Vaccination Of Specific Populations
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
HPV vaccines are not recommended for use in pregnancy because data on HPV vaccination in pregnancy are limited. HPV vaccine, however, has not been causally associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy or adverse events to the developing fetus. In the absence of data, it is recommended that initiation of the HPV vaccine series should be delayed until after completion of the pregnancy. If a woman is found to be pregnant after initiating the vaccination series, completion of the series should be delayed until after pregnancy. No intervention is required if vaccine has been administered during pregnancy.
Vaccine recipients and health care providers are encouraged to report any exposure to HPV4 or HPV9 vaccine during pregnancy to the vaccine manufacturer at 1-800-567-2594. Exposure to HPV2 vaccine during pregnancy should be reported to the vaccine manufacturer at 1-800-387-7374.
There are limited data on the effects on breastfed infants from HPV vaccination of their mothers however, there have been no reported adverse events thought to be vaccine-related. Therefore, HPV vaccine may be administered to breastfeeding women.
Refer to Immunization in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Refer to Immunization of Immunocompromised Persons in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are immunocompromised.
New Restrictions In Ireland Cant Be Ruled Out As Six Cases Are Confirmed
The Taoiseach said new restrictions in the near future could not be ruled out, but insisted that vaccinations offered significant protection against the new Covid variant.
A total of six cases of the new omicron variant have now been confirmed in Ireland, the countrys Department of Health has said.
Speaking on Thursday evening Micheal Martin said that the country was in a very different position to last Christmas due to the high level of vaccine uptake.
As of now, were not contemplating any additional restrictions, Mr Martin said.
He added: I can never rule out anything in respect of the pandemic because it has had the capacity to throw up new developments.
Dominic McGrath has more:
Another five cases of the Omicron variant were confirmed in Ireland on Thursday.
When To Get The Vaccine
The Gardasil 9 vaccine is FDA-approved for use in people ages 9 through 45 years old. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the Gardasil 9 vaccine for children ages 11 or 12 years old. This helps makes sure the person is protected from HPV before becoming sexually active. However, the CDC states that some people may benefit from the vaccine from the ages of 9 through 26 years old.
If youre 26 to 45 years old, Gardasil may still be recommended. This depends on whether youve gotten the vaccine before and your risk factors, such as engaging in unprotected sex .
Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about getting the Gardasil 9 vaccine if youre 26 to 45 years old. They can help you decide if the vaccine is right for you.
Gardasil 9 is currently not recommended for use in adults over the age of 45 years old.
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When Could We Know If A Covid Vaccine Booster Protects Against The Omicron Variant
While it could be two or three weeks until we know more about how easily omicron can pass from person to person, and how resistant the COVID variant is against the current crop of vaccines, Dr. Rochelle Walensky, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said in a White House briefing on Tuesday that vaccines work and she anticipates they “will at least in part provide some protection against omicron.”
In the same briefing, Dr. Anthony Fauci said scientists are right now examining whether vaccine-induced antibodies lose some of their effectiveness with the omicron variant. Fauci, who is the chief medical advisor to the president, said they could know more as soon as the end of next week.
South Korea Posts Over 7000 Covid Cases For The Third Day
South Korea has reported more than 7,000 Covid cases again for the third consecutive day after the country touched a record number of cases earlier this week.
The country reported 7,022 cases in the last 24 hours in a record breaking surge that has increased pressure on its hospitals as most of its cases are centred around national capital Seoul.
Prime minister Kim Boo-kyum said during a meeting that the country could be forced to take “extraordinary” measures if the virus doesnt slow soon. Officials issued administrative orders requiring hospitals around the country to designate 2,000 more beds combined for Covid treatment.
Mr Kim said the government will also speed up the administration of booster shots by shortening the interval between the second and third vaccine doses to three months from the current four or five months starting next week.
The Korean government earlier decided to not impose lockdown restrictions under its policy of living with Covid. However, this weeks increase in numbers is threatening the countrys goals to weather the pandemic.
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Different Types Of Hpv Vaccine:
There are various forms of the HPV vaccine that protect against different HPV strains:
- Quadrivalent vaccine : Protects again 4 types of HPV HPV 16 and 18, which together cause around 7 in 10 cervical cancer cases in the UK, and HPV 6 and 11, which cause most genital warts. This is the vaccine available in the UK to all children aged 11 to 13 and was the vaccine used in this study.
- Bivalent vaccine : Protects against HPV 16 and 18, has the equivalent cancer-prevent properties as the quadrivalent vaccine.
- Nonavalent vaccine: : Protects against 9 types of HPV, including types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58, as well as the HPV types mentioned above.
Since 2008, girls aged 11 to 13 in the UK have been offered the vaccine and since September 2019, boys of the same age can also get it. Anyone who missed their vaccine can request it through the NHS up to the age of 25.
