Can A Vaccine Help Prevent Hpv
Yes. Vaccines are available to help prevent infection by certain types of HPV and some of the cancers linked to those types. As of 2020, Gardasil 9 is the only HPV vaccine available in the United States. Other HPV vaccines are available outside the U.S.
All of these vaccines help prevent infection by HPV-16 and HPV-18. These 2 types cause most cervical cancers and pre-cancers, as well as many cancers of the anus, penis, vulva, vagina, and throat.
Gardasil 9 helps prevent infection by 4 types of HPV , plus 5 other high risk types: 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Together these types cause about 90% of cervical cancers.
Who Should Get Hpv Vaccine
HPV vaccination is recommended at ages 1112 years. HPV vaccines can be given starting at age 9 years. All preteens need HPV vaccination, so they are protected from HPV infections that can cause cancer later in life.
- Teens and young adults through age 26 years who didnt start or finish the HPV vaccine series also need HPV vaccination.
CDC recommends that 11- to 12-year-olds receive two doses of HPV vaccine 6 to 12 months apart.
- The first dose is routinely recommended at ages 1112 years old. The vaccination can be started at age 9 years.
- Only two doses are needed if the first dose was given before 15th birthday.
Teens and young adults who start the series later, at ages 15 through 26 years, need three doses of HPV vaccine.
- Children aged 9 through 14 years who have received two doses of HPV vaccine less than 5 months apart will need a third dose.
- Three doses are also recommended for people aged 9 through 26 years who have weakened immune systems.
Vaccination is not recommended for everyone older than age 26 years.
- Some adults age 27 through 45 years who are not already vaccinated may decide to get HPV vaccine after speaking with their doctor about their risk for new HPV infections and the possible benefits of vaccination for them.
- HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit, because more people in this age range have already been exposed to HPV.
When Should People Get It
Health authorities recommend people receive the vaccines at a young age. This is because getting them before a persons first sexual contact can offer lifelong protection against HPV-related cancers. Children can take it as early as age 9 years, but people typically receive the vaccine at 1112 years old.
Children younger than 15 years old only need to have
- dizziness or fainting
Sometimes, people can experience jerky movements or may faint after receiving their shot. So it is advisable for people to sit or lay down for about 15 minutes after receiving their shots to help prevent them from fainting or falling.
Rarely, people with severe allergies may have severe allergic reactions after receiving their shot. People should tell the healthcare professional of any severe allergies before receiving the vaccine.
Individuals and caregivers of children can inquire about the HPV vaccine from their healthcare professional, community and school health clinics, health centers, and health departments.
Individuals can also check the CDCs
- Arana, J. E., et al. . Post-licensure safety monitoring of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System , 2009-2015 .
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How Effective Is The Hpv Vaccine In Preventing Hpv
When doses are given at the recommended ages and at the appropriate intervals, it has been shown to prevent 90% of cancer-causing HPV. Research has also shown that fewer teens and young adults are getting genital warts. The number of cervical precancers are decreasing since HPV vaccines have been in use.
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Should Males Get The Hpv Vaccine
HPV is the ‘common cold’ of being sexually active. This means that the virus doesn’t care who we are or who we choose to have sex with. Most of us will be sharing HPV with our fellow human beings.
Males carry an equal risk of acquiring HPV.
Males are at risk of HPV anal, penile and throat cancers. The HPV vaccine can offer much needed protection against these strains of HPV.
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How Can I Prevent Warts
Theres really no way to prevent warts. However, you can lower your risk of picking up the virus or stop warts from spreading by taking these steps:
- Avoid shaving over a wart.
- Break the habit of biting your nails or picking at cuticles.
- Dont share towels, washcloths, clothing, nail clippers, razors or other personal items.
- Dont touch another persons wart.
- Get the HPV vaccine and use condoms to prevent genital warts.
- Keep your feet dry to prevent the spread of plantar warts.
- Try not to scratch, cut or pick at a wart.
- Wear flip-flops or shoes when using a public locker room, pool area or showers.
Should My Child Have The Hpv Vaccine
People think that the vaccine is not required because children are not sexually active, but there are very good reasons for the vaccine to be given at an early age.
