What Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness caused by a type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus . Meningococcal disease is not very common in the United States, but teens and young adults are at increased risk.
The two most common types of infections are
Data Collection And Study Quality
Data extraction was done independently by three reviewers, using abstraction forms developed specifically for this review. Data extracted included first author, country and state when available, vaccine and serogroup type, study type, data source, study period, vaccine introduction date, vaccination strategy, vaccination schedule used, age groups on which impact was measured, number of subjects on which impact was measured, case definition, effectiveness, or impact as reported, and main conclusion of the study.
The main results included were impact and/or effectiveness assessments, corresponding confidence limits when available, and any information on control and ascertainment of exposure for case-control studies and cohort studies. Additionally, control and presence of time series before were evaluated for impact studies.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of The Vaccine
The vaccine is considered relatively free of side effects and is generally effective for three-five years. Minor reactions may include redness and swelling at the injection site that may last one to two days. About 2 percent of recipients may develop fever after vaccination. If you develop a high or persistent fever, consult a physician. Extremely rare allergic reactions have occurred, including those resulting in hives, asthma, and even anaphylaxis. As with any vaccine, vaccination with meningitis vaccine does not protect 100 percent of all susceptible individuals.
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Many Colleges Require Proof Of Menacwy Vaccination Within 5 Years Before Starting School
Regardless of school requirements, CDC recommends a booster dose for all teens who received the first dose before their 16th birthday. The booster dose provides the best protection during the ages when teens are at highest risk. Teens who receive their first MenACWY vaccine dose at or after age 16 years do not need a booster dose.
How Do Meningococcal Bacteria Spread
Meningococcal disease is caused by 13 different groups of meningococcal bacteria.
In the UK, the disease is almost always caused by 1 of 4 meningococcal groups commonly known as MenB, MenC, MenW or MenY. These can be prevented with vaccination.
MenA disease is rare in the UK, but it’s more common in other parts of the world. It can also be prevented by vaccination.
The meningococcal bacteria live in the back of the nose and throat in about 1 in 10 people without causing any symptoms or illness.
Older teenagers are most likely to carry and spread the meningococcal bacteria.
The bacteria are spread from person to person by prolonged close contact such as coughing, kissing or sneezing with someone who is carrying the bacteria.
Very occasionally, the meningococcal bacteria can cause serious illness, including meningitis and septicaemia, which can rapidly lead to sepsis.
Meningococcal infections can happen at any age, but babies, young children and teenagers are especially vulnerable.
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What Are The Risks From Meningococcal Vaccine
Most people have mild side effects from the vaccine, such as redness or pain where the shot was given. A vaccine, like any medicine, may cause serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. This risk is extremely small. Getting the meningococcal vaccine is much safer than getting the disease.
You can learn more on the Vaccine Information Statements for meningococcal ACWY and meningococcal B.
Where Can I Find These Vaccines
Your doctor is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child. These vaccines are part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, vaccines for children and teens are regularly available at
- Pediatric and family practice offices
- Community health clinics
If your doctor does not have these vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.
Vaccines may also be available at
- Health departments
- Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers
You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get vaccines in your community.
When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local vaccine registry, if available. This helps providers at future visits know what vaccines you or your child have already received.
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How Is Meningococcal Disease Spread And Who Is Most At Risk
Meningococcal disease is not as contagious as other illnesses, such as a cold or the flu. But it is spread by contact with infected respiratory and throat secretions. That can happen with coughing, kissing, or sneezing.
Because the risk increases with close or prolonged contact with an infected person, family members in the same household and caregivers are at an increased risk. For the same reason, so are college students who live in dormitories.
Meningococcal B Vaccine: Frequently Asked Questions
In June 2015, the U. S. Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices provided a category B recommendation for both Men B vaccines, making the vaccine appropriate for individual clinical decision-making:
A serogroup B meningococcal vaccine series may be administered to adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age to provide short term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. The preferred age for Men B vaccination is 16 through 18 years of age.3,4
This is not a category A or âroutineâ recommendation, so many health care providers and patients have questions about the vaccine. Below is a list of frequently asked questions that may assist with decision-making:
Should low risk patients aged 16 to 23 be advised to get one of the new Men B vaccines? There is no clear answer to that question. Persons aged 16 to 23 are at an increased risk of contracting meningococcal infections. However, the incidence of Men B disease is low and seems to be getting lower. There is limited information about the clinical efficacy and safety of the vaccines. This is one of the reasons the ACIP gave this recommendation a B rather than an A rating.3,4
Will immunizing populations decrease carriage of the meningococcal B bacteria? So far, limited studies have not shown a decrease of asymptomatic carriage in immunized populations. More studies are planned.4
Where can I get more information? More information is available at the CDC/ACIP website.
