Saturday, June 3, 2023

Do Vaccines Prevent Bacterial Infections

Impact Of Vaccines On Antimicrobial Resistance

How do vaccines help babies fight infections? | How Vaccines Work
  • AffiliationsWorld Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia , Metropolitan Hotel, Bangla Sahib Road, Connaught Place, New Delhi 110001, India
  • The inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics accelerates antimicrobial resistance .
  • New antibiotic development has declined sharply in recent years.
  • A significant rise in deaths and medical costs from antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections could result by 2050.
  • Vaccines can prevent bacterial and viral infections from occurring and spreading.
  • Preventing infections and their transmission should reduce antibiotic use and AMR.

How Vaccines Give You Immunity

Vaccines boost your immune systems ability to fight viruses or bacteria, but you dont have to get the viruses or bacteria first.

Vaccines are made with dead or weakened viruses or bacteria, or the genetic code from viruses or bacteria. This allows vaccines to trick the immune system into producing antibodies. But because you havent actually been infected by the virus or bacteria, you dont get any disease symptoms.

But if youre exposed to a real virus or bacteria, your antibodies are ready to fight the virus or bacteria straight away.

You need a certain level of antibodies to protect you from viruses and bacteria. So you might need several doses of a vaccine over time to keep your antibodies at a level that gives you ongoing protection from disease.

Vaccines also contribute to herd immunity. Herd immunity is when enough people in the community are protected from a disease, so the disease spread slows down or stops. Herd immunity helps to protect babies who are too young to be immunised and people who are more likely to get sick, including people with other serious illnesses and elderly people.

How Do I Know Vaccines Are Safe

Before a vaccine can be given to the population it must go through rigorous testing. Like all medicines, vaccines go through many clinical trials, where they are administered and monitored in groups of volunteers. In the UK, the results of trials are then assessed by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency . Once licensed, the vaccine must then be further approved by the MHRA before it is added to the routine vaccination programme. Even once a vaccine becomes part of the vaccination programme, it is continually monitored for safety and effectiveness by the MHRA. Any suspected side effects are reported by medical providers or patients to the MHRA using the yellow card scheme. No medicine can ever be completely risk free or 100% effective. However, strong licensing processes and safety tests ensure that the health benefits of medicines being given through the NHS greatly outweigh any risks. As vaccines are given to healthy people, these regulatory measures are even stricter, meaning that the level of acceptable risk for vaccines is much lower than it would be for other medicines.9

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Long History Of Advocacy

Although the use of the Bexsero vaccine to prevent gonorrhea is relatively new, its hardly the first time gay, bisexual, and transgender men in Canada have resorted to off-label medications to protect their sexual health.

Jody Jollimore, an advocate for gay mens health and the executive director of the Community-Based Research Centre in Vancouver, said the interest in the Bexsero vaccine is part of a growing trend in the gay and queer community to find their own health solutions.

It really speaks to the resolve, and the determination to prevent STIs and prevent HIV and really have better sexual health as a community, he told CTVNews.ca during a telephone interview from Halifax last week.

Jollimore, who intends to get the Bexsero shot himself soon after finding out about it from his friend John, said gay and queer men have had a long history of activism and engagement around prevention.

As examples, Jollimore said that gay men promoted the use of condoms and pre-exposure prophylaxis medication to prevent HIV before the government and health officials did. He also said that gay men were the ones who first discovered that Hepatitis C could be sexually transmitted.

Because of HIV, its made gay men acutely sexual-health aware, and therefore we see these pockets of knowledge that happen, and we continue to lead the way in prevention, he said.

Both Jollimore and John said they have been taking doxycycline for the prevention of STIs for several years now.

