Why Is Hpv Vaccine Now Being Offered To Boys
HPV causes cancers in men as well as women. An increasing proportion of mouth and throat cancers, which affect men at higher rates than women, are caused by HPV. HPV can also cause penile and anal cancers in men. HPV immunisation has been recommended for boys for several years in New Zealand and many other countries.
HPV vaccines are relatively expensive and were initially funded to prevent the most common HPV-related cancer, cervical cancer, which affects only women. Immunising young women can help decrease the spread of HPV among young men through community immunity. Over 72 countries provide HPV vaccine to girls through their national immunisation programmes.
As HPV vaccines can be provided as two rather than three doses to those aged 14 and under, it is now possible to extend HPV immunisation to boys in New Zealand. Australia, Austria, Brazil, Israel and some Canadian provinces also offer free HPV immunisation for boys.
Hpv Vaccination For Men Who Have Sex With Men
Men who have sex with men have not benefited in the same way from the longstanding girls’ programme, so may be left unprotected against HPV.
Since April 2018, MSM up to and including 45 years of age have been eligible for free HPV vaccination on the NHS when they visit sexual health clinics and HIV clinics in England.
Ask the doctor or nurse at the clinic for more details.
What Are Possible Adverse Reactions To The Hpv Vaccine
Reactions experienced following the HPV immunisation are similar to those from other vaccines.
As with all immunisations, people may have a sore arm and get redness, pain and swelling at the injection site.
Other less common reactions include vomiting or fainting. These can follow any immunisation and people should remain seated for 20 minutes .
Its also a good idea for people to eat breakfast and lunch and avoid excessive exercise on the day they receive the immunisation.
Other possible reactions that can occur, usually within 12 days, include:
- a fever
- general discomfort
- skin reaction, rash.
Very rarely, a serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis occurs, usually within 10 minutes of immunisation. Anaphylaxis can occur with any medicine or vaccine.
Based on clinical studies and experience from overseas we can expect around 3 anaphylactic reactions per 1 million doses of vaccine administered. This is similar to the rates for other vaccines given to children and adolescents.
If anaphylaxis does occur, it can be treated. For this reason, children are asked to wait for 20 minutes after immunisation. Every vaccinator is trained and equipped to deal with such a reaction.
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Who Should Get The Vaccine
Gardasil® and Gardasil®9
Gardasil® and Gardasil®9 are approved for use in females aged 9-45 and males aged 9-26.
These vaccines require 3 doses to be given over the course of 6 months . For healthy, immunocompetent, non-HIV infected individuals 9 to less than 15 years age, two doses of the vaccine at least 6 months apart may be given.
- Recommendations for use, which come from the National Advisory Committee on Immunization , were initially released in February 2007, and updated in January 2012, 2015, 2016, and 2017 as new evidence emerged. NACI recommends Gardasil® and Gardasil®9 in females and males 9 to less than 27 years of age, including women who have had previous Pap test abnormalities, cervical cancer or individuals who have previously had genital warts. NACI also recommends that these vaccines may be administered to individuals 27 years of age and older at ongoing risk of exposure to HPV. HPV is a sexually transmitted infection, and ideally, the vaccine should be administered before sexual debut in order to ensure maximum benefit.
For more details on the NACI Statement, see “Update on Human Papillomavirus Vaccines”.
Cervarix® is approved for use in females aged 9 to 45. At this time Cervarix® has not been approved for use in males in Canada.
The vaccine requires 3 doses to be given over the course of 6 months . For healthy, immunocompetent, non-HIV infected females 9 to less than 15 years age, two doses of the vaccine at least 6 months apart may be given.
Hpv Vaccination And Men Should Men Get The Hpv Vaccine Too
Did you know that men and women are at equal risk of contracting HPV? Though it is more commonly heard of for women to get the HPV vaccination, it is just as important for men!
Dr Timotheus Ooi, Healthway Medical , explains what HPV is, and the importance of the vaccination not just for women, but for men as well.
What is HPV?
HPV stands for Human Papilloma Virus, and it is the most common viral infection among sexually active adults. It is spread through vaginal, anal, and oral sex and even close skin-to-skin contact during intercourse. Nearly all non-vaccinated individuals, male or female, will be infected by HPV at some point during their adult life. It is the cause of more than 99% of cervical cancer cases in females. Cervical cancer is the tenth most common cancer among Singaporean women.
How Does It Affect Men?
The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic. In a minority of cases, the HPV infection is not cleared by the body and may result in the growth of genital warts. Genital warts appear as small flesh-coloured, cauliflower-like bumps on the skin. HPV may also cause penile, anal and even oral cancer in some men months or years after the infection. Notably, 85-91% of anal cancer is cause by HPV, and more than 90% of genital warts are caused by HPV. Though it can affect all men, men who have a weakened immune system from other illnesses or treatments, are at increased risk.
Different Photos of anal, penile and scrotal warts
How Does Vaccination Help?
