Claim?
- Medical costs covering complications
Are There Any Adults Who Should Not Get The Meningococcal Vaccine
You shouldn’t get either type of meningococcal vaccine if you:
- Are moderately or seriously ill wait until you recover.
- Have had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose
- Had a severe reaction to any part of the vaccine
If you are pregnant or have other concerns, ask your doctor which meningitis vaccine is right for you.
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H Influenzae Type B Vaccine
This vaccine protects against H. influenzae type b bacteria, which can cause a range of mild to severe illnesses. These include throat swelling, blood infections and pneumonia.
Before the vaccine, Hib was a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under age 5.
- Hib vaccine is to infants in three to four doses, starting at 2 months old. In rare cases, it may be recommended for older children and young adults with HIV. The vaccine can be given with other vaccines.