‘occasional Boosts Will Be Helpful’
Stanford professor of immunology research Holden Maecker said in an email to DW he also hasnt come across any science behind the idea that multiple boosters overwhelm the immune system, but mentioned data from the UK showing that delaying a second dose or boost until around six months is effective.
Many other studies have shown that the immune system needs time to build memory, indicating that booster shots are not very useful at short intervals, he added.
With that said, “we get yearly flu shots without detriment, and all indications so far suggest that occasional boosts for COVID-19 vaccines will be helpful,” he wrote.
Do We Need A Certain Level Of Covid
Dr. Finstad: We dont know that level yet. But given the evidence so far, public health experts are suggesting booster shots for the COVID-19 vaccines. This guidance is awaiting authorization from CDC and FDA.
More research is needed to determine what level of COVID-19 antibodies is protective, and this is an active area of investigation within SeroNet. For measles, for example, antibody testing is used as a surrogate measure to determine whether you’re protected from a future infectionits called a correlate of protection. If you are above that antibody level, you’re likely protected. And vice versaif you fall below that level, your physician will likely give you a booster to raise your antibody levels again.
By following individuals over time through SeroNet studies, we’ll be able to take a look at the antibody levels that correlate with protection. For COVID-19 vaccines, protection means you are protected from developing severe disease, but it doesnt mean you cant get infected. One SeroNet group actually wrote a very helpful article that explains how the vaccines can protect against illness but dont completely prevent you from getting infected.
How Successful Are Vaccines
Vaccination is the most effective preventative measure against infectious diseases. Most vaccine-preventable illnesses are highly contagious, spread quickly and can cause severe complications which may impact on our quality of life.
Vaccines give us immunity without us getting sick. They also protect vulnerable people in our community who cannot be immunised such as very young children or those who are too sick.
When enough people in the community are vaccinated, the spread of a disease slows down or stops completely. So as long as enough people are vaccinated, diseases will not spread. We call this herd immunity or community immunity. The percentage of people who need to be immune in order to achieve herd immunity varies with each disease. For example:
- Measles, mumps, rubella 95 out of every 100 people vaccinated will be completely immune.
- Whooping cough about 85 out of every 100 people vaccinated will be completely immune.
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Better Global Vaccine Access A Priority
“As long as the virus is circulating around the world, you’re going to need to have a highly immune population,” said Offit. “The best way to do that is to make sure that those countries that have limited access to vaccines have access to vaccines in the same manner we do. I think that the third dose, fourth dose, fifth dose is largely a waste, or a detour, from what you really need, which is to make sure people have gotten their primary series because that is likely to protect them against severe disease for a long time, for years, even.
The US approved boosters for all Americans in November, despite pushback from vaccine committee advisors from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the FDA, like Offit.
COVID: SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses in pictures
What Social Science Research Is Seronet Doing
Dr. Klemm: In addition to supporting basic science research around COVID-19 serology, SeroNet also supports social science research, with a focus on engaging groups of people who might have some hesitancy about vaccination or participation in COVID-19 research.
We have a team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester that is using a storytelling approach to help communicate the importance of participation in COVID-19 research. Another team, at the University of Arkansas, has developed a tool for evaluating the various reasons why someone might be concerned about COVID-19 vaccines. Arkansas has relatively low vaccine uptake right now. So, theyre using the tool to study vaccine hesitancy in different social and ethnic groups, and theyre getting a more comprehensive view of this very complicated question of vaccine hesitancy.
Dr. Finstad: And whats great is that a number of the other SeroNet investigators said, Can we use that tool too? And the Arkansas team said, Absolutely! So, the network enables rapid dissemination of research and tools so that other scientists can quickly adopt them.
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Hybrid Immunity: A Combination Of Vaccination And Prior Infection Probably Offers The Best Protection Against Covid
Hybrid immunity is the term for immunity acquired from both prior infection and vaccination.
- 13 June 2022
When were exposed to a pathogen such as a virus, our immune system identifies it as a foreign invader and mounts an attack. This ultimately results in the formation of antibodies which can neutralise the invading pathogen next time we encounter it.
Its a complex process. Our immune system forms B cells and specialist T cells , as well as memory cells to prepare for any future attacks from the same pathogen.
The pathogen which triggers this process can be introduced through natural infection or vaccination. Of course, after two-and-a-half years of COVID we know neither of these forms of immunity are foolproof. Although prior infection and vaccination both provide some degree of immunity for a time, plenty of people catch COVID after being previously infected, vaccinated, or both.
So which is better the immunity produced from an infection, or a vaccine? Or is a combination of both optimal? Lets take a look.