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Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect Me For Life
The vaccine appears to offer long-term protection from HPV. But, even women who have received the vaccine should see their gynecologist regularly for a Pap test to check for cervical cancer. The vaccine doesnât protect against all HPV types that can cause cervical cancer.
If you missed part of the HPV vaccine series, talk to your doctor about getting the missing dose.
Who Is Eligible For The Free Hpv Vaccine
In Victoria, the HPV vaccine is available for free to all adolescents in year seven of secondaryschool under the National Immunisation Program. The two-dose course of the vaccineis given at school. It can also be given by a local doctor or at a council immunisation session. Contactyour state or territory health department for more information about HPV vaccination at your school.
People under 20 years of age who missed the vaccine at secondary school can access free catch-updoses at their local doctor or at a community immunisation session. From 15 years of age theGardasil®9 vaccine is given as a three-dose course.
People from 20 years of age are not eligible for free vaccination through the National Immunisation Program, so they will have to pay for thevaccine. The HPV vaccine is licensed for males aged 9 to 26 years and females aged 9 to 45 years.
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Can A Man Be Tested
Research has shown that the HPV test may lead to inconsistent results with men. This is because it is difficult to get a good cell sample to test from the thick skin on the penis. Most people will not have visible symptoms if they are exposed to HPV. Therefore, for most, the virus is subclinical . This is especially true for males. If a male is exposed to the cell-changing types of HPV, he would be unlikely to have symptoms. If there are no symptoms for males, it is hard to test for it. Most of the time, men will not have any health risks such as cancer with the high-risk types of HPV. It is the females cervix that needs to be monitored.
When To Get Vaccinated: Hpv Vaccine Schedule
- Before age 15, you need two doses
- After age 15, you need three doses
- Optimal age for vaccination is 11-12
- You can still benefit from vaccination up to age 26
- The FDA has approved the vaccine for adults up to age 45
The younger, the better. There are a few reasons for this.
You want to vaccinate prior to close contact, so it is approved as early as 9, Modesitt explains. Like any vaccine, the HPV vaccine needs time to take effect before it can adequately protect against infection.
But also, as Payne points out, the immune response is so much better in younger people. Early vaccination packs an extra-protective punch. Plus, kids who start the vaccine series before age 15 only need two doses of vaccine, whereas those who start the series later need three doses.
Educate & advocate. Paynes heard from a number of parents who only realized when they got home from the 11-year-old check-up that the providers only ordered Tdap and meningitis vaccines, didnt even mention HPV, and the families had to make return visits specifically to complete the recommended vaccines. Make sure your childs pediatrician gives all three vaccines.
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Where Can I Get The Hpv Vaccine
Getting the vaccine on the NHS
Girls and boys will be offered their free vaccine in school. People under the age of 25 who miss this opportunity can contact their GP surgery about getting one for free on the NHS.
MSM under the age of 45 can visit a sexual health clinic or an HIV clinic to get a free HPV vaccine.
Getting the vaccine privately
If you dont qualify for a free HPV vaccine you can get one privately using a service like LloydsPharmacy Online Doctor.
Order your vaccine through us, and once our in-house doctors have approved it, youll be able to visit your nearest LloydsPharmacy store to get your injections.
How You Can Get Hpv
HPV which stands for Human Papillomavirus is a sexually transmitted virus that you can catch from an infected person through:
- sexual activity, including oral sex
- intimate skin-to-skin contact with an infected person
You don’t have to have intercourse to get HPV.
Without immunization, three out of four sexually active Canadians will be infected with HPV at some point in their lives.
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Hpv Vaccine Prevents Cervical Cancer
In reported that Swedish girls and women aged 10 to 30 years old, who had been vaccinated with Gardasil resulted in a big reduction in the risk of invasive cervical cancer in the population.
In the study cervical cancer was diagnosed in 538 women who had not received Gardasil vaccine and in only 19 women who had received the vaccine.
In Ireland, Gardasil 9 vaccine given through the school imminisation programme protects against 9 out of 10 cervical cancers.
Can I Get Tested For Hpv
No, there is currently no approved test for HPV in men.
CDC does not recommend routine testing for HPV in men. CDC also does not recommend routine testing for diseases from HPV before there are signs or symptoms in men. Some healthcare providers offer anal Pap tests to men who may be at greater risk for anal cancer. This includes men with HIV or men who receive anal sex. If you have symptoms and have concerns about cancer, please see a healthcare provider.
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How Can I Lower My Chance Of Getting Hpv
There are two steps you can take to lower your chances of getting HPV and diseases from HPV:
- Get vaccinated. The HPV vaccine is safe and effective. It can protect men against warts and certain cancers caused by HPV. Ideally, you should get vaccinated before ever having sex.
- Use condomsthe right way every time you have sex. This can lower your chances of getting all STIs, including HPV. However, HPV can infect areas the condom does not cover. So, condoms may not offer full protection against getting HPV.
Can Hpv Infections Be Prevented
Since HPV is so common, even those who have only had one partner can still get the virus. Using condoms correctly each time you have sex reduces the risk of getting sexually transmitted infections, and might offer some protection against HPV. Keep in mind that skin in the anal/genital area not covered by a condom can still be affected.
