Tuesday, October 3, 2023

Do Vaccines Last A Lifetime

Do Vaccines Cause Sids Multiple Sclerosis Or Other Problems

Why do some vaccines last a lifetime while others do not?

There are concerns, many of which circulate on the Internet, linking some vaccines to multiple sclerosis, sudden infant death syndrome , and other problems. To date, studies have failed to show any connection between immunizations and these conditions. The number of SIDS cases has actually fallen by more than 50% in recent years, whereas the number of vaccines given yearly has continued to rise.

How Are We Monitoring The Coronavirus Vaccines

Pfizer and Moderna have been monitoring immunity in people who were given their vaccines in the initial clinical trialsboth companies had reported strong overall efficacy at the six-month mark.

One thing researchers are monitoring in vaccine recipients is levels of antibodies, which are proteins produced by the bodys immune system when it detects harmful substances, and that are easily measured from blood samples. Antibodies are a really good marker for protection against infection, so we will be monitoring those levels for as long as we can measure them, says Akiko Iwasaki, PhD, a professor of immunobiology at Yale School of Medicine.

I tell my family, ‘It’s great that youre vaccinated… But even the vaccines dont have 100% guarantees, so… you want to keep weighing the risks,'” says Yale Medicine infectious diseases expert Jaimie Meyer, MD, MS

A report in The New England Journal of Medicine in April showed that 33 participants who had received the Moderna vaccine during the Phase I trial had a gradual decline in antibody protectionand, based on the slope, Iwasaki says, that is hopeful news. If antibodies are going down very quickly, you would expect that to last for a short time. The slow decline raises hopes that the mRNA vaccines will be protective for at least a year, if not longer, she says.

This is a reason why the CDC recommends vaccinations for people who have had a COVID-19 infection as well as for those who have not.

/8we May Never Get A ‘perfect’ Covid Vaccine

Not only do COVID-19 vaccines do a ‘good-enough’ job, it’s also important to establish that no two vaccines or pathogens are the same, and the immune defenses they do generate cannot be properly compared. For one, the threshold of protection, or the immunity needed to keep a person from getting sick greatly differs from every pathogen, and the severity of infection it could cause. For this reason, it could be considered possible for COVID-19 vaccines to mount a comparatively lesser-lasting, or waning response.

It might also signify that we need to wait for more time to get the ‘ideal’ results we want from our COVID-19 vaccines. Further, it should also be noted that the magnitude of antibodies, immune responses seen with other vaccines differ on counts. If the measles shot mounts lifelong antibodies, the tetanus vaccine can have decaying antibodies, which, however, are offset by the large number of antibodies created in the first place. These vaccines have also gone through years, and years of progress and research to help track antibody decline, and provide updations when needed, which is not possible right now with COVID-19.

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How Rapidly Does The Covid

Added to this is the extent to which the virus or bacteria mutates or evolves. A rapidly evolving infectious agent may become able to evade the bodys defences if it looks sufficiently different to previous incarnations or finds new methods of attack. And creating a vaccine against a rapidly evolving enemy is like trying to hit a moving target.

We see examples of this each year with flu season. As the influenza virus replicates, small changes can emerge in its genetic make-up. This can lead to changes in the viruss surface proteins, which are key to our immune systems ability to recognize infection and trigger a response. This so-called antigenic drift usually produces viruses fairly similar to their predecessors, and antibodies created against one flu virus will probably still recognize and respond to similar viruses.

How is the World Economic Forum helping to identify new technologies to fight COVID-19?

As part of work identifying promising technology use cases to combat COVID, The Boston Consulting Group recently used contextual AI to analyze more than 150 million English language media articles from 30 countries published between December 2019 to May 2020.

The result is a compendium of hundreds of technology use cases. It more than triples the number of solutions, providing better visibility into the diverse uses of technology for the COVID-19 response.

To see a full list of 200+ exciting technology use cases during COVID please follow this link.

Which Adult Immunizations Do You Need

Experts are homing in on an influenza vaccine that could ...

There have been several updates in adult vaccine recommendations since the last set of guidelines were released. One of the most notable: the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that the human papillomavirus vaccine be given to all adult females through the age of 26. Guidelines for males are similar, calling for vaccinations of males aged 13 through 21 years who were not been previously vaccinated. Vaccination is also recommended for males through age 26 who have sex with men and for those whose immune system may be compromised. Other significant changes include:

  • The ACIP now suggests that adults without evidence of prior immunity to chickenpox receive the varicella vaccine. Special consideration should be given to:
  • Those at high risk for infection or transmission, such as health care workers and teachers
  • Those who are in close contact with people at high risk of infection
  • Family and others who come in contact with people with compromised immune systems
  • Shingles can be a very painful and debilitating disease. People 60 and older and people without without evidence of immunity who are known to be at risk of exposure should be vaccinated against shingles.
  • The ACIP also recommends one or more doses of the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine be administered to adults in certain age groups and with certain risk factors. Adults born before 1957 can be considered immune to measles and mumps.
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    How Long Does A Pneumonia Shot Last

    Streptococcus pneumoniaevaccinepneumoniaStreptococcus pneumoniae

    • Younger than 2 years old: four shots
    • 65 years old or older: two shots, which will last you the rest of your life
    • Between 2 and 64 years old: between one and three shots if you have certain immune system disorders or if youre a smoker

    Why Might Astrazeneca Produce A Longer

    One reason might be because the RNA in Pfizers and Modernas vaccines doesnt last very long in the body, only a week or so, because RNA is very fragile.

