What Is Gardasil 9
Gardasil 9 is a vaccine thats used to prevent certain diseases caused by human papillomavirus .
HPV is a virus that can cause very serious conditions such as cervical, vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers. It can also cause precancerous spots to form in those areas. In addition to cancer and precancerous spots, HPV can also cause genital warts.
Gardasil 9 is approved for use in children and adults ages 9 through 45 years old. The vaccine is usually injected into the muscle in your upper arm. It can be given as two or three shots over the course of 6 to 12 months.
Age Recommendations For Gardasil 9
The Gardasil 9 vaccine is FDA-approved for use in people ages 9 through 45 years old. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention the Gardasil 9 vaccine for children ages 11 or 12 years old.
Previously, experts recommended Gardasil 9 vaccination for females through age 26 years old and for males through age 21 years old. Now, however, they recommend the vaccine for everyone up to age 26 years.
This age range is recommended so the vaccine can become effective before exposure to the human papillomavirus could occur through sexual contact. Also, younger children tend to build up an immunity to HPV better than adults, which can help prevent possible infection even more.
After age 21 for males or age 26 for females, the Gardasil 9 vaccine may still be recommended by your doctor, depending on if you have new sexual partners or are at a higher risk of getting HPV. Gardasil 9 is approved for men and women up to 45 years old. It is not approved in adults over 45 years old.
You can find more details about the CDCs vaccine recommendations for on their website.
Gardasil 9 For Preventing Genital Warts Caused By Hpv
Gardasil 9 is approved to prevent genital warts caused by HPV.
Gardasil has been shown to be effective in preventing genital warts caused by HPV. Clinical studies used the now-discontinued Gardasil to show the effectiveness of Gardasil 9. For information on the results of these studies, see Gardasil 9s prescribing information.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend HPV vaccination for all boys and girls ages 11 and 12 years to help prevent cancers caused by HPV.
Guidelines by the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend HPV vaccination for preventing genital warts caused by HPV.
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Gardasil 9 Vaccine Side Effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Gardasil 9:hives difficulty breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.
You may feel faint after receiving this vaccine. Some people have had seizure like reactions after receiving this vaccine. Your doctor may want you to remain under observation during the first 15 minutes after the injection.
Developing cancer from HPV is much more dangerous to your health than receiving the vaccine to protect against it. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.
Common Gardasil 9 side effects may include:
pain, swelling, or redness where the shot was given or
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.
Hpv Vaccination For Men Who Have Sex With Men
Men who have sex with men have not benefited in the same way from the longstanding girls’ programme, so may be left unprotected against HPV.
Since April 2018, MSM up to and including 45 years of age have been eligible for free HPV vaccination on the NHS when they visit sexual health clinics and HIV clinics in England.
Ask the doctor or nurse at the clinic for more details.
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How Effective Are Hpv Vaccines
Clinical trials have shown that HPV vaccines are highly effective in preventing cervical infection with the types of HPV they target when given before first exposure to the virusthat is, before individuals begin to engage in sexual activity. HPV vaccines have also been found to reduce infections in other tissues that HPV infects, including the anus and oral region .
Because the cell changes and cancers caused by HPV take years to develop, it has only recently been confirmed that the vaccines reduce the risk of these outcomes as well. Trials and real-world data from population-based studies have now demonstrated that the vaccines greatly reduce the risk of precancers and cancers of the cervix, vagina, and vulva in vaccinated women . A clinical trial of Gardasil in men indicated that it can prevent anal cell changes caused by persistent infection . The trials that led to approval of Gardasil 9 found it to be nearly 100% effective in preventing cervical, vulvar, and vaginal infections and precancers caused by all seven cancer-causing HPV types that it targets .
To date, protection against infections with the targeted HPV types has been found to last for at least 10 years with Gardasil , up to 11 years with Cervarix , and at least 6 years with Gardasil 9 . Long-term studies of vaccine efficacy that are still in progress will help scientists better understand how long protection lasts .
Are There Other Ways To Prevent Hpv
For those who are sexually active, condoms may lower the chances of getting HPV, if used with every sex act, from start to finish. Condoms may also lower the risk of developing HPV-related diseases . But HPV can infect areas that are not covered by a condomso condoms may not fully protect against HPV.