The best prevention is the HPV vaccine. It can prevent both high-risk and low-risk HPV and is recommended for boys and young men .
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Yes Its Recommended: Hpv Vaccine For Boys
As demonstrated by the statistics, a lack of correct information continues to make people think that HPV only causes cancer in girls, leading to the lower rates of vaccinated boys.
As the mother of a tween son, the thought of talking to him about getting a shot that prevents an infection he could get from sexual activity wasnt super fun.
But you dont have to! insists Heather Payne, NP, who works in the UVA Teen & Young Adult Health Clinic. She advises parents to let kids know that at age 11 or 12 they are due for three vaccines: HPV, meningitis and TdaP .
Payne notes that many parents and providers recoil from giving the HPV vaccine to avoid discussing sex. There really is no need to get into a discussion about having sex when giving vaccines, she adds. No one talks to parents of little kids about Hepatitis B being a sexually transmitted infection when they are getting that series in childhood.
She hopes parents will focus on the the fact that the HPV vaccine could save your child from getting cancer: With the rising rates of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers, I believe this is just further reason for everyone, including young men, to get the vaccine.
How Effective Are The Vaccines
The HPV vaccines have demonstrated very high efficacy in preventing the types of HPV infection for which they are indicated . If you are infected with one of the HPV types in the vaccine, the vaccine will still protect against the other type in the vaccine. HPV DNA testing is not recommended prior to vaccination.
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Can Men Get Tested For Hpv
Theres no routine STI test or screening programme to check for high-risk HPV in men.
Instead, men are advised to keep an eye out for any changes to the genitals, or any symptoms affecting that area, or the mouth and throat. This includes lumps, rashes, discharge and pain.
If you do notice new symptoms including genital warts make sure you see your GP to get checked.
For more information on symptoms to look out for, read this article: Male cancers associated with HPV.
How To Prevent Spreading Hpv
Abstinence is the only sure way to prevent HPV transmission. Risk of transmission can be lowered if a person has sex only with one person who is not infected and who is also monogamous.
To lower the risk of HPV transmission, men can also limit the number of sex partners and pick partners who have had few or no partners in the past.
Condoms can provide some protection against HPV transmission. Unfortunately, they aren’t 100% effective, since HPV is transmitted primarily by skin-to-skin contact. The virus can still infect the skin uncovered by the condom.
In a recent study of young women who had just become sexually active, those whose partners used a condom each time they had sex were 70% less likely to get an HPV infection than were women whose partners used a condom less than 5% of the time.
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When Should Adults Get The Hpv Vaccine
The best time to get the HPV vaccine is before you’ve started having sexual activity. That’s why the CDC recommends that both boys and girls get their vaccination at age 11 or 12, although they can get the vaccine as early as age 9. If you’re 13 or older and you haven’t already been vaccinated, you can still get the vaccine.
It is recommended for all people through the age of 26. Some adults ages 27-45 may get the vaccine after talking with their doctor.
How many shots do I need?
The CDC recommends two doses of HPV vaccine at age 11 or 12 years. The second shot should be given 6-12 months after the first.
If you can get all shots prior to age 15, only two are needed. Three doses are needed if you get the first dose on or after your 15th birthday, and for people with weakened immune systems. The second dose should be given 1-2 months after the first dose. And the third dose should be given 6 months after the first dose.
If I already have HPV, will this vaccine treat it?
If you have a current HPV, the vaccine won’t get rid of it. But, if you have one type of HPV, the vaccine may prevent you from getting another type of the virus. There’s really no way to treat the virus once you have it, although there are treatments for diseases caused by HPV such as genital warts and genital cancers. This is why you should have regular pelvic exams and Pap tests to screen for cervical cancer.
What Are The Vaccines Made From
HPV vaccines stimulate the immune system to prepare antibodies against these viruses. They do not contain viruses or parts of viruses. They are made from proteins that mimic the viral envelope and are unable to infect the person who is given the vaccine. In other words, these vaccines cannot transmit a HPV infection.
Like many other vaccines, HPV vaccines contain an adjuvant, which is used to increase the immune systems response to the vaccine. HPV vaccines do not contain any preservatives, latex, antibiotics, thimerosal or mercury.
HPV vaccines are developed in accordance with the usual process prescribed by Health Canada. This process regulates and oversees vaccine research, manufacturing, licensing, efficacy and safety. All vaccines must go through this process in order to be distributed in Canada.
The manufacturer of the Cervarix® vaccine has not taken steps for this vaccine to be licensed in Canada for use in boys. It is therefore approved for use in girls and women age 9 to 45. However, scientific data, including data from a study conducted in Québec, shows that this vaccine is safe and produces a similar immune response in boys and girls. In addition, in Europe this vaccine is approved for use in boys and girls age 9 or older. Norway has been using two doses of the Cervarix® vaccine for both boys and girls since September 2018.
For more information, consult How Vaccines Work.
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