    But the DNA delivered by adenovirus vector vaccines will likely hang around in the body for a bit longer.

    DNA is more stable than RNA, and might allow for a more prolonged, low-level activation of our immune system that provides longer-lasting protection.

    This might explain longer-lasting T cell responses with the AstraZeneca vaccine.

    But this is only speculative for now as such direct tests havent been done yet.

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    What We Actually Know About Waning Immunity

    Reports of vaccines decline have been greatly overstated.

    Vaccines dont last forever. This is by design: Like many of the microbes they mimic, the contents of the shots stick around only as long as it takes the body to eliminate them, a tenure on the order of days, perhaps a few weeks.

    What does have staying power, though, is the immunological impression that vaccines leave behind. Defensive cells study decoy pathogens even as they purge them the recollections that they form can last for years or decades after an injection. The learned response becomes a reflex, ingrained and automatic, a robust immune memory that far outlives the shot itself, Ali Ellebedy, an immunologist at Washington University in St. Louis, told me. Thats what happens with the COVID-19 vaccines, and Ellebedy and others told me they expect the memory to remain with us for a while yet, staving off severe disease and death from the virus at extraordinary rates.

    That prediction might sound incompatible with recent reports of the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines, and the waning of immunity. According to the White House, well all need boosters very, very soon to fortify our crumbling defenses. The past few weeks of news have made it seem as though were doomed to chase SARS-CoV-2 with shot after shot after shot, as if vaccine protections were slipping through our fingers like so much sand.

    Time Will Tell Regarding The Duration Of Vaccine

    New studies find Covid-19 immunity could last years or a lifetime

    It bears repeating that we know that the Johnson & Johnson, Moderna, and Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines are safe and highly effective at preventing serious illness. Those facts have been established.

    However, because the vaccines have been around for such a short time, we dont yet have much data on antibody decay rates. And, unlike the measles and tetanus, the COVID-19 virus is much more prone to mutating, which means it will be harder to determine how long protection lasts since there are now multiple variants.

    Researchers are already hard at work on enhancements to the COVID-19 vaccines that likely will improve their effectiveness and increase the longevity of their protection. But for the foreseeable future, the best way to avoid getting seriously ill with COVID-19 is to get fully vaccinated and then get a booster shot if and when its recommended for you. Booster shot guidelines continue to evolve so its best to talk with your doctor about your health and whether an additional vaccination is right for you.

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    Can Immunizations Cause A Bad Reaction In My Child

    The most common reactions to vaccines are minor and include:

    • redness and swelling where the shot was given
    • fever
    • soreness at the site where the shot was given

    In rare cases, immunizations can trigger more serious problems, such as seizures or severe allergic reactions. If your child has a history of allergies to food or medicine, or has had a problem with a vaccine before, let the doctor know before any vaccines are given. Every year, millions of kids are safely vaccinated and very few experience serious side effects.

    Research continually improves the safety of immunizations. The American Academy of Pediatrics now advises doctors to use a diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine that includes only specific parts of the pertussis cell instead of the entire killed cell. This vaccine, called DTaP, has been associated with even fewer side effects.

    What Can We Do In The Meantime

    Its critical that as many people as possible get their primary vaccination shots, Dr. Meyer says. In December 2021, the CDC endorsed a recommendation to choose the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines, in response to concerns over rare blood clots associated with Johnson & Johnsons shot.

    The good news is that Pfizer and Moderna made their mRNA vaccines easy to update, Dr. Meyer says. It just has to be tweaked a little bit, like having a computer code that needs a couple of minor edits. Its relatively easy to build. Its also important to follow the CDCs recommendations on booster shots.

    The hope is that the case rate will go down and more people will be less likely to be exposed. That advice is especially important with the Delta and Omicron variants, which have proven to be more contagious than previous variants, prompting the CDC to issue stricter guidelines calling for everyonevaccinated or notto wear masks indoors in areas of high transmission.

    Even if Delta and Omicron go away, I think those preventive measures will become even more important as the year passes, because potentially your immunity is going to wane over time, Dr. Meyer says.

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    How Long Does Immunity From Covid

    • New research finds that mRNA COVID-19 vaccines provide immunity for at least 6 months.
    • But since COVID-19 is so new, experts arent sure if immunity will wane after that.
    • Experts say more research will have to be done to understand if people will need regular booster shots for COVID-19.

    All data and statistics are based on publicly available data at the time of publication. Some information may be out of date. Visit our coronavirus hub and follow our live updates page for the most recent information on the COVID-19 pandemic.

