Who Should Get Pneumococcal Vaccines
CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all children younger than 2 years old and all adults 65 years or older. In certain situations, older children and other adults should also get pneumococcal vaccines. Below is more information about who should and should not get each type of pneumococcal vaccine.
Talk to your or your childs doctor about what is best for your specific situation.
Rabies Vaccine And Egg Allergies
There are various different vaccines on the market for rabies that can be administered after you’ve been exposed to the virus. However, most of the vaccines are cultured in chicken embryos and aren’t considered safe for people who have severe egg allergies.
Fortunately, there is one option for the egg-allergic: Imovax, which is not cultured in chick embryos.
How Long Does A Pneumonia Shot Last
- Younger than 2 years old: four shots
- 65 years old or older: two shots, which will last you the rest of your life
- Between 2 and 64 years old: between one and three shots if you have certain immune system disorders or if youre a smoker
Don’t Miss: How Much Is The Tdap Vaccine At Cvs
How Do Vaccines Work
This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines from how they work and how theyre made to ensuring safety and equitable access in WHOs Vaccines Explained series.
Germs are all around us, both in our environment and in our bodies. When a person is susceptible and they encounter a harmful organism, it can lead to disease and death.
The body has many ways of defending itself against pathogens . Skin, mucus, and cilia all work as physical barriers to prevent pathogens from entering the body in the first place.
When a pathogen does infect the body, our bodys defences, called the immune system, are triggered and the pathogen is attacked and destroyed or overcome.
An Ounce Of Prevention Is Worth A Pound Of Cure
In the 1940s all of the strains of pneumococcus could be treated with the antibiotic, penicillin. However, over time many pneumococcal strains have become resistant not only to penicillin, but also to other antibiotics developed to combat bacterial infections. Resistance means that bacteria have changed, or evolved, so that they are no longer killed by one or more antibiotics. As a result, treatment with those antibiotics is not effective against those resistant strains.
Strains of pneumococcus have now been identified that are highly resistant to most antibiotics. Our reliance on and overuse of antibiotics have led to this resistance, backing us into a corner when treating infections caused by these and other types of bacteria. Unfortunately, we have taken our first steps into a post-antibiotic era. This makes the use of vaccines all the more important.
Also Check: Tdap Shot At Cvs
Ppsv23 Vaccination In At
It is recommended that at-risk children receive immunization with PPSV23 after they finish an immunization series with conjugated vaccines. In sickle cell pediatric patients, higher titers of the 7 serotypes contained in PCV7 were observed in patients receiving immunization with PCV7 series followed by PPSV23 compared to patients who received the PCV7 series alone. In HIV-positive pediatric patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, a series of two PCV7 vaccinations followed by a PPSV23 vaccination increased antibody titers. Due to increased titers from PPVS23 vaccination, children who are immunocompromised should receive a single immunization with PPSV23 after the PCV13 vaccination series. For children who have sickle cell disease and/or functional or anatomical asplenia, two doses of PPSV23 are recommended. The first dose is recommended 8 weeks after finishing the PCV13 vaccine series. The second dose is recommended 3 to 5 years after the first dose according to the 2002 National Heart Lung and Blood Institutes Management of Sickle Cell Disease guidelines or 5 years after the first dose according to the 2010 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines., Decreased duration between revaccination with PPSV23 has led to increased occurrences of mild vaccine-related adverse events in adults and should be considered when deciding PPSV23 revaccination scheduling in pediatric sickle cell patients.
Side Effects Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine
Like most vaccines, the childhood and adult versions of the pneumococcal vaccine can sometimes cause mild side effects.
- redness where the injection was given
- hardness or swelling where the injection was given
There are no serious side effects listed for either the childhood or adult versions of the vaccine, apart from an extremely rare risk of a severe allergic reaction .
Also Check: Where To Get Tdap Vaccine Cvs
In The Olden Days And By Olden I Mean
last year, vaccinating patients against pneumonia was simplewe gave everyone one shot at age 65 and that was it, but new recommendations have created a lot of confusion. Lets remedy that and rock your world at the same time.
