Tuesday, June 6, 2023

How Do Vaccines Work To Protect The Body From Disease

When Were Vaccines Developed

How do vaccines work?

Vaccines are not new immunisation techniques were pioneered over 200 years ago, when smallpox was a feared and deadly disease. An eighteenth-century doctor named Edward Jenner noted that workers on farms who contracted the mild cowpox disease were immune to smallpox. Jenner guessed that the germ responsible for cowpox was similar enough to the smallpox germ to train the immune system to defeat both diseases. He was correct. Immunisation in Australia today relies on similar principles.

When Should You Get Vaccinated

The National Immunisation Schedule has a list of free vaccinations for different ages. Vaccinating on time gives the best protection. Missing or late vaccinations can put your family/whnaus health at risk.

Most vaccines are given to babies and children to build up their immunity. Vaccination starts at 6 weeks old. Other vaccines are recommended for people who are at greater risk of certain diseases, such as people with a weakened immune system because of illness or the medicines they are taking, the elderly or people who are travelling overseas where certain diseases are more common.

How Long Does It Take For A Vaccine To Work

When we receive a vaccine, our immune system gets to work immediately to create antibodies and memory cells to fight the infection. On average, an immune response will take around 7-21 days.

However, the duration of immunity can depend on a number of factors, such as the nature of vaccine, the timing of dosages, our age, and whether we have had an infection naturally.

To be protected from vaccine-preventable diseases, make sure to stick to the recommended schedules and keep your immunisations up to date.

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What Happens When The Vaccine Enters Your Body

Once a COVID-19 vaccine is injected, the mRNA or DNA gets swallowed up by tissue cells and special immune cells that live in muscles, skin and organs called dendritic cells. Dendritic cells keep watch over all parts of the body like sentinels, searching for signs of invading germs like the coronavirus.

As soon as the DNA or mRNA is inside the dendritic or tissue cells, the cells use the instructions to create spike proteins. This process usually takes less than 12 hours. After the spike proteins are made and ready to show to the immune system, the mRNA or DNA is broken down by the cell and eliminated.

Its important to know that even though your cells have made their own spike proteins, they dont have enough information to make copies of the full virus. But the spike proteins can trigger the bodys immune system to amp up its defense so it is ready if the whole coronavirus invades.

When the tissue cells and dendritic cells recognize the spike proteins as unwelcome visitors, the cells place sections of the spike proteins on their exterior for other cells to see. The dendritic cells also release danger signals at the same time to let other cells know that the spike protein presents a threat. The danger signals are like flashing neon yellow signs pointing to the displayed spike protein piece saying, This does not belong!

These warning signals then fire up your bodys immune response.

How Our Bodies Fight Infection

What is measles and why do we vaccinate against it ...

There is much uncertainty, even fear, surrounding vaccinations. Most of the apprehension about vaccines comes from a lack of knowledge or understanding of how vaccinations help the body protect itself.

Our bodies are made up of trillions of cells, each with a purpose. While still working on the total, scientists estimate the number of cells at around 30 trillion, said Lori Grooms, director of Infection Prevention and Control at OSF HealthCare. When a bacteria or virus invades the body, the intruder begins to multiply and attack or mimic our cells, infecting us and causing us to become ill.

Our immune system has several ways to fight the intruders. While our blood carries oxygen to tissues and organs, it also contains white blood cells, or immune cells, that fight infection.

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Vaccines Protect Us From Viruses And Infections

The year 2020 has been defined by a particle more than 3,000 times smaller than a dust mite: the Coronavirus. The stress induced by the current pandemic has fluctuated relentlessly, as individuals across the world have had to adapt to new and difficult circumstances. Now, finally, multiple vaccines for COVID-19 are going through all of the proper steps required by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration to prove their safety.

As early as 1000 A.D., vaccines have been safely used to eliminate or prevent diseases and infections. Modern medicine has only heightened the research, safety, and effectiveness of vaccines. For example, in the pre-vaccine era, measles resulted in more than 2.6 million deaths worldwide each year. Since the development of a vaccine, the annual deaths due to the measles is approximately 142,000 deaths worldwide, as of 2018. Thats a 73% decrease in deaths, thanks to vaccinations.

Malaria Responsible For Over 400000 Deaths Every Year

Malaria mainly kills babies and infants. According to WHO, a child dies from malaria every two minutes. There are 229 million cases of malaria every year, and 94 per cent come from Africa alone. The disease is also responsible for the death of more than 4,00,000 people every year, WHO data further revealed.

WHO’s 2019 figures further said that more than half of deaths because of malaria globally came from six sub-Saharan African countries, with almost 25 per cent of them coming from Nigeria alone.

Over 2,60,000 children had died from the disease in 2019, reported the BBC, with children under the age of five accounting for 67% of all malaria deaths worldwide.