Spread Of Successful Bacterial Clones Carrying Resistance Determinants

HPR volume 15 issue 3: news (2 February 2021)

S. pneumoniae is a genetically highly diverse species because of an efficient DNA-transformation system that promotes horizontal gene transfer. Pneumococcal strains of a given serotype may belong to a few but more often many clonal lineages. Likewise, a clonal lineage may just appear with one capsular serotype, but more often with many different serotypes. Molecular typing schemes reveal that the pneumococcal community consists of a number of clonal lineages, some of which are more prone to spread and colonize than others. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that antibiotic resistance is spread globally by a limited number of particularly successful resistant pneumococcal clones. The best example comes from Iceland where penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci were identified in 1988 followed by a rapid expansion caused by a single clone, Spain6B-2, reaching its peak in 1993. This clone subsequently disappeared, but was followed by a large increase of PNSP of serotype 19F belonging to the international clone Taiwan19F-14 .

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New Paradigms In Vaccine Development Targeting Nosocomial Bacterial Pathogens

One of the most obvious challenges for vaccine development is the high genetic diversity of strains typical of the commensal pathogens. The genetic heterogeneity translates into differences in chemical structure of variable proteins and polysaccharides and alters their immunogenicity. Immunological strain variability limits cross-reactivity of the immune response to variable surface proteins and polysaccharides and undermines vaccine-mediated cross-protection against strains not included in the vaccine design.

The lack of cross-protectivity has hindered the development of vaccines against several ESCAPE pathogens:

As an answer to the previous failures and the eminent clinical need, we have recently witnessed a change in paradigm: new vaccine developments no longer focus on broad coverage of strains but narrow the spectrum to individual, epidemiologically relevant strains known to harbor resistance to carbapenems. These developments include

1. Targeting of the capsule of K. pneumoniae based on a recently described semi-synthetic hexasaccharide-glycoconjugate . The glyoconjugate was shown to induce antibodies with opsonophagocytic activity against carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains in vitro and monoclonal antibodies derived thereof promoted protection against the K. pneumoniae ST258 strain in vivo .

What Is The Immune System

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body from harmful germs. When bacteria, viruses, and other germs invade your body, they multiply and attack. This invasion is called an infection. Infections cause the diseases that make you sick.

Your immune system protects you from the disease by fighting off the invading germs.

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Vaccines Proven To Reduce Amr

Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. Hib conjugate vaccines were the first effective bacterial vaccines that not only showed high efficacy in preventing invasive disease in immunized infants and protecting older children by herd immunity, but also significantly reduced antibiotic use and hence the development of antibiotic resistance. Before Hib conjugate vaccines were first introduced in the late 1980s in the United States and then globally, Hib was a devastating pathogen in infants and young children. At that time, incidence rates of Hib disease in children < 5 years of age ranged from 3.5 to 601 cases per 100,000 in many countries of the world. In addition, a steady increase in Hib -lactam resistance was observed since the early 1970s, mediated by bacterial expression of -lactamases and/or, to a lesser extent, modified penicillin-binding proteins. For example, one global surveillance study carried out from 1999 to 2000 found that 16.6% of all Hib strains worldwide were -lactamase positive, with large variation between countries.

Figure 3: Reduction of AMR after broad rollout of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

The impact of PCV7 on disease rates of S. pneumoniae strains not susceptible to penicillin in children under 5 years of age and the indirect positive effect on the elderly is shown comparing incidence in the time frame before PCV7 implementation to that in the time frame after vaccine implementation .

Acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Subunit Vaccines

How can vaccines help beat superbugs?

aP vaccines were the first bacterial protein subunit vaccines and they contain between 1 and 5 purified protein subunits. Despite their unambiguous success in preventing severe disease and deaths in infants and young children due to B. pertussis, improved aP vaccines are needed that provide longer protection, prevent low-grade infection and reduce transmission,. Natural pertussis infection does not convey life-long protection, and it is not yet certain if, or how, modified pertussis vaccines could achieve this goal. Adolescents originally primed with whole-cell pertussis vaccine demonstrate a longer duration of protection, probably linked to a Th1/Th17 priming response rather than the Th2-polarised or mixed Th1/Th2 responses induced by aluminium-adjuvanted aP vaccines. Paediatric whole-cell-primed adolescents also respond more strongly to aP boosters as compared to paediatric aP-primed adolescents. Natural infection induces the most durable immunity, possibly a result of imprinting of CD4+Th1 and Th17 cells that reside in the respiratory tract mucosal tissues.