All vaccines need to be given prior to exposure of the infection that you are trying to protect against.
The best immune response to a vaccine is before around the age of 12 years. This means that vaccines work best at an early age and will provide the most enduring protection.
The HPV vaccine has been tested in children down to 9 years of age. The clinical trials included girls and boys aged from 9 years of age, who were tested for their immune response to the vaccine and followed up for safety. The group who received the vaccine in early adolescence has now been followed as young adults, with no development of the HPV infections covered by the vaccine.
Males are now included in the HPV vaccination programmes because research shows that HPV infection is shared during sexual activity and males are at risk of HPV anal, penile and throat cancers. It is highly recommended that parents consider getting the HPV vaccination for their boys.
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How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given
The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.
If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.
But if you get your 1st vaccine dose at the age of 15 or over, you’ll need to have 3 injections.
Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will need 3 doses of the vaccine .
If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:
- the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
- the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose
It’s important to have all 3 vaccine doses to be properly protected.
What Are The Types Of Warts
Wart types vary depending on the affected body part. Types include:
- Hands: These warts are called common warts because they are the most common type.
- Face: Flat warts affect the face and forehead.
- Feet:Plantar warts appear on the soles of the feet. These warts look like with tiny black dots in the center. They are often painful and form in clusters.
- Genitals: Warts that form on the penis, vagina or rectum are called genital warts. These warts are a type of sexually transmitted infection. You get genital warts through sexual contact with an infected person.
- Periungual and subungual: These warts form under or around fingernails and toenails.
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How Has The Hpv Vaccination Programme Changed
In July 2018, it was announced that the HPV vaccine would be extended to boys aged 12 to 13 years in England.
This decision was based on advice from the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation , the independent body that advises UK health departments on immunisation.
Since the 2019 to 2020 school year, both 12- to 13-year-old boys and girls in school Year 8 have been eligible for the HPV vaccine.
The HPV vaccination programme has been extended to prevent more boys and girls getting HPV-related cancers, such as head and neck cancers and anal and genital cancers.
A catch-up programme for older boys is not necessary as evidence suggests they’re already benefiting greatly from the indirect protection that’s built up from 10 years of the girls’ HPV vaccination programme.
Hpv Shot Prevents Genital Warts In Boys And Men
Study Adds to Debate Over Vaccination of Males for Prevention of HPV Infection
Feb. 2, 2011 — The human papillomavirus vaccine can help stave off genital warts in boys and men, according to a new study in the Feb. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Of 4,065 boys and men aged 16 to 26 from 18 countries, vaccination with an HPV vaccine that targets four types of HPV infection — HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, and HPV-18 — protects against infection with these types of HPV and potentially the development of related external genital warts or lesions.
HPV, a sexually transmitted disease, can be transmitted through vaginal, anal, and oral sex and has been linked to genital warts as well as cervical, vaginal, vulvar, oral, penile, and anal cancers.
Two HPV vaccines are now approved by the FDA: Cervarix and Gardasil. Both of these vaccines are recommended to prevent cervical cancers. These vaccines are now on the CDCâs routine childhood vaccine schedule for girls starting at age 9.
The Gardasil vaccine has also received FDA approval for prevention of genital warts. The vaccine is recommended for optional use in boys and men. The vaccine is used in girls and boys and young adults ages 9 to 26 for prevention of genital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11.
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Do I Need To Go To Cervical Screening If Ive Had My Hpv Vaccination
Yes, you should still consider going to cervical screening if youve had the HPV vaccine. The HPV vaccine doesnt protect against all types of HPV. And cervical screening is another effective way to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.
Cervical screening is for people without symptoms and helps to spot early cell changes caused by HPV. This means any abnormal cells can be removed before they have a chance to become cancer.
But dont wait for your next screening appointment if youve noticed anything thats unusual for you or wont go away. If somethings not normal for you speak to your doctor.
Cervical screening is for women aged between 25 and 64, and anyone else within this age range who has a cervix. This can include transgender men and people who are non-binary.
Hpv Vaccine For Males
The new study does not address cancer risk in boys and men, he says. âThese data provide evidence that the vaccine can be efficacious in males, and adds to the list of reasons to consider vaccinating boys and men,â he says. âIn theory, this could cut down on cancers, but it hasnât yet been proven.â
The big debate now is whether or not universal vaccination of young men should be encouraged, he says.