According to WHO, India had an estimated 5.6 million malaria cases in 2019 compared to about 20 million cases in 2020, reported The Indian Express.

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Pfizers Vaccine Protection May Wane After 2 Months

Oct. 8, 2021 — The protection from Pfizerâs COVID-19 vaccine may begin to wane against infection after 2 months, but it still prevents hospitalization and death for at least 6 months, according to two new studies published Wednesday in TheNew England Journal of Medicine.

The new findings support what Pfizer, the CDC, and top health officials have said in recent weeks: Initial protection against getting the coronavirus itself may drop over time, but people who get the vaccine avoid the worst effects of severe disease.

In the first study, researchers in Qatar estimated vaccine efficacy against COVID-19 infection and severe, critical, or fatal cases between Jan. 1 and Sept. 5. They based the report on infections among 900,000 vaccinated people in Qatar.

After the first Pfizer dose, protection against infection was ânegligibleâ for the first 2 weeks but jumped to about 37% in the third week. Protection then reached a peak of about 78% in the first month after the second dose.

Efficacy fell gradually after that, with the decline speeding up after the fourth month. For some people who got the vaccine, protection dropped as low as 20% between 5 and 7 months after the second dose.

âThese findings suggest that a large proportion of the vaccinated population could lose its protection against infection in the coming months, perhaps increasing the potential for new epidemic waves,â the researchers wrote.

How Effective Is Vaccination

How Do Vaccines Work To Protect Us? WHO Expert Answers

Vaccination is extremely effective with most childhood vaccines effective in 85% to 95% of children who receive them.1 It is considered one of our greatest global health achievements and is estimated to save 23 million lives a year.2 Thanks to vaccines, life-threatening diseases that used to be common in young children in the UK, such as diphtheria, whooping cough and polio, are now relatively rare. Looking at the history of vaccine-preventable disease, there is a huge drop in the number of cases of a disease following the introduction of a vaccine against it. If smallpox had not been eradicated, it would cause 5 million deaths worldwide a year!3 Through vaccination, some diseases have even been eradicated completely, for example smallpox.

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How Vaccinations Help Our Bodies Fight Infection

Vaccinations work by imitating a bacteria or virus. While vaccines traditionally use a dead or weakened version of the virus, theres also a new type of vaccine that uses messenger RNA . This new way of developing a vaccine was used to create COVID-19 vaccines. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines give instructions for our cells to make a harmless piece of what is called the spike protein of the coronavirus. The spike protein is found on the surface of the virus that causes COVID-19.

Once the instructions are inside the immune cells, the cells use them to make the protein piece. After the protein piece is made, the cell breaks down the instructions and gets rid of them.

Next, the cell displays the protein piece on its surface. Our immune systems recognize that the protein doesnt belong there and begin building an immune response and making antibodies, like what happens in natural infection against COVID-19.

As is the case in traditional vaccines, our immune system pre-catalogs the invader and is more prepared to attack it should we become infected for real. The imitation infection caused by a vaccine may cause minor symptoms, such as fever. You should expect these minor symptoms as your body builds immunity.

Why Do Most Vaccines Require More Than One Dose

Some vaccines, particularly live attenuated virus vaccines, are efficient in generating a protective immune response because they turn on the immune system in a way that mimics natural infection. In these cases, one dose of a live virus vaccine is generally protective for most people. Inactivated or protein vaccines are not quite as efficient, so these vaccines require more than one dose to achieve complete protection. The additional vaccine doses, often called boosters, help boost the immune response. The first dose is called a priming dose: Because it is the first time a person experiences the antigen, it is the first time the body starts to make the memory cells. The subsequent doses increase the number of memory cells and also help the body maintain circulating antibodies.

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The Body’s Natural Response

A pathogen is a bacterium, virus, parasite or fungus that can cause disease within the body. Each pathogen is made up of several subparts, usually unique to that specific pathogen and the disease it causes. The subpart of a pathogen that causes the formation of antibodies is called an antigen. The antibodies produced in response to the pathogens antigen are an important part of the immune system. You can consider antibodies as the soldiers in your bodys defense system. Each antibody, or soldier, in our system is trained to recognize one specific antigen. We have thousands of different antibodies in our bodies. When the human body is exposed to an antigen for the first time, it takes time for the immune system to respond and produce antibodies specific to that antigen.

In the meantime, the person is susceptible to becoming ill.

This means that if the person is exposed to the dangerous pathogen in the future, their immune system will be able to respond immediately, protecting against disease.

Why Was Thimerosal Removed From Vaccines In 2001


Wakefield et al.s article prompted a public outcry about thimerosals possible ties to autism, including demands for the p. 14removal of thimerosal from vaccines due to the concern for potential toxicity. Although there was no evidence of any adverse effects or mercury toxicity related to vaccination, the decision was made to remove thimerosal from all vaccines so that vaccination would not contribute to any exposure and, one could reasonably assume, to assuage any concerns and prevent vaccine acceptance from suffering. Today, thimerosal is used only in the multidose influenza vaccine in the United States. Because of the excellent preservative properties and lack of evidence of adverse effects, the World Health Organization continues to recommend thimerosal for use in multi-use vials in developing countries.