So far, the other major immune-evasion factor, the highly conserved adenylate-cyclase haemolysin toxin, has not been used in aP vaccines despite evidence of immune-protection,. As yet the potential contribution that detoxified adenylate-cyclase could make to aP vaccine efficacy is still being explored.

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Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccines: In Silico Antigen Discovery And Subtractive Antibody

A polysaccharide-conjugate vaccine for MenB was ruled out due to poor immunogenicity of the MenB capsule and its similarity to human sialylated glycoproteins. MenB subunit vaccines were finally achieved using in silico antigen discovery and/or subtractive antibody-screening methods. Despite demonstrated efficacy, as yet the relative contribution of individual 4CMenB components to effectiveness is unclear. Careful long-term evaluation of effectiveness and breakthrough strains is needed to resolve questions around the mechanisms of 4CMenB and rLP2086 protection, and to optimise vaccine composition if indicated.

How Effective Is Vaccination

Vaccination is extremely effective with most childhood vaccines effective in 85% to 95% of children who receive them.1 It is considered one of our greatest global health achievements and is estimated to save 23 million lives a year.2 Thanks to vaccines, life-threatening diseases that used to be common in young children in the UK, such as diphtheria, whooping cough and polio, are now relatively rare. Looking at the history of vaccine-preventable disease, there is a huge drop in the number of cases of a disease following the introduction of a vaccine against it. If smallpox had not been eradicated, it would cause 5 million deaths worldwide a year!3 Through vaccination, some diseases have even been eradicated completely, for example smallpox.

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Vaccines Protect Us From Viruses And Infections

The year 2020 has been defined by a particle more than 3,000 times smaller than a dust mite: the Coronavirus. The stress induced by the current pandemic has fluctuated relentlessly, as individuals across the world have had to adapt to new and difficult circumstances. Now, finally, multiple vaccines for COVID-19 are going through all of the proper steps required by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration to prove their safety.

As early as 1000 A.D., vaccines have been safely used to eliminate or prevent diseases and infections. Modern medicine has only heightened the research, safety, and effectiveness of vaccines. For example, in the pre-vaccine era, measles resulted in more than 2.6 million deaths worldwide each year. Since the development of a vaccine, the annual deaths due to the measles is approximately 142,000 deaths worldwide, as of 2018. Thats a 73% decrease in deaths, thanks to vaccinations.

Consequences For Design Of Efficacy Studies

Why resistance is common in antibiotics, but rare in vaccines

One major factor complicating vaccine trials for nosocomial pathogens is that the patients affected are elderly individuals. They suffer of co-morbidities and are at risk for immune suppression through both medical intervention and immunosenescence. Their immune status is difficult to assess with current diagnostic methods but it predisposes for infections and antibiotic therapy. A study on A. baumannii pneumonia in aged mice illustrates that mortality increases with age, while efficacies of treatment, both antibiotics and vaccination, decrease because both rely on functional immune responses . Similarly, the human vaccine response is compromised by the immunodeficiencies caused by aging of the immune system .

The clinical development of vaccines for prevention of hospital-acquired infections is linked to a history of failures. Today, the major challenges are well-understood and variables such as immune deficiency due to aging of the immune system are being taken into account and reflected by new vaccine formulations . Nevertheless, it remains difficult for trial design to predict some known factors that seem out of control and hit rates are often lower than expected . As summarized in Table 1 the main enemy in trial design for this type of vaccines is time.

