How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given
The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.
If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.
Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will also need 2 doses of the vaccine given 6 months apart.
MSM who are HIV positive or have a weakened immune system need to have 3 doses of the HPV vaccine.
If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:
- the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
- the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose
It’s important to have all vaccine doses to be properly protected.
Why Is Hpv Vaccination Important
The combination of HPV vaccination and cervical screening can provide the greatest protection against cervical cancer. Also, HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing cancers caused by HPV at sites other than the cervix.
Not only does vaccination protect vaccinated individuals against infection by the HPV types targeted by the vaccine that is used , but vaccination can also reduce the prevalence of the vaccine-targeted HPV types in the population, thereby reducing infection in individuals who are not vaccinated . For example, in Australia, where a high proportion of girls are vaccinated with Gardasil, the incidence of genital warts went down during the first 4 years of the vaccination program among young maleswho were not being vaccinated at the timeas well as among young females .
Further evidence that large-scale HPV vaccination confers protection for unvaccinated individuals comes from a 2019 meta-analysis of girls-only HPV vaccination programs in 14 high-income countries that included 60 million vaccinated people . That analysis showed that, up to 8 years after the start of vaccination, diagnoses of anogenital warts decreased by 31% among women aged 2529 years, by 48% among boys aged 1519 years, and by 32% among men aged 2024 years, compared with the period before vaccination began.
Hpv Vaccine Side Effects
HPV vaccines can cause pain, swelling, and redness where the shot was given, as well as headaches, tiredness, and nausea. The most common serious side effects of HPV vaccination are dizziness and fainting. There is no evidence that HPV vaccines lead to infertility or autoimmune diseases, although these are common myths.
When the researchers looked at the data by state, they found that the number of parents citing safety concerns increased in 30 states and more than doubled in California, Mississippi, South Dakota, and Hawaii.
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Who Should Get Hpv Vaccination
The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices develops recommendations regarding all vaccination in the United States, including HPV vaccination. The current ACIP recommendations for HPV vaccination are :
- Children and adults ages 9 through 26 years. HPV vaccination is routinely recommended at age 11 or 12 years vaccination can be started at age 9 years. HPV vaccination is recommended for all persons through age 26 years who were not adequately vaccinated earlier.
- Adults ages 27 through 45 years. Although the HPV vaccine is Food and Drug Administration approved to be given through age 45 years, HPV vaccination is not recommended for all adults ages 27 through 45 years. Instead, ACIP recommends that clinicians consider discussing with their patients in this age group who were not adequately vaccinated earlier whether HPV vaccination is right for them. HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit because more people have already been exposed to the virus.
- Persons who are pregnant. HPV vaccination should be delayed until after pregnancy, but pregnancy testing is not required before vaccination. There is no evidence that vaccination will affect a pregnancy or harm a fetus.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
Findings from VAERS indicate that CRPS following HPV vaccination is extremely rare. However, VAERS cannot determine causality.
- > 67 million doses of Cervarix and Gardasil distributed in the United States
- 21 reports of CRPS following Gardasil and one report following Cervarixout of the total 31,935 reports of adverse events following HPV vaccination in VAERS. These 22 reports were not confirmed as CRPS cases.
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What Other Reasons Are Causing Hpv Cancers To Rise In Young Men
Dr. Kriplani: Part of it is people having more sexual partners in their teens and 20s. HPV-related cancers are related to oral sex. The infection can happen decades before the cancer actually develops. A lot of patients ask me, How did I get this? Im in a monogamous relationship. My answer is: You didnt get this now. It happened many, many years ago.
How Do You Catch Hpv
HPV infections are unique. First, most people never know they were infected. Unlike a cold in which symptoms develop a few days after exposure to the virus, HPV infections are typically not symptomatic. Second, HPV infections can last for long periods of time. The average length of infection is about eight months however, for about 1 of every 10 women, the infection lasts longer than two years. It is in this group of women that there is an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. Cervical cancer often doesnt occur until 20 years after the initial infection.
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Should Hpv Vaccines Be Given To People Who Are Already Infected With Hpv Or Have Cervical Cell Changes
ACIP recommends that people who have an HPV infection and/or an abnormal Pap test result that may indicate an HPV infection should still receive the HPV vaccine if they are in the appropriate age group because the vaccine may protect them against high-risk HPV types that they have not yet acquired. However, these people should be told that the vaccination will not cure them of current HPV infections or treat the abnormal results of their Pap test .