    The COVID-19 vaccines produced by Pfizer and Moderna are highly effective at preventing COVID-19 cases in real-world conditions, and research suggests they should maintain their effectiveness over time.

    What remains unclear, however, is exactly how long the vaccines prevent COVID-19, if booster shots may be needed down the road, or if vaccines will need to be tweaked to fight against emerging variants of the virus.

    In an , the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention studied almost 4,000 vaccinated healthcare personnel, first responders, and other essential and frontline workers.

    They found that the messenger RNA vaccines developed by pharmaceutical companies Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna prevented 80 percent of cases after the first dose and 90 percent after the second dose.

    The frontline workers in the study were tested for COVID-19 every week for 13 weeks.

    Who Should Receive Twinrix

    The vaccine only lasts 6 months before you need a booster ...

    According to Canadian medical advice, the vaccine is required for all those seeking to minimize their hepatitis A and B infection risk. Twinrix is used for vaccinating adults, teenagers, youngsters and babies above one year of age.

    In specific, vaccination against hepatitis A is suggested for:

    • Travellers to countries or areas with a risk for hepatitis A
    • The Canadian armed forces, emergency organization, or any other organization likely to be sent at short notice to high-risk areas for hepatitis A
    • Zoo workers, veterinarians, and researchers
    • People diagnosed with liver disease
    • Hemophiliacs

    Hepatitis B vaccination is prescribed for those who:

    • Travellers to countries or areas with a risk for hepatitis B
    • Nurses, including medical students
    • People in contact with someone with hepatitis B
    • People who use medication through injections
    • Hemophiliacs
    • Immigrants and students coming to Canada

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    /8will We Require More Frequent Shots Of Covid

    Granted the waning immunity and the possibilities of COVID-19 turning into an epidemic, several experts have hinted that apart from booster shots currently being authorized for use in several places, COVID vaccination might turn into an annual requirement, much like flu vaccination.

    While this is a decision that needs to be considered carefully, keeping in mind supplies and resources, several factors, including the changing mutations of the virus, less than efficient or declining immune response can make it essential to have routine vaccinations in place.

    Thresholds Of Protection Antibody Decay And Mutations

    For a vaccine of any kind to be effective, it has to cause a response by the bodys immune system that reaches whats called the threshold of protection. This is the level of antibodies per milliliter of blood, and its different for every virus.

    After you achieve this level of protection, the antibodies produced begin to decay as your body determines that the viral threat has passed. Ultimately, the length of time that a vaccine provides protection is a combination of how far over the threshold of protection your body goes in producing antibodies and how durable those antibodies are.

    Using the measles and tetanus vaccines as examples, a large number of measles antibodies are produced and they decay very slowly, which means the protection lasts for a long time. Tetanus antibodies arent as durable, but this is offset by the fact that the immune system produces far more of them than it needs, giving the tetanus vaccine roughly 10 years of effectiveness.

    And, of course, the measles and tetanus vaccines have been around for a long time, so we have a much better understanding of their rates of antibody decay and other factors impacting their effectiveness and longevity.

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    Smallpox Immunity May Last A Lifetime

    By Debora Mackenzie

    Vaccination may induce life-long immunity to smallpox, suggest the results of the first detailed tests of their kind. This means that any terrorist release of smallpox might not spread as catastrophically fast as feared, and fewer people might die.

    Smallpox was declared eradicated in the wild in 1980, after a worldwide vaccination campaign. But the disease stopped circulating earlier in the west, and routine vaccination ceased in the 1970s. That means most westerners born since then have not been vaccinated, making smallpox which is highly contagious and kills a third of its victims potentially a horrific biological weapon.

    But how horrific depends on whether people who were vaccinated have retained their immunity. It has been assumed that few would. DA Henderson of Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, who led the eradication drive, told New Scientist that when smallpox was still circulating, it was recognised that primary vaccination alone did not protect much beyond five or 10 years.

    A limited study in 2002 found that only 10 per cent of people re-vaccinated for smallpox showed evidence of immunity in their skin response to the vaccine.

    How Good Is The Immune Response

    Some expired COVID-19 vaccines, gets adjusted shelf life

    Vaccines aim to mimic natural immunity. By exposing the body to harmless imitations, they create an immune memory, teaching the body to recognize infections from disease-causing pathogens. When an infection is recognized, an immune response is mounted, with antibodies latching onto the invaders and preventing them from causing illness. T-cells, which can attack pathogen-infected cells, are also crucial to the bodys defences.

    All vaccines, including the COVID-19 vaccines, produce an immune response, but the strength of that response, and the duration of the resulting antibodies, varies depending on the effectiveness of the vaccine.

    And different levels of antibodies are required to protect against different viruses and bacteria.

    Measles antibodies tend to be fairly long-lasting, so there are sufficient levels circulating in the body to ward off infection for years after vaccination. Research is still ongoing into the level of antibodies required to protect against COVID-19.

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