Table 1. Challenges in clinical trial design for vaccine development to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

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Vaccines Against Bacterial Diseases

  • Most vaccines against bacterial infections are effective at preventing disease
  • Reactions can occur after vaccinations
  • Vaccines are available against tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type B, cholera, typhoid, and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Tuberculosis

The vaccine for TB is the BCG vaccine . This vaccine is prepared from an organism closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis . The vaccine organism has been cultured and recultured in a laboratory numerous times to make it weaker . Unfortunately, the BCG vaccine does not confer great immunity against TB, but it does prevent some of the more dangerous forms , especially in children. This vaccination is part of the standard vaccine schedule in South Africa. It is recommended for all children, except those who are infected with HIV.

The following three vaccines are part of the national immunisation schedule, and should therefore be administered to all children. They are usually combined into one injection – DTP .

Diphtheria

The vaccine for diphtheria contains an inactivated form of the diphtheria toxin. This toxin is responsible for many of the clinical features of diphtheria. If youve been vaccinated, you could still be infected by the organism , but the toxin would be neutralised by your antibodies, and the typical features of diphtheria would not appear.

Tetanus

Pertussis

Haemophilus influenzae type B

Cholera

Typhoid

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Read more:Vaccines against viral diseases

Why Arent There Already More Bacterial Vaccines

There are lots of reasons why we only have a handful of vaccines for bacterial illnesses, such as:

  • Most bacteria are harmless, and even the ones that make us sick are usually easy to fight off if you are healthy. Many of the vaccines we have are for the very worst infections and are often given to people with weakened immune systems, such as children . For the rest of us, our bodies can protect us most of the time, and we usually have antibiotic medicines to help for any bad infections.
  • There can be many, many different types or strains of the same bacteria. These will often cause the same illness, but might require different vaccines, each of which might be expensive and difficult to produce.
  • There are also thousands of bacterial illnesses. If we did have a vaccine for all of them, that would be an awful lot of injections or medicines !
  • Bacteria often change, adapting to become resistant to new treatments as we know all too well. It can cost millions or billions of pounds to make and administer a new treatment, and with bacteria evolving so quickly that treatment may no longer work in as little as a years time.

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What Does The Cdc Say About Vaccines

Walenskys remarks contradict what the CDC says about vaccines.

In fact, the CDCs official website explains that vaccines are meant to prevent transmission of the disease or virus they protect against.

Vaccines contain the same germs that cause disease. But they have been either killed or weakened to the point that they dont make you sick. Some vaccines contain only a part of the disease germ.

A vaccine stimulates your immune system to produce antibodies, exactly like it would if you were exposed to the disease. After getting vaccinated, you develop immunity to that disease, without having to get the disease first. This is what makes vaccines such powerful medicine. Unlike most medicines, which treat or cure diseases, vaccines prevent them.

CDC Director Dr. Rochelle Walensky: Our data from the CDC today suggest that vaccinated people do not carry the virus.

The Recount

Vaccinations Are Essential If You Are To Avoid Getting Sick

How do vaccines help babies fight infections? (:15) | How Vaccines Work

Consult your health care provider regarding your immunization status. In general:

  • Children should receive the recommended childhood vaccinations.
  • Adults should make sure their vaccinations are up to date.
  • When traveling abroad, check with your health care provider about additional immunizations.
  • Make sure your pet’s vaccinations are up to date, too. In addition to protecting your pet, this will also protect you and your family.

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Can I Get A Vaccine While Im On Antibiotics

Yes, although you might want to wait a few days.

If youre taking antibiotics for an illness and youre scheduled to get a vaccine, you can still get it. But, if youve got some flexibility in your schedule, it might make sense to delay the vaccine a little bit. Thats because vaccines can trigger a fever, body aches, or chills, and thats probably not what you need if youre already feeling lousy.

Plus, theres a chance those vaccine side effects could make things confusing. If you get a fever from the vaccine while youre taking antibiotics, you might wonder whether the antibiotics are working. It could be hard to tell whether youre recovering from your illness the way you should.

That said, getting a vaccine while youre on antibiotics isnt dangerous. The vaccine will still do its job, and so will the antibiotics.

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