How Vaccines Can Affect The Natural Immune System
While vaccines temporarily boost the body’s immunity against Covid-19, the immune system stops learning from cell memory and instead depend on what the vaccine taught it about the infection to survive it. Immunologist Daniella Weiskopf told LA Times that vaccinations were teaching the B Cells and T cells how to identify the virus through simulation. In her opinion, the body needed to learn the virus first in order to know which parts to bind to and how to go about eliminating it. This can be especially troublesome in the case of viruses like Covid-19 which has found several variations, some of which have managed to get past the vaccine.
The high rate of Omicron infections among the vaccinated is proof that virus mutations can get past the first and second layer of defence of the human immune system including NK and B cells. However, it was caught by T cells.
The idea is that with every mutation and change in spike protein, the body needs to be re-introduced to the virus afresh to be able to learn how to appropriately respond.
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Hiv: The Other Pandemic
The HI-virus , attacks the immune system, for examples T-cells . Like SARS-CoV-2, it’s an RNA-based virus. If left untreated, it’ll weaken the immune system until it can’t fight infections anymore. HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids like semen or blood. There’s no vaccine, but there’s medication that brings down the viral load and stops AIDS from breaking out.
“It just doesn’t make sense to me,” Offit said. “I don’t know how it came to be. I mean, when President Biden stood up on August 18 and said we’re going to have booster doses available for everybody over 16′, I just don’t know where that came from.”
The CDC says that although two doses of the vaccine work to prevent severe illness in most people, boosters can help protect severe illness in people in risk groups, and against reinfection from new variants like omicron.
Recent trials in Israel and the US have also shown that boosters can help protect older people. Offit says they make sense for people who need them due to risk factors, but that protection from omicron alone isn’t enough of a reason to boost everyone.
“The people who get hospitalized, people who have multiple comorbidities, who are older or immunosuppressed boost them. I’m all for that,” Offit said. “But I just don’t understand the story of this war against mild disease in healthy young people.”
No Scientific Evidence For Claim By Pathologist Ryan Cole That Covid
SOURCE:Ryan Cole, LifeSiteNews, 13 Sep. 2021
FULL CLAIM: Idaho doctor reports a 20 times increase of cancer in vaccinated patients Since January 1, in the laboratory, Ive seen a 20-times increase of endometrial cancer over what I see on an annual basis Were modifying the immune system to a weakened state
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How Vaccines Impact The Immune System
There is ample evidence to suggest that Covid-19 vaccines help increase the body’s ability to fight coronavirus. As per the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in the US, those without a vaccine shot were 13 times more likely to be hospitalised in case of a Covid-19 infection. According to research, a third booster dose of an mRNA vaccine can increase protection against Omicron.
The vaccines create antibodies that can help the body defend against Covid-19. However, these antibodies start to wane and require repeated top-ups in the form of booster doses to remain effective. Sweden has recently recommended a fourth booster shot for the elderly. Countries like US and UK have already rolled out the third booster for sections of the adult and young population. The third dose is also being given to priority sections of the population in India such as the elderly. A report by the UK health security agency, however, shows that the Covid-19 vaccines’ efficacy starts to wane by 15-25 per cent in 10 weeks.
A recent CDC study also found that the effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccines especially to prevent disease reduces in four months, as was seen during the Omicron infection.
As per a statement made by the European Medicine Authority, repeated vaccines may weaken the body’s immune response system to fight Covid-19.
Common Vaccine Misperceptions And Concerns Explained
There are misperceptions about risks and side effects of vaccination, and because there are so many false reports in the media, this section aims to clear up any confusion.
Common vaccine side effects include mild reactions like fever, or swelling or soreness at the injection site. These reactions indicate that the vaccine is working. Very rarely, you might have a serious side effect, such as an allergic reaction. Only one in 1 million children vaccinated experience this side effect. There is absolutely no sound evidence suggesting that vaccines cause or trigger autism. Decades of research around the world prove vaccinations are safe and effective. Meanwhile, the effects of an infectious disease can be severe and long-lasting, including brain damage or even death. Bottom line: The bigger risk is in delaying a vaccination, because the longer you wait to vaccinate your child, the longer he or she is risking exposure to a serious and potentially life-altering disease.
Another misperception is that vaccinations are unsafe because they contain thimerosal, an organic form of mercury that prevents vaccines from being contaminated. This form of mercury is completely different from methylmercury, which can damage the nervous system. Although thimerosal has been shown to be safe, now all routine childhood vaccines are available in thimerosal-free forms, including the seasonal flu vaccine.
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Covid: Do Multiple Boosters ‘exhaust’ Our Immune Response
Its too soon to understand the effectiveness of a fourth vaccine dose, according to the EU’s top drug regulator. But some countries have already authorized the shot.