People can also lower their chances of getting HPV by being in a faithful relationship with one partner limiting their number of sex partners and choosing a partner who has had no or few prior sex partners. But even people with only one lifetime sex partner can get HPV. And it may not be possible to determine if a partner who has been sexually active in the past is currently infected. Thats why the only sure way to prevent HPV is to avoid all sexual activity.
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What Type Of Consent Do I Need In Order To Receive The Hpv Immunisation
You should’ve been given a consent form and leaflet by your school. You and your parents, or carer, should discuss the information before agreeing to have the immunisation. When you’re given the consent form, your parents will be asked to sign it and return it to school even if you aren’t going to have the vaccine.
We recommend you get agreement from your parent or carer, but it isn’t always necessary. More information on young people’s right to consent.
If you, or your parents or carer, have any questions about having the immunisation, speak to your nurse first if you can, or your GP.
Why Is The Hpv Vaccine Recommended
HPV can cause some types of cancer and genital warts. The vaccine is an important way to prevent infection and the spread of HPV. It works best when given before someone might be exposed to the virus.
The HPV vaccine doesn’t protect against all types of HPV. So people who are sexually active should always use condoms. Girls and women should see their gynecologist regularly and get pap smears as recommended .
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Gardasil 9 And Breastfeeding
Not enough studies have been done to determine if Gardasil 9 is safe to receive while breastfeeding. Its not known if Gardasil 9 can pass into breast milk. There is no animal data to determine if Gardasil 9 can pass into breast milk or harm a breastfeeding child.
If you are breastfeeding, talk to your doctor or pharmacist about the best time to get your Gardasil 9 vaccine.
Here are answers to some frequently asked questions about Gardasil 9.
What’s Hpv And How Does It Spread
HPV is very common and can be caught through intimate sexual contact with another person who already has it. More than 70% of unvaccinated people will get it at some point in their life. People are often infected without knowing it as there are usually no symptoms.
Most people who become infected with HPV clear the virus from their body, but others may develop a range of cancers in later life caused by the HPV virus.
Some people may also develop genital warts, which can sometimes be difficult to treat.
Having the vaccine is important because we can’t predict who will develop cancer or genital warts.
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What’s The Best Way To Protect Against Hpv
Since the HPV vaccine is less beneficial in adults, the best way to prevent HPV-related cancers is to get regular screenings, says Dr. Perkins.
For cervical cancer there are two types of screening: the Pap and HPV test. Both are done by gently scraping the cervix to remove cells , according to the American Cancer Society. While similar, there are a few key differences between the test:
- Pap test: Also called a Pap smear, this test looks for changes in the cells of the cervix.People with a cervix over the age of 21 should get a Pap test every three years, per the CDC. Once you reach 65 years old, you may not need to be screened anymore.
- HPV test: This test looks for the HPV virus specifically, the CDC says. Those with a cervix over the age of 3065 should get an HPV test every five years along with a Pap test.
Early detection of cervical cancer can greatly improve someone’s prognosis, according to the ACS, which is why it’s important for adults to get screened regularly.
Meanwhile, screenings for other HPV-related cancers like anal cancer or penile cancer are not recommended for the general population. That’s because penile cancers are often detected early as it usually starts as a noticeable change in the skin. Therefore, there are no widely recommended screening tests for penile cancer, per the ACS.
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What Are The Vaccines Made From
HPV vaccines stimulate the immune system to prepare antibodies against these viruses. They do not contain viruses or parts of viruses. They are made from proteins that mimic the viral envelope and are unable to infect the person who is given the vaccine. In other words, these vaccines cannot transmit a HPV infection.
Like many other vaccines, HPV vaccines contain an adjuvant, which is used to increase the immune systems response to the vaccine. HPV vaccines do not contain any preservatives, latex, antibiotics, thimerosal or mercury.
HPV vaccines are developed in accordance with the usual process prescribed by Health Canada. This process regulates and oversees vaccine research, manufacturing, licensing, efficacy and safety. All vaccines must go through this process in order to be distributed in Canada.
The manufacturer of the Cervarix® vaccine has not taken steps for this vaccine to be licensed in Canada for use in boys. It is therefore approved for use in girls and women age 9 to 45. However, scientific data, including data from a study conducted in Québec, shows that this vaccine is safe and produces a similar immune response in boys and girls. In addition, in Europe this vaccine is approved for use in boys and girls age 9 or older. Norway has been using two doses of the Cervarix® vaccine for both boys and girls since September 2018.