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High Risk Groups For Meningococcal Disease
Other people are not funded under the National Immunisation Program and will require a prescription to purchase the meningococcal vaccines. If you are in one of the following high-risk groups, speak to your doctor about which vaccines you should have, the number of doses required and how long protection will last:
- infants and young children, particularly those aged less than two years
- adolescents aged 15 to 19 years
- people who have close household contact with those who have meningococcal disease and who have not been immunised
- people who smoke and are aged 15 to 24 years
- people who are travelling to places, such as sub-Saharan Africa, that have epidemics caused by serogroups A, C, W and Y
- pilgrims to the annual Hajj in Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian authorities require a valid certificate of vaccination to enter the country
- people who work in a laboratory and who handle meningococcal bacteria
- people with HIV
- people who have had a haematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records
Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine, as appropriate for age, may be given regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccine, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of persons with inadequate immunization records in Part 3 for additional general information.
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Who Grants Approval For Safe Effective Meningitis A Vaccine For Infants
The World Health Organization has opened the door to routine immunization of infants in sub-Saharan Africa by approving for use an innovative and affordable vaccine that has all but rid the meningitis belt of a major cause of deadly epidemics.
In the four years since its introduction in Africa, MenAfriVac has had an immediate and dramatic impact in breaking the cycle of meningitis A epidemics, leading the safe, effective technology to be approved by WHO through its prequalification process for use in infants, and paving the way for protecting millions more children at risk of the deadly disease. The announcement was made today by the Meningitis Vaccine Project a partnership between the global health nonprofit PATH and WHOand Serum Institute of India Ltd , which manufactures the MenAfriVac vaccine.
“Initial mass vaccination campaigns with MenAfriVac have been highly effective in reducing the number of meningitis A cases,” said Dr. Marie-Pierre Préziosi, director of MVP. “But epidemics will return when rising numbers of unprotected newborns become a larger proportion of the total population over time. Now, with this decision, health officials will be able to ensure that population-wide protection is sustained by routinely immunizing infants.”
Protection at an affordable price
From mass campaigns to routine immunizations
All Infants Children And Adults
Any person from 6 weeks of age who wants to protect themselves against meningococcal disease is recommended to receive MenACWY vaccine and MenB vaccine
Any person who wants to protect themselves against invasive meningococcal disease can receive MenACWY and MenB vaccines from as early as 6 weeks of age.
A summary of the recommendations for use of meningococcal vaccines is shown in Table. Recommendations for meningococcal vaccines for people at risk of meningococcal disease. The table shows the type of vaccines that are strongly recommended for specific age groups and special risk groups. See below for brand and dosing recommendations.
Infants aged < 9 months can receive 2 of the 3 MenACWY brands . Infants and children aged 9 months to 2 years can receive any of the 3 MenACWY vaccine brands, following the age-appropriate dosing schedule.
For all people aged 2 years, it is preferable to receive either Menveo or Nimenrix, rather than Menactra.
There is no preference for either Bexsero or Trumenba for people aged 10 years who wish to receive a MenB vaccine. For people aged < 10 years, Bexsero is the only registered MenB vaccine available in Australia.
Recommended dose schedules
For recommended dose schedules for healthy people aged 2 years who wish to receive meningococcal vaccine, see Table. Recommendations for meningococcal vaccines for healthy people aged 2 years, by age and vaccine brand.
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How Cdc Monitors Vaccine Safety
CDC and FDA monitor the safety of vaccines after they are approved or authorized. If a problem is found with a vaccine, CDC and FDA will inform health officials, health care providers, and the public.
CDC uses 3 systems to monitor vaccine safety:
- The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System : an early warning system, co-managed by CDC and FDA, to monitor for potential vaccine safety problems. Anyone can report possible vaccine side effects to VAERS.
- The Vaccine Safety Datalink : a collaboration between CDC and 9 health care organizations that conducts vaccine safety monitoring and research.
- The Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project: a partnership between CDC and several medical research centers that provides expert consultation and conducts clinical research on vaccine-associated health risks.
What Are The Symptoms Of Meningitis
Symptoms of meningococcal disease can include abrupt onset of high fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting and a rash. Symptoms most often appear within five days of exposure, but can appear between two to 10 days. Meningococcal disease is a very serious disease and can be fatal, in spite of treatment. Death can occur within a few hours after the onset of symptoms. Survivors often have loss of arms and legs, hearing loss, kidney failure, permanent brain damage or chronic nervous system problems. If you think you or your infant or child has any of these symptoms, call the doctor right away. Early diagnosis and treatment are very important.
