Outline For Immunization Research Paper
Brandon Tookes OutlineMumps, Haemophilus, rotavirus pertussis (whooping cough, influenza, and thats just to name a few. Thats a scary list right, but did you know immunizations can protect your kid from these. There are at least twelves diseases that medicine can prevent such as polio which restricts the usage of your limbs, mumps and measles which causes intense rashes and other fatal diseases like tetanus. The reason why people do not wish to protect themselves varies. There are also instances
Below Are The Faqs About The Disease And Changing The Vaccination System:
What is Polio?
Polio is a highly contagious disease, usually affecting children from one to five years of age. Its primary symptoms include fever, stress, headache, vomiting and pain in the limbs. The disease can cause paralysis that is often, and still, untreatable. In late stages, polio can lead to death.
How is Polio transmitted?
Polio virus is transmitted through contaminated food and drink by the feces of an infected child to another due to poor hygiene. If a child is not immunized, the virus will multiply in the intestine, attack the nervous system and can cause complete paralysis in one limb within hours.
Does Polio affect children older than 5 years old?
It is very rare for a person to be affected by polio after the age of 5, so we vaccinate all children living in Egypt, whether Egyptians or non-Egyptians, from age 0-5 years.
Polio and Egypt
What is the situation of Polio in Egypt?
The last confirmed polio case was reported in 2004, and it was declared that Egypt was completely polio-free in 2006.
How to verify that Egypt is polio-free?
The Ministry of Health and Population , in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund , implements a high-quality monitoring system for all cases of acute flaccid paralysis in Egypt. This is beside sampling and analysis of sewage streams in verified laboratories inside and outside Egypt to exclude the possibility of polio.
Protection against Polio
Who needs the Polio vaccine?
Bivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine
Following April 2016, the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine was replaced with the bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine in routine immunization around the world. Bivalent OPV contains only attenuated virus of serotypes 1 and 3, in the same number as in the trivalent vaccine.
Bivalent OPV elicits a better immune response against poliovirus types 1 and 3 than trivalent OPV, but does not give immunity against serotype 2. As well as in routine immunization, bOPV will be used for outbreak response against poliovirus types 1 and 3 outbreaks.
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Research Paper Outline On Autism
Outline WorksheetYour Claim in 2 sentences: We know we want to protect our families from disease. Most of us in todays generations are unaware of what communicable diseases look like due to the fact that vaccines have done such a good job at eliminating pandemic disease outbreaks. Support for Claim: While looking at the List of epidemics of the Washington State Health Department it shows us that since the mid 1800s there have been various diseases claim more than 6.1 million lives every century
Persuasive Speech : Persuasive Presentation
Persuasive Presentation OutlineEmily ColemanCOM 114 Section 700 VaccinesSpecific Purpose: My specific purpose is to convince my audience that everyone should get vaccinations.Thesis Statement: Recently, the United States has seen a resurgence of many different diseases that we haven ‘t seen in decades. Much of this problem is caused by failure to get vaccinations, and a key step to solving the issue is education.INTRODUCTION:I.Attention Getter: On January 6th, 2012, Brady Alcaide, a
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History Of Dr Jonas Salk’s Polio Vaccine
Salk began to study polio when he became head of the Virus Research Laboratory in 1947 at the University of Pittsburgh. In the late 1940s, the March of Dimes, a grassroots organization founded with President Roosevelts help to find a way to defend against polio and enlisted Dr. Jonas Salk. Salk found that polio had as many as 125 strains of three basic types, and that an effective vaccine needed to combat all three. By growing samples of the polio virus and then deactivating, or killing them by
Heeding A Lesson Learned
By 1962, there were fewer than 1,000 cases of polio in the U.S. And by 1979, the U.S. was declared polio-free.
Years after the vaccines development, Jonas Salk would recount that sometimes he would meet people who would not even know what polio was which he found tremendously gratifying. But the events of this past year, with all the ups and downs of coronavirus vaccine research, have proved that the history of polios defeat is worth remembering.
Nine companies developing a coronavirus vaccine recently joined forces to jointly promise that they would not rush anything to market until and unless the clearly delineated standards for safety and efficacy are met.
But should a modern-day Cutter incident happen again with a coronavirus vaccine, the publics already shaky faith in vaccines could easily crumble further, impeding the effort to get as many people quickly immunized against COVID-19 as possible.
Bringing this pandemic to an end will require more than the governments approval of one or more coronavirus vaccines that work. Coordinating a widespread vaccination campaign will also demand the navigation of logistics, economics and politics amid an equitable approach to the distribution of these new vaccines and the publics willingness to be inoculated.
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Risks And Side Effects Of Polio Vaccination
Some people who get the polio shot get a sore, red spot where the shot was given, but otherwise the vaccine is very safe. Most people don’t have any problems with it at all.
However, the polio vaccine, like any medicine, could potentially cause serious problems, such as a severe allergic reaction. The risk that the vaccine could cause any serious harm is extremely small.