For more information, consult How Vaccines Work.
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Dosage For Preventing Precancerous Or Abnormal Lesions Caused By Hpv
The HPV virus can cause changes to your cervix, vulva, vagina, or anus. Changes are often referred to as dysplasia .
The Gardasil 9 vaccine can help prevent some of these abnormal growths. The approved dosage for adults ages 18 to 45 years old is a 0.5-mL injection into the muscle, usually in your upper arm.
Its recommended that you receive three doses of Gardasil 9. After you receive one dose, you get a second dose 2 months later and a final dose 6 months after the first dose.
How Hpv Is Spread
Human papillomavirus infection is very common with as many as half the population infected with HPV some time in their lives. You can catch it through intimate sexual contact with another person who already has the virus.
There are over 100 types of HPV but only 13 of them are known to cause cancer. There are usually no symptoms, so many wont realise they are infected.
Most of the time, the virus does not cause cancer. This is because it is killed off by the bodys immune system, but not always. Some infections persist and lead to cancer or genital warts – this is why the vaccine is so important.
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Hpv Vaccine Schedule And Dosing
About 85% of people will get an HPV infection in their lifetime. Recommending HPV vaccination for all 1112 year-olds can protect them long before they are ever exposed. CDC recommends two doses of HPV vaccine for all adolescents at age 11 or 12 years.
- A 2-dose schedule is recommended for people who get the first dose before their 15th birthday. In a 2-dose series, the second dose should be given 612 months after the first dose .
- The minimum interval is 5 months between the first and second dose. If the second dose is administered after a shorter interval, a third dose should be administered a minimum of 5 months after the first dose and a minimum of 12 weeks after the second dose.
- If the vaccination schedule is interrupted, vaccine doses do not need to be repeated .
- Immunogenicity studies have shown that 2 doses of HPV vaccine given to 914 year-olds at least 6 months apart provided as good or better protection than 3 doses given to older adolescents or young adults.
Should Girls And Women Be Screened For Cervical Cancer Before Getting Vaccinated
Girls and women do not need to get an HPV test or Pap test to find out if they should get the vaccine. However it is important that women continue to be screened for cervical cancer, even after getting all recommended shots of the HPV vaccine. This is because the vaccine does not protect against ALL types of cervical cancer.
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Cervical Cancer Screening In Women Who Have Received Hpv Vaccine
While HPV vaccines have been shown to be highly effective against cancer precursors caused by HPV type 16 and HPV type 18, these two HPV types are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer. Those vaccinated will still be susceptible to infection from other high-risk HPV genotypes and women who were sexually active prior to receiving HPV vaccine may already have been infected with HPV type 16 or HPV type 18. All women should continue to take part in the currently recommended cervical cancer screening programs. As more females receive the vaccine, it may be possible to modify screening programs in either type or frequency of screening, or both. This area requires continued research and surveillance before guidelines are changed.
Why Is Hpv Vaccination Important
The combination of HPV vaccination and cervical screening can provide the greatest protection against cervical cancer. Also, HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing cancers caused by HPV at sites other than the cervix.
Not only does vaccination protect vaccinated individuals against infection by the HPV types targeted by the vaccine that is used , but vaccination can also reduce the prevalence of the vaccine-targeted HPV types in the population, thereby reducing infection in individuals who are not vaccinated . For example, in Australia, where a high proportion of girls are vaccinated with Gardasil, the incidence of genital warts went down during the first 4 years of the vaccination program among young maleswho were not being vaccinated at the timeas well as among young females .
Further evidence that large-scale HPV vaccination confers protection for unvaccinated individuals comes from a 2019 meta-analysis of girls-only HPV vaccination programs in 14 high-income countries that included 60 million vaccinated people . That analysis showed that, up to 8 years after the start of vaccination, diagnoses of anogenital warts decreased by 31% among women aged 2529 years, by 48% among boys aged 1519 years, and by 32% among men aged 2024 years, compared with the period before vaccination began.
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What Does The Vaccine Not Protect Against
The vaccine does not protect against all HPV types so they will not prevent all cases of cervical cancer. Since some cervical cancers will not be prevented by the vaccine, it will be important for women to continue getting screened for cervical cancer. Also, the vaccine does not prevent other sexually transmitted infections . So it will still be important for sexually active persons to lower their risk for other STIs.