To learn more about how meningitis is spread, symptoms, treatment and what to do if you think youve been exposed, check out the New York State Department of Health Fact Sheet on Meningococcal Disease.
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Who Is At Risk For Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can affect people at any age. Certain groups seem to be at increased risk of contracting the disease including those in close contact with a known case, patients with compromised immunity, and persons traveling to specific endemic areas of Asia, Africa, or South America.
Since 1991, cases of meningococcal disease among 15-24 year olds have more than doubled. Recent evidence found students residing on campus in dormitories appear to be at higher risk for meningococcal disease. The highest risk appeared to be in freshmen living in dormitories, who seemed to have a six times higher risk than college students overall. Data also suggests that certain social behaviors such as exposure to passive and active smoking, bar patronage, and excessive alcohol consumption may increase students’ risk for contracting the disease.
Patient And Public Involvement
A public meeting was held in Basse to present the beginning of the surveillance study. In 2011,a series of four village meetings were held throughout the study area to facilitate discussion and awareness of the study. The study design and outcome measures did not involve public involvement. Dissemination of results involved information delivered by radio, five community meetings and a joint press conference with the Ministry of Health.
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Why Are Meningococcal Vaccines Recommended
Meningococcal disease is caused by a type of bacteria. It can lead to an infection of the bloodstream or meningitis, or both, and can be life-threatening if not quickly treated. The MenACWY vaccine is very effective at protecting against four strains of the bacteria, while the MenB vaccine protects against a fifth strain.
The Dangers Of Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can cause both meningitis and septicaemia . Septicaemia and meningitis can trigger , which is a life-threatening response to infection.
Meningococcal disease is rare but very serious. It requires urgent hospital treatment.
It can lead to life-changing disabilities, such as amputations, hearing loss and brain damage.
The MenACWY vaccine was previously recommended only for people at increased risk of meningococcal disease, including people who have had their spleen removed, or have a spleen that does not work properly, for Hajj pilgrims, and for travellers to countries with high rates of meningococcal disease, including parts of Africa and Latin America.
Read about having the MenACWY vaccine before travelling on our page about travel vaccinations.
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Who’s Eligible For The Vaccine
The MenB vaccine is part of the routine childhood immunisation programme in Scotland since 1 September 2015. You’ll be sent an appointment to bring your child in for their routine childhood immunisations.
Babies born on or after 1 July 2015 will be offered the MenB vaccine when they come in for their other routine immunisations at 8, 16 weeks and 12 to 13 months.
The MenB vaccine will be given at the same time as the other routine immunisations your baby will be due at these times.
What Are The Different Types Of Vaccines For Meningitis B
In the United States, two types of meningitis B vaccines are Food and Drug Administration -approved Bexsero and Trumenba.
To receive FDA approval, both vaccines had to undergo clinical trials showing their safety and effectiveness. Both vaccines work in a similar way but use different proteins to stimulate your immune response.
Bexsero is produced by GlaxoSmithKline. Its administered in two 0.5 milligram doses, 1 month apart.
Before approval, safety data was reviewed from 3,139 subjects in clinical trials in the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, the United Kingdom, Poland, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy. Additional safety information was collected from 15,351 people who received Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sponsored vaccines at universities.
Trumenba is produced by Pfizer and is administered in two to three doses. For the three-dose schedule, the second dose is administered 1 to 2 months after the first, and the third vaccine is given 6 months after the first dose. For the two dose schedule, the second dose is given at 6 months after the first.
Before the FDA approved Tremenba, reviewers examined
People who have the highest chance of getting meningitis B include:
In the U.S. meningitis B vaccine isnt available yet for infants younger than 1 year old but is administered in the United Kingdom as part of the National Health Service vaccination schedule.
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Is The Meningitis B Vaccine Safe
In the same 2021 study mentioned above, researchers found the vaccine demonstrated an acceptable level of safety. No safety concerns have been raised based on current data, which includes more than 3 million doses administered in the United Kingdom.
Data from Quebec revealed four cases of a kidney disorder called nephrotic syndrome in children age 2 to 5 within 13 months of receiving their vaccine. Researchers are still trying to understand if theres a link, but a lack of similar findings from other countries suggests these cases may have occurred by chance.
Side effects of meningitis B are usually mild and last for
What Happens After The Immunization
Your child might have a fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness at the injection area. Check with your doctor to see if you can give either acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain or fever and to find out the right dose.
A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad on the injection site may help reduce soreness, as can moving or using the arm.
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