Although HPV vaccines have been found to be safe when given to people who are already infected with HPV, the vaccines provide maximum benefit if a person receives them before he or she is sexually active .
It is likely that someone previously infected with HPV will still get some residual benefit from vaccination, even if he or she has already been infected with one or more of the HPV types included in the vaccines.
Should Everyone Within The Approved Age Groups Get Vaccinated
Dr. Aragones: Yes, everyone eligible should get the vaccine. The current recommendation for those ages 26 to 45 is to discuss the benefits of the vaccine with their primary care doctor. The point is that there are still many benefits from getting the vaccine at that age, and my recommendation is to get it. But its still best for children to be vaccinated when they are about 11 or 12 years old. Getting the HPV vaccine before first sexual contact protects a person over their entire life.
Dr. Kriplani: People can acquire different strains of HPV over time. As life and your relationships change, if youre unvaccinated, you can still acquire the higher-risk strains later in life.
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How Many Doses Of The Vaccine Do I Need
Most people will be offered two doses of the vaccine.
The first dose is offered to all pupils in S1 at secondary school. The second dose is usually offered in S2. You’ll be offered the second dose at least 6-12 months after the first.
Some people may require three doses. This includes people who are living with immunosuppression or who may have started a three dose course when they were aged over 15. The person giving you the vaccine will let you know how many doses are right for you.
What Hpv Testing Is Available
Women can get HPV tests and/or Pap tests to determine whether they have an HPV infection that can lead to cervical cancer. Both tests detect early health problems that can lead to cervical cancer, but neither checks for warning signs of other cancers, fertility or other STDs. Although both tests have a common goal, they do have their differences:
- Recommended for women 21 and older.
- Involves scraping the cervix to identify any abnormal changes in cells of the cervix that could later develop into cancer.
- Results are typically reported as normal, unclear, or abnormal:
- Normal means that no changes were found in the cells
- Unclear indicates that the cells look like they could be abnormal
- Abnormal means that changes in cervical cells were found
If both tests are normal, it is highly unlikely that serious cervical cell changes will develop in the next three years however, regular wellness visits should not be skipped.
If either test is abnormal, more testing will be completed. Abnormal results do not mean that you have cervical cancer, but that cells in your cervix could eventually become cancerous. However, finding the abnormal cells early allows for more successful treatment.
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Why Do Adolescents Need The Hpv Vaccine
The HPV vaccine is recommended before the start of sexual activity for two reasons:
- Young people tend to get infected more frequently. In fact, about half of all new infections are diagnosed in young people between 15 and 24 years of age.
- It takes six months to complete the series, so even though your son or daughter may not be active now, or even in six months, it is better to have the series completed sooner rather than later.
Safety Monitoring For Hpv Vaccines
All vaccines used in the United States are required to go through years of extensive safety testing before they are approved and licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration . After vaccines are licensed, CDC and FDA continue to monitor for any rare or new problems that may happen after vaccination.
CDC uses three systems to monitor the safety of vaccines after they are licensed:
Learn more about the vaccine safety monitoring systems and how these systems work together to protect Americas health.
The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System is a national vaccine safety monitoring system co-managed by CDC and FDA. The system accepts reports of adverse events following vaccination from vaccine manufacturers, healthcare professionals, and the public. It serves as an early warning system to detect possible safety problems that require further evaluation however, the safety data the system provides has limitations.
VAERS data limitations include reporting biases, inconsistent data quality and completeness, and a lack of unvaccinated comparison groups. Because of these limitations, VAERS generally cannot determine if a vaccine caused a reported adverse event. While some reported adverse events may be caused by vaccination, others may be coincidental and not related to vaccination. Learn more about VAERS and the safety data it provides.
Among all reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System following HPV vaccines, the most frequently reported symptoms overall were:
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What Research Is Being Done On Strategies To Prevent Hpv Infection
If a single dose of HPV vaccine were effective, that would be an important advance. A large observational study using national data from women across Australia found that one dose of HPV vaccine was as effective as two or three doses in preventing high-grade cervical lesions . An analysis of data from a community-based clinical trial of Cervarix in Costa Rica, found that even one dose of the vaccine caused the body to produce approximately nine times more antibodies against HPV than the body produces in response to a natural HPV infection, and those antibody levels persisted for 11 years . In addition, the rates of HPV infection remained low for at least 10 years .