âHPV is a sexually transmitted infection, and the burden of vaccination should not fall solely on girls and women. HPV causes disease in men too,â he says.
In addition, men who have sex with men are at increased risk for genital warts and anal cancer and likely would not benefit from female vaccination, he says.
Casting a wide net that vaccinates all boys aged 9-26 would cover such high-risk groups, he says.
So why not do it?
âThe main disadvantage is cost, because thus far the vaccine appears to be safe,â he says. âItâs less cost-effective because most of the serious diseases such as cervical cancer occur in women, not men.â
âTheoretically, if you vaccinated all women, you wouldn’t need to vaccinate men except for men who have sex with other men,â he says. Not every female who is eligible for the vaccine has received it, and many females — and their current or future sexual partners — remain unprotected.
With universal vaccination, this issue goes away, she says. âYou wouldnât have to think about it and you prevent HPV in everyone.â
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When Should Vaccination Occur
Vaccination is most effective when given prior to HPV infection i.e. before becoming sexually active. For people who are already sexually active, the vaccine may still be of benefit. This is because there are many strains of HPV. The vaccine can still protect us against those strains that we haven’t yet been exposed to.
Can I Have The Vaccine When Pregnant
If you know that you are pregnant then delay starting getting the vaccine until after pregnancy.
If you have already had one or two doses, and then discover that you are pregnant, then wait until after pregnancy until receiving the subsequent dose/s.
If you had your vaccination and didn’t realise that you were pregnant at the time, don’t worry, the vaccine is safe. In the clinical trials, there were many pregnancies that occurred in the trial participants and there were no adverse effects to fertility, pregnancy, or baby.
Women may safely breastfeed if they receive the vaccine during that period.
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When A Dermatologist Can Help
While you can often clear a wart at home, some warts can be stubborn. If the person has a weakened immune system, it can be difficult to get rid of warts. Sometimes, what looks like a wart turns out to be a callus or another type of growth.
A board-certified dermatologist can help by:
Making sure that you or a family member has warts
Treating stubborn warts
Sometimes, warts can be stubborn, so they dont clear with treatment that you can buy without a prescription. A dermatologist can create an effective treatment plan.
Musicians who play an instrument with their lips can develop a lump on their upper lip called a trumpeters wart. This is actually a callus thats best left alone.
Related AAD resources
ImagesImage 1: Getty imagesImage 2: Image used with permission of Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology: JAAD Case Rep. 2018 14 4:772-3.
ReferencesCenters for Disease Control. HPV Vaccines: Vaccinating your teen or preteen. Page last reviewed August 23, 2018. Page last accessed December 17, 2018.
Kirnbauer R, Lenz P, et al. Human papillomavirus. In: Bolognia JL, et al. Dermatology. . Mosby Elsevier, Spain, 2008:1183.
Kunin, A. Warts. In: The DERMAdoctor Skinstruction Manual. Simon & Schuster. United States, 2005:292-7.
Milgraum S, Gold E, et al. The musicians mark. JAAD Case Rep. 2018 14 4:772-3.
Tasti A, Piraccini BM. Nail disorders. In: Bolognia JL, et al. Dermatology. . Mosby Elsevier, Spain, 2008:1030.
Are There Any Adults Who Should Not Receive The Hpv Vaccine
Certain people should not get the HPV vaccine or should wait before getting it:
- Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose of the HPV vaccine
- Anyone who has had a previous life-threatening allergic reaction to an ingredient in the HPV vaccine
- Pregnant women
- Anyone with a moderate or severe illness people who feel mildly ill may still receive the HPV vaccine.
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Hpv Vaccine Information For Young Women
CDC recommends HPV vaccination at age 11 or 12 years and for everyone through age 26 years, if not vaccinated already. For more information on the updated recommendations, see Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Adults: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.
A vaccines is available to prevent the human papillomavirus types that cause most cervical cancers as well as some cancers of the anus, vulva , vagina, and oropharynx . The vaccine also prevents HPV types that cause most genital warts.
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