Professor Peter Sasieni, lead author from Kings College London, says: Its been incredible to see the impact of HPV vaccination, and now we can prove it prevented hundreds of women from developing cancer in England. Weve known for many years that HPV vaccination is very effective in preventing particular strains of the virus, but to see the real-life impact of the vaccine has been truly rewarding.
The virus is also linked to other cancers, including vaginal, vulval, anal, penile and some head and neck cancers.
How Gardasil 9 Is Given
You should get Gardasil 9 according to your doctor or healthcare providers instructions.
The Gardasil 9 vaccine is given by your doctor or pharmacist as either a two-shot or three-shot series. Whether you get two or three shots depends on your age, the time between each vaccination, and your doctors recommendation. The vaccine is given as a shot that goes into your muscle, usually in your upper arm.
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Is Moderna Making An Omicron Booster Shot
Scientists worry the omicron variant could spread more quickly than the now-dominant delta variant because of the number of mutations the new strain has compared with delta. Moderna is currently working on an omicron-specific booster vaccine, along with testing a COVID-19 vaccine that could protect against several mutated strains of the coronavirus.
Like every other vaccine-maker around the world, Moderna is testing the effectiveness of its COVID-19 vaccine against omicron, but it may be weeks before lab tests show concrete evidence of how well Moderna protects people from the new variant.
As part of its booster testing, Moderna is also investigating whether a 100-microgram dose of its booster provides better protection against the omicron variant — in other words, a third dose rather than a half dose as the booster is currently formulated now.
If Moderna needs to make a new vaccine modified for the variant, it could be available early in 2022.
Before Taking This Medicine
To make sure Gardasil 9 vaccine is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have ever had:
an allergy to yeast, polysorbate 80, or to other vaccines
a weak immune system or
treatment with cancer medicine, steroids, or other drugs that can weaken your immune system.
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. If you get pregnant before you receive all needed doses of this vaccine, you may need to wait until after your baby is born to finish the series of shots.
If you are pregnant, your name may be listed on a pregnancy registry to track the effects of human papillomavirus vaccine on the baby.
It may not be safe to breastfeed while using human papillomavirus vaccine. Ask your doctor about any risk.
What Are Hpv Vaccines
HPV vaccines protect against infection with human papillomaviruses . HPV is a group of more than 200 related viruses, of which more than 40 are spread through direct sexual contact. Among these, two HPV types cause genital warts, and about a dozen HPV types can cause certain types of cancercervical, anal, oropharyngeal, penile, vulvar, and vaginal.
Three vaccines that prevent infection with disease-causing HPV have been licensed in the United States: Gardasil, Gardasil 9, and Cervarix. Gardasil 9 has, since 2016, been the only HPV vaccine used in the United States. It prevents infection with the following nine HPV types:
- HPV types 6 and 11, which cause 90% of genital warts
- HPV types 16 and 18, two high-risk HPVs that cause about 70% of cervical cancers and an even higher percentage of some of the other HPV-caused cancers
- HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, high-risk HPVs that account for an additional 10% to 20% of cervical cancers
Cervarix prevents infection with types 16 and 18, and Gardasil prevents infection with types 6, 11, 16, and 18. Both vaccines are still used in some other countries.
What Is In The Vaccine
The HPV vaccine used in the New Zealand Immunisation Programme from 2017 is Gardasil® 9. The vaccine contains HPV virus-like particles of HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. These particles are proteins from the outer shell of the virus. The VLPs do not contain DNA fragments in a form that could allow them to infect cells or reproduce. The particles mimic the HPV virus so that the immune system makes antibodies against it. These recombinant types of vaccine have been used around the world for over 20 years.
Each 0.5ml dose of the vaccine also contains a small amount of aluminium, which stimulates the immune response. Aluminium has been safely and effectively used in vaccines for more than 70 years. The vaccine also contains tiny amounts of sodium chloride , L-histidine , Polysorbate 80, sodium borate and sterile water.
The vaccine does not contain preservatives, antibiotics or any human or animal materials.
The Medsafe website has further information about Gardasil 9:
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Is The Moderna Covid
All booster shots will be free, regardless of immigration or health insurance status. However, depending on where you get your booster shot — for example, at a local pharmacy — you may be asked to log your insurance status. You may be asked to provide your insurance card information, including your name, date of birth and membership number. You will not be charged for your COVID-19 vaccine or booster shot.
How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given
The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.
If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.
But if you get your 1st vaccine dose at the age of 15 or over, you’ll need to have 3 injections.
Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will need 3 doses of the vaccine .
If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:
- the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
- the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose
It’s important to have all 3 vaccine doses to be properly protected.