CDC web site: “Program in Brief: ‘Global Polio Eradication ” “Polio Disease – Questions and Answers ” and “Polio Vaccine: What You Need to Know.”
Immunization Action Coalition: “Polio Vaccine Questions and Answers.”
Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia: “Polio immunization .”
Efficacy Effectiveness And Immunogenicity
IPV-containing vaccines produce immunity to all three types of poliovirus in over 95% of vaccinees following three doses of vaccine, and in close to 100% following a booster dose. Seroconversion rates are lower if the minimum age and minimum intervals for vaccine administration are used in infants less than 6 months of age.
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Vaccine Safety And Adverse Events
Refer to Adverse events following immunization Part 2 for additional general information. Refer to Diphtheria Toxoid, Tetanus Toxoid, Pertussis Vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccine and Hepatitis B Vaccine in Part 4 for additional information regarding other components in IPV-containing combination vaccines.
Common and local adverse events
Adverse events following IPV vaccine are usually limited to mild injection site reactions.
Less common and serious or severe adverse events
Serious adverse events are rare following immunization with IPV-containing vaccine and, in most cases, data are insufficient to determine a causal association. Anaphylaxis following vaccination with IPV-containing vaccine may occur, but is very rare.
Guidance on reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization
Vaccine providers are asked to report, through local public health officials, any serious or unexpected adverse event felt to be temporally related to vaccination. An unexpected AEFI is an event that is not listed in available product information but may be due to the immunization, or a change in the frequency of a known AEFI.
Refer to Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization in Canada for additional information about AEFI reporting.
Contraindications and precautions
Administration of IPV-containing vaccine should be postponed in persons with moderate or severe acute illness. Persons with minor acute illness may be vaccinated.
Analysis Using Neighborhood Controls
The cases and neighborhood controls were similar in most aspects, but different with respect to the total number of OPV doses received and age . The median number of overall OPV doses was 0 among WPV1 cases and 3 among neighborhood controls.
The overall VE was 95% VE increased by number of doses received: 92% among 1- to 3-dose recipients, 97% among 4-dose recipients, with unvaccinated children as the reference point . There was a significant difference between 13 and 4 doses .
The overall VE was 97% , when the analysis was limited to cases and controls 24 months of age .
The overall VE reduced to 92% when we matched age to within 6 months instead of 24 months . However, the overall VE increased to 98% when we excluded the neighborhood controls that had positive WPV1 stool samples .
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The Human Side Of Nature
Jonas Salk was born in New York City, New York, United States , to an Orthodox Polish-Jewish immigrant family on 28 October 1914. His parents lacked the benefits of a formal education, so they actively encouraged Jonas and his siblings to focus on their studies. After completing high school, Jonas matriculated at the City College of New York, and became the first member in the family to obtain a college education. However, it was law, not science, that initially kindled his academic interest. While growing up, Salk showed little affinity for the didactic aspects of the natural sciences, but his words belied a deep-rooted respect for human biology. As a child, he wrote, I was not interested in human anatomy. I was merely interested in things human, the human side of nature, if you like, and I continue to be interested in that. Thats what motivates me. And in a way, its the human dimension that has intrigued me.
Development Of The Salk Vaccine
Researchers began working on a polio vaccine in the 1930s, but early attempts were unsuccessful. An effective vaccine didn’t come around until 1953, when Jonas Salk introduced his inactivated polio vaccine .
Salk had studied viruses as a student at New York University in the 1930s and helped develop flu vaccines during World War II, according to History.com. In 1948, he was awarded a research grant from President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later named . Roosevelt had contracted polio in 1921 at age 39, and the disease left him with both legs permanently paralyzed. In 1938, five years into his presidency, Roosevelt helped to create the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to raise money and deliver aid to areas experiencing polio epidemics.
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Salk’s vaccine was unusual because instead of using a weakened version of the live virus, such as what is used for mumps and measles, Salk’s vaccine used a “killed,” or inactivated, version of the virus. When the “dead” poliovirus is injected into the bloodstream, it can’t cause an infection because the virus is inactive but the immune system can’t distinguish an activated virus from an inactivated one, and it creates antibodies to fight the virus. Those antibodies persist and protect the person from future poliovirus infection.
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Testing And Licensing Of Sabin Polio Vaccine
For four years, researcher Albert Sabin partnered with health officials from the Soviet Union to produce a more affordable alternative. More than 10 million children received his oral polio vaccine during this period.
Studies showed that Sabins version triggered a faster immune response and was easier to administer than Salks vaccine. Both Salks injectable vaccine and Sabins oral vaccine stopped the spread of all strains of the poliovirus through the bloodstream.
Ultimately, the U.S. Surgeon General recommended licensing of Sabins OPV, which combined vaccinations against all three types of polio in 1963.
In the decades that followed, widespread use of the polio vaccine finally began to stem the tide of this contagious disease. The World Health Organization would later launch a global poliovirus eradication program in the 80s.