Vaccine boosters could be ineffective at slowing the pandemic
Fourth doses of the COVID-19 vaccine dont appear to offer significant protection against catching omicron according to a preliminary study conducted in Israel, the first country to authorize a second booster for its general population. Researchers announced the resultsMonday, around three weeks after fourth shots became widely available across the country.
These findings appear to confirm doubts expressed by the European Unions top drug regulator last week. Marco Cavaleri, the European Medicines Agency’s head of vaccines strategy, said at a news briefingtheres no data supporting the broad effectiveness of fourth boosters.
Some countries like Denmark, Hungary and Chile have already authorized second boosters despite concern from regulators. Near the end of December, the World Health OrganizationDirector-General said blanket booster policies are more likely to prolong the pandemic than end it.
Israel became the first country to administer second booster shots earlier this month
Along with citing a lack of data on the effectiveness of multiple booster doses, Cavaleri said that frequent boosting could potentially have a negative impact on immune response to COVID-19, causing “fatigue in the population” that’s received multiple shots.
What Are Vaccines Made Of
Each vaccine will be made up of slightly different ingredients depending on the disease it is targeting. The active ingredient in a vaccine is a very small amount of the killed, greatly weakened or broken-down parts of the bacteria or virus you are vaccinating against. Vaccines also contain small amounts of preservatives and stabilisers, such as sorbitol and citric acid. These can already be found in the body or in food usually in much larger quantities than the amount used in a vaccine. However, the most abundant ingredient in a vaccine is water.
Some vaccines also contain aluminium usually in the form of aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium is found naturally in nearly all food and drinking water and is used in vaccines to strengthen and prolong the immune response they generate.10 The amount of aluminium in vaccines is extremely small and a recent study found that, in an infants first year of life, the total amount of aluminium in both vaccines and food is less than the weekly safe intake level.11
Immunisation is a proven tool for controlling and eliminating life-threatening infectious diseases and is estimated to avert between 2 and 3 million deaths each year – World Health Organization
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Vaccines Vs Natural Immunity
When we receive a vaccine, it exposes our immune system to parts of the pathogen, allowing it to form antibodies and memory cells, without the risks of infection. The COVID vaccines work in slightly different ways, but all expose our immune system to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. This is the protein that coats the virus particle and is essential for infecting our cells.
Our immune response following vaccination is specific to the part of the virus contained in the vaccine. During an infection, our bodies make antibodies against many different areas of the virus but not all of these antibodies will be equally useful. The current COVID vaccines contain the spike protein because its generally accepted that antibodies specific to surface proteins are the most protective.
Many viruses have mechanisms to evade the immune system, delaying the identification of the pathogen and modulating how immune cells respond. SARS-CoV-2 is no exception, which, in theory, could weaken the immune response generated by an infection.
Vaccines are designed to prompt a very strong immune response. Most vaccines contain adjuvants essentially extra ingredients to help our immune systems form a robust response to the spike protein.
Another study demonstrated that antibodies from the vaccine targeted more areas of the spike protein than those formed against infection.
Have you read?
If Im Taking An Immunosuppressant Should I Worry About Covid
COVID-19 vaccines may provide less protection if you have a weakened immune system. But this doesnt mean they lose all effectiveness. In many cases, youll likely need an extra COVID-19 vaccine dose to help make up for this difference.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends everyone age 5 and older to get fully vaccinated against COVID-19. This includes people with weakened immune systems. People who are immunocompromised are at higher risk for severe COVID-19 if you test positive for the virus. This includes people taking medications that weaken your immune system.
Your healthcare provider can help answer questions you may have about COVID-19 vaccines, including which vaccines you should receive and when. This includes choosing which additional primary shot or booster shot to get if youre considered moderately to severely immunocompromised.
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If These Diseases Are So Rare Why Does My Child Need To Be Vaccinated
All of the diseases that we vaccinate against exist in the world today. Therefore, if your child has not been vaccinated, there is still a risk that they could get the disease and become very sick. We know that decreases in vaccination uptake can result in outbreaks of diseases such as measles.5 Regular vaccination is needed to keep our children healthy, prevent outbreaks from occurring and to eventually eradicate these diseases altogether. Infectious diseases are easily passed from person to person and entire communities can rapidly become infected. If a high enough proportion of a community is protected by vaccination, it makes it difficult for the disease to spread because the number of people who can be infected is so small.
Your immune system is there to protect you by vaccinating your child, you give his/her immune system all the tools it needs to keep them safe from many severe diseases – Meike Heurich-Sevcenco, BSI Vaccine Champion
This type of protection is known as herd immunity and is particularly crucial for some individuals who are unable to receive some vaccines. This may include those that are too young, undergoing certain medical treatment or have a health condition that impairs the function of their immune system . Declines in herd immunity caused by decreasing vaccination rates have recently caused outbreaks of measles and whooping cough in the UK.6,7