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Hpv Vaccines For Adults Over Age 26 May Not Be Cost
For immediate release: Thursday, March 11, 2021
Boston, MA Vaccinating adults age 26 and older against the human papillomavirus the virus that causes more than 90% of cervicalcancers as well as several other cancersmay not be cost-effective, according to a new study led by researchers at the Harvard T.H. School of Public Health.
Our study found that the added health benefit of increasing the vaccination age limit beyond 26 years is minimal, and that the cost-effectiveness is much lower than in pre-adolescents, the target age group for the HPV vaccine, said , K.T. Li Professor of Health Economics and lead author of the study.
HPV vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing HPV infections that are associated with cervical, anal, oropharyngeal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancers, as well as genital warts. Current U.S. guidelines recommend HPV vaccination for girls and boys at age 11 or 12, and catch-up vaccination for people through age 26 if they were not vaccinated when younger. For adults beyond age 26, the guidelines dont specifically recommend catch-up vaccination but suggest that, for people aged 27-45, clinicians and patients make decisions about HPV vaccination on an individual basis.
Other Harvard Chan School co-authors of the study included Emily Burger, Stephen Sy, and Catherine Regan.
Funding for the study came from the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health .
A Brief History Of Hpv Vaccines
Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines work by introducing a substance into the body that triggers an immune response in the form of antibodies. Antibodies are defensive proteins that are produced in response to the specific disease-causing organism. As such, they are “programmed” to recognize that organism and prevent it from establishing an infection.
All HPV vaccines are recombinant vaccines, meaning they work by inserting the DNA coding from HPV into cells, providing them the instructions on how to produce HPV-specific antibodies. They differ from live attenuated vaccines that use live, weakened viruses to trigger the immune response, as well as inactivated vaccines that use killed viruses to do the same.
Over the years, there have been several HPV vaccines approved for use in the United States:
- Gardasil,also known as Gardasil-4 or quadrivalent human papillomavirus recombinant vaccine, was approved for use in 2006. It protects against two high-risk HPV types and two low-risk types .
- Cervarix, also known as human papillomavirus bivalent vaccine recombinant, was approved in 2009. It protects against two high-risk HPV types .
- Gardasil-9, also known as human papillomavirus 9-valent recombinant vaccine, was approved in 2014. It protects against two low-risk HPV types and seven high-risk types .
Gardasil-9 is highly effective in preventing infection from certain types of high-risk and low-risk HPV strains.
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Gardasil 9 And Breastfeeding
Not enough studies have been done to determine if Gardasil 9 is safe to receive while breastfeeding. Its not known if Gardasil 9 can pass into breast milk. There is no animal data to determine if Gardasil 9 can pass into breast milk or harm a breastfeeding child.
If you are breastfeeding, talk to your doctor or pharmacist about the best time to get your Gardasil 9 vaccine.
Here are answers to some frequently asked questions about Gardasil 9.
Vaccine Protection And Variants
When cases increase and transmission accelerates, its more likely that new dangerous and more transmissible variants emerge, which can spread more easily or cause more severe illness.
Based on what we know so far, vaccines are proving effective against existing variants, especially at preventing severe disease, hospitalization and death. However, some variants are having a slight impact on the ability of vaccines to guard against mild disease and infection.
Vaccines are likely staying effective against variants because of the broad immune response they cause, which means that virus changes or mutations are unlikely to make vaccines completely ineffective.
WHO continues to constantly review the evidence and will update its guidance as we find out more. For the latest updates on what we know about the COVID-19 variants, read our latest weekly epidemiological updates and our explainer on the effects of virus variants on COVID-19 vaccines.
One of the best ways of guarding against new variants is to continue applying tried-and-tested public health measures and rolling out vaccines. All COVID-19 vaccines approved for emergency use listing by WHO have been thoroughly tested and proven to provide a high degree of protection against serious illness and death. As stronger virus variants emerge, its important to take your vaccine when its your turn.
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How Does The Hpv Vaccine Work
Gardasil has been the HPV vaccine used in the NHS vaccination programme since 2012.
Sometime during the 2021 to 2022 academic year, the HPV vaccine used in the NHS programme will switch to Gardasil 9.
Gardasil 9 protects against 9 types of HPV: 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Between them, types 16 and 18 are the cause of most cervical cancers in the UK . Types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 cause an additional 15% of cervical cancers.
These types of HPV also cause most anal cancers, and some genital and head and neck cancers.
HPV types 6 and 11 cause around 90% of genital warts, so using Gardasil 9 helps protect girls and boys against both cancer and genital warts.
HPV vaccination does not protect against other infections spread during sex, such as chlamydia, and it will not stop girls getting pregnant, so it’s still very important to practise safe sex.