Polio Immunisation For Adults
All adults should make sure that they have been vaccinated against polio. Adults receiving the polio vaccine for the first time should have a course of three injections with an interval of four weeks between the doses. If you have not received at least three doses of polio vaccine, speak to your doctor about catch-up doses.
Adults do not need a booster dose unless they are at special risk. You are at risk and should arrange with your doctor to get a booster if you:
- intend to travel to areas where polio is present check with your doctor if you are travelling outside of Australia, especially to Nigeria, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Angola or Chad
- are a laboratory worker likely to handle laboratory specimens that contain live poliovirus.
Booster doses of the vaccine are recommended every 10 years for at-risk adults. If you are travelling overseas, speak to your doctor before you go about whether you need a booster polio immunisation for the countries you are visiting.
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Pros And Cons Of Childhood Vaccines
Vaccinating is considered one of the most effective medical intervention ever invented. Vaccines have saved many children from sickness, death and have terminated a large part of infectious diseases in the world. That being said, whether to immunize or not is the ongoing question parents face each day. On one hand, questions are raised about the safety of some vaccines because of rare but serious adverse effects that have been attributed to them. On the other hand, vaccines are known to help prevent death
Allergic Reaction To The Vaccine
Inactivated polio vaccine can cause an allergic reaction in a few people since the vaccine contains trace amounts of antibiotics, streptomycin, polymyxin B, and neomycin. It should not be given to anyone who has an allergic reaction to these medicines. Signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction, which usually appear within minutes or a few hours after receiving the injected vaccine, include breathing difficulties, weakness, hoarseness or wheezing, heart rate fluctuations, skin rash and dizziness.
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Impact Of Vaccines On Vaccine Preventable Diseases
Table 1, Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3 illustrate the impact of vaccines on infectious diseases in Canada. Refer to the vaccine-specific chapters in Part 4 for additional information about the success of immunization programs against specific vaccine preventable diseases.
Figure 1: Haemophilus influenzae type b disease – reported number of casesFootnote 1 and incidence rates, Canada, 1979-2010Footnote 2
- Footnote 1
Case data obtained from the Canadian Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. Population data obtained from Statistics Canada July 1st annual estimates. Data for 2009 and 2010 are preliminary.
- Footnote 2
Only Hib meningitis was reportable from 1979 to 1985. Subsequently, all invasive disease caused by Hib became reportable.
- Footnote 3
PRP-D is the Hib conjugate vaccine containing purified polyribosylribitol phosphate capsular polysaccharide of Hib covalently bound to diphtheria protein. PRP-D vaccine was authorized in 1986 and introduced in 1988 into most provincial vaccination programs.
Abbreviations: Hib = Haemophilus influenzae type b PRP-D = Hib conjugate vaccine containing purified polyribosylribitol phosphate capsular polysaccharide of Hib covalently bound to diphtheria protein.
Haemophilus influenzaeHaemophilus influenzae
Figure 2: Diphtheria – reported number of cases and incidence rates, Canada, 1924-2008
Historys Lessons For 2021
This story offers several lessons relevant to the COVID-19 vaccine distribution just now getting rolling.
First, federal coordination of an emergent lifesaving medical product is critical.
The federal government had declined to play an active oversight and coordination role for the polio vaccine, but still wanted the credit. The federal Department of Health, Education and Welfare offered no plan for distribution beyond the privately funded school-based program.
The department waited a full month after the vaccine was first administered before bringing together a permanent scientific clearance panel. That delay had less to do with formal procedures than with the ideological opposition of Health, Education and Welfare Secretary Oveta Culp Hobby.
Hobby was a political appointee who had taken office just months before the vaccine was approved. Her reluctance to involve the federal government in matters that she believed were best left in private hands and her oft-stated fear of socialized medicine meant that safety checks would be left to the private labs producing the vaccine. The results immediately caused dire problems and even avoidable deaths.
Second, the polio vaccine distribution process demonstrated how vital it is for the federal government to act in ways deserving of public trust.
In those hopeful first few weeks of the polio vaccine distribution, those of us lining up for shots had little to fear beyond the sting of an injection. That changed quickly.
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Polio Vaccine History: Timeline Of Poliomyelitis Discovery And Vaccine Invention
Polio is a serious viral infection that was globally prevalent before the 1980s. Thankfully, its groundbreaking vaccine essentially eradicated it in most parts of the world. Join Flo as we explore the history of polio as well as the scientists who discovered the polio vaccine.
Childhood Vaccines And Its Effects On Children
Vaccinations have been widely discussed and debated about whether or not people should vaccinate their children. Childhood vaccines offer protection from serious or potentially fatal diseases . Vaccinations prevent diseases that can affect a child with symptoms of a cold or in some cases, the disease can be much more serious and can cause disability and death. The problem is that parents are choosing not to vaccinate their children against them. With choosing against
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