Two NCI-led clinical trials have been launched in Costa Rica to confirm and extend these findings. The ESCUDDO study, a randomized double-blind controlled trial involving 20,000 girls ages 1216 years, is testing whether one dose of either Cervarix or Gardasil 9 is as effective as two doses at preventing persistent cervical infection with HPV. PRIMAVERA-ESCUDDO, a non-randomized open-label trial, will provide earlier and complementary results to ESCUDDO about the immunogenicity of one dose of Cervarix in girls ages 914 years compared with three doses of Gardasil in women ages 1825 years.
Koutsky LA, Ault KA, Wheeler CM, et al. A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 2002 347:16451651.
Who Should Get The Vaccine And When Should They Get It
All kids who are 11 or 12 years old should get the HPV vaccine, though it may be given as young as 9 years. The vaccine is more effective and the immune system responds more strongly when given at this age.
Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females up to age 26 for all males up to age 21 and for males age 22-26 who meet certain health conditions or who request it. Talk to your healthcare provider about what doses you may need.
Women and girls who are breastfeeding may get the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women or girls.
Two doses of the vaccine are needed for those who start the series between ages 9 and 14 and have a healthy immune system. Those who start at age 15 through 26 need three doses. Anyone with a compromised immune system should get three doses, even if they are 9 through 14.
HPV vaccine is not required to attend school in Washington, but you can ask for it at the same time as the required school vaccines are being given.
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How Has The Age Range For Getting Vaccinated Changed
Over the years, researchers have learned more about when people should get the HPV vaccine. It was originally approved for females ages 9 through 26. Then the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommended both females and males get vaccinated up to age 26. However, people up to age 45 can get vaccinated.
So if an adult in their 20s or older is considering vaccination, what should they discuss with their doctor? Two experts from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center head and neck oncologist Anuja Kriplani and internal medicine physician and public health researcher Abraham Aragones have answers.
Can Genital Hpv Infections Be Treated
HPV infections cannot be treated however, the symptoms of HPV can be treated, at least to some extent. For example, genital warts can be treated with medications or surgically removed however, they may return, and the patient may still be infected with HPV and could, therefore, still transmit the infection.
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How Long The Hpv Vaccine Protects You
Studies have already shown that the vaccine protects against HPV infection for at least 10 years, although experts expect protection to last for much longer.
But because the HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, it’s important that all girls who receive the HPV vaccine also have regular cervical screening once they reach the age of 25.
Do Young Women Who Get The Hpv Vaccine Still Need To Get Pap Tests
Yes. The HPV vaccine prevents the types of HPV that cause about 9 of every 10 cervical cancers. Because the vaccine doesn’t prevent all types of HPV that cause cancer, women still need to get routine Pap tests. Likewise, the vaccine doesnt protect against types of HPV to which a person was exposed prior to vaccination.
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How Much Does Hpv Vaccination Cost And Will Insurance Pay For It
Most private insurance plans cover HPV vaccination. The federal Affordable Care Act requires most private insurance plans to cover recommended preventive services with no copay or deductible.
Medicaid covers HPV vaccination in accordance with ACIP recommendations, and immunizations are a mandatory service under Medicaid for eligible individuals under age 21. In addition, the federal Vaccines for Children Program provides immunization services for children younger than 19 years who are Medicaid eligible, uninsured, underinsured, or Native American or Alaska Native.
Merck, the manufacturer of Gardasil 9, offers the Merck Vaccine Patient Assistance Program, which provides Gardasil 9 for free to people aged 19 to 45 years who live in the United States, do not have health insurance, and have an annual household income less than a certain amount.
Hpv Tests Check For High
These tests are usually used to identify women who are at high-risk of having precancerous changes and developing cervical cancer. Research shows that HPV testing is more accurate than the Pap test in finding precancerous changes in the cervix. Researchers are still trying to find the best way to use the HPV test as a part of cervical cancer screening. are an effective way to find cervical cancer.
HPV tests are available in some areas of Canada. In provinces that use HPV tests as part of their cervical cancer screening programs, they are generally used as a follow-up to abnormal Pap tests results.
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