The bottom line is that using preservatives, stabilizers, and adjuvants allows us to use vaccines safely and effectively. Even if adjuvants such as aluminum were removed from vaccines, it would not decrease individuals exposure to these substances in any significant way it would, however, decrease vaccine effectiveness and safety.

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What Is A Vaccine And How Do Vaccines Work

A vaccine is a type of medicine that trains the bodys immune system so that it can fight a disease it has not come into contact with before. Vaccines are designed to prevent disease, rather than treat a disease once you have caught it.

To understand how vaccines work, it helps to look first at how the immune system works, because vaccines harness the natural activity of your immune system. This short animation explains how vaccines enable the body to make the right sort of antibodies to fight a particular disease..

How Vaccines Protect You

Most vaccines wont prevent you from becoming infected with a certain pathogen. Rather, they allow your body to stop the infection before you get sick, or they prevent you from becoming seriously sick when you get infected.

For example, the flu shot reduces your risk of getting the flu by 40% to 60%, according to the CDC. That might not seem like a lot, but studies also estimate that getting the flu vaccine makes you 82% less likely to be admitted to an intensive care unit with flu-related illness than someone who isnt vaccinated.

This helps you, and it also helps those around you, including people in your community who cant be vaccinated because of serious allergies or a medical condition that weakens their immune system. Pathogens can spread quickly from person to person. When a large number of people in a community are vaccinated, the pathogen cant spread as easily.

If that number gets high enough, well have whats called herd immunity, where there arent enough people in a community who can spread it in a significant way, Dr. Culver says.

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About Author: David Pruitt

David Pruitt is a writer for the Marketing & Communications division of OSF HealthCare. He has a bachelors of journalism from Southern Illinois University Edwardsville and worked as a reporter before joining OSF HealthCare in 2014. An avid golfer and fisherman, David was born and raised Alton, Illinois, which is where he currently resides with his son, James.

How Does The Immune System Work

How do vaccines help babies fight infections? | How Vaccines Work

Your immune system is always on patrol in your body. When it comes across an invading germ, it attacks that germ. This is called an immune response.

Heres how an immune response works:

  • Your immune system sounds the alarm so your body knows theres an infection.
  • It begins releasing antibodies to fight the germ think of antibodies as soldiers designed to fight off the specific germ you have. This process can take a few days.
  • The antibodies work to attack, weaken, and destroy the germ.
  • Afterwards, your immune system remembers the germ. If the germ invades again, your body can recognize it and quickly send out the right antibodies so you dont get sick!
  • This protection against a certain disease is called immunity. In many cases, immunity lasts your whole life.

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How Do Vaccines Work Exactly

Caitilin Kelly, MD, is board-certified in internal medicine. She is clinical physician practicing at Indiana University Health Bloomington Hospital and the chair of the American College of Physicians’ Hospital Ethics committee. She is a delegate for the Indiana State Medical Association House of Delegates.

Credited for eliminating once-dreaded infectious diseases like smallpox, diphtheria, and polio, vaccines are heralded as one of the greatest public health achievements in modern history.

Vaccines train your immune system to recognize and fight specific disease-causing organisms known as pathogens, which include viruses and bacteria. They then leave behind memory cells that can instigate a defense should the pathogen return.

What Happens When The Immune System Is Confronted By An Antigen

When ones body encounters an antigen , it sparks a cascade of events that constitute an immune response. This response requires communication between several different types of cells and ends in the creation of memory cells that are equipped to respond to future invasions by the same antigen. When antigens are introduced as part of a vaccine, the steps essentially are as follows:

p. 3Antigen is picked up by an antigen-presenting cell that shows the antigen to a type of immune cell called a helper T cell.

Helper T cells activate B cells or killer T cells .

The activated B cells and killer T cells become memory immune cells that will reactivate during actual infection and keep the pathogen from invading.

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How Your Body Fights Off Covid

When Covid-19 enters the body, it attaches to our cells, hijacks them, and then creates copies of itself to invade even more cells. Our immune system kicks in to try and stop this, sending out its frontline defence the innate immune response to deal with the intruder.

This is the default response to any virus entering the body. As part of this initial response, inflammatory proteins called interferons are released, which have antiviral functions. The aim is to stop the virus in its tracks though we dont actually know how well this first response works in fending off infection.

While the innate immune system is trying to fight off the virus, it also talks to the more specific adaptive immune response. This is your bodys tailor-made solution for dealing with Covid-19, and involves the release of B-cells, which produce antibodies, as well as T-cells, which kill infected cells.

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