First of all, there is no such thing as a pneumonia vaccine. The vaccines which prevent pneumonia are directed against a single bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. Because bad actors often get nicknames, like Billy the Kid or Bugsy Siegel, this bacteria is also called strep pneumo or pneumococcus. The name sure sounds like pneumonia, but pneumococcus also causes meningitis, sepsis , ear infections, and less often infections in the heart, joints, bones, and internal organs. There are more than 90 different strains of pneumococcus, although most disease is caused by about two dozen of them. Having immunity against one strain does not protect you against the others.
Pneumococcus lives in the nose of infants and young children. If you put a cotton swab up the nose of a healthy 1 year old, about 50% of the time youll find pneumococcus in there. Various strains of the pneumococcus bacteria take turns living in a kids nose. Sometimes, when a child acquires a new strain, he or she develops an ear infection a few weeks later. One strain might live in there for six months only to be replaced by another. In adults, the rate of colonization is lower, but you can still find pneumococcus living in about 3 percent of healthy adult noses as well.
Yellow Fever Vaccine And Egg Allergies
Yellow fever is a severe, mosquito-borne illness common in parts of South America and Africa. The disease has a high death rate, and you need to be vaccinated against yellow fever in order to travel to certain countries.
However, all yellow fever vaccines are cultured in eggs, and healthcare providers advise those with a history of severe allergic reactions to avoid the vaccine. Those with milder allergic reactions may be able to handle the yellow fever shot, or it’s also possible to have allergy testing done with the vaccine itself to see whether you might be able to handle it.
Read Also: Cvs Whooping Cough Vaccine
Immunogenicity And Vaccine Efficacy
FDA licensed the first pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2000. A large clinical trial showed PCV7 reduced invasive disease caused by vaccine serotypes by 97%. Compared to unvaccinated children, children who received PCV7:
- Had 20% fewer episodes of chest X-ray confirmed pneumonia
- Had 7% fewer episodes of acute otitis media
- Underwent 20% fewer tympanostomy tube placements
PCV7 also reduced nasopharyngeal carriage, among children, of pneumococcal serotypes in the vaccine.
FDA licensed PCV13 in 2010 based on studies comparing the serologic response of children who received PCV13 to those who received PCV7. These studies showed PCV13 induced antibody levels comparable to those induced by PCV7 and shown to be protective against invasive disease.
In another study, children aged 7 through 71 months received up to 3 PCV13 doses according to age-appropriate immunization schedules. None of the children had previously received a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The antibody responses were comparable to those achieved after the 3-dose infant PCV13 series in the U.S. immunogenicity trial with the exception of serotype 1. The IgG geometric mean concentration was lower for serotype 1 among children aged 24 through 71 months.
- 46% efficacy against vaccine-type pneumococcal pneumonia
- 45% efficacy against vaccine-type non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia
- 75% efficacy against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease
Vaccines For Children Program
The Vaccines for Children Program provides vaccines to children whose parents or guardians may not be able to afford them. A child is eligible if they are younger than 19 years old and meets one of the following requirements:
- American Indian or Alaska Native
If your child is VFC-eligible, ask if your doctor is a VFC provider. For help in finding a VFC provider near you, contact your state or local health departments VFC Program Coordinator or call CDC at 1-800-CDC-INFO .
You May Like: Pertussis Vaccine Cvs
Spreading Pneumonia To Others
If your pneumonia is caused by a virus or bacteria, you may spread the infection to other people while you are contagious. How long you are contagious depends on what is causing the pneumonia and whether you get treatment. You may be contagious for several days to a week.
If you get antibiotics, you usually cannot spread the infection to others after a day of treatment.
Global Epidemiology Since The Introduction Of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines
Direct impact of PCV programmes on IPD in children
Reductions in IPD among target cohorts of children in high income countries have been similar for PCV10 and PCV7/13 in reported studies. Québec and Finland both used 2+1 schedules and observed 83 percent and 79 percent reductions in IPD in vaccine-eligible children, respectively. In England, using PCV7 then PCV13 in a 2+1 schedule, there was an estimated 5,000 fewer hospital admissions for bacteraemia, meningitis and pneumonia in children aged under 5 years over 12 years after the introduction of PCV7 and PCV13. The greatest reductions were seen in meningitis in children under 2 years age.
Direct impact of vaccination on non-invasive pneumococcal disease
The impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on the large burden of noninvasive pneumococcal disease has been clearly demonstrated internationally in countries that have introduced these vaccines, particularly through reductions in childhood hospitalisations due to pneumonia. Other impacts, such as on acute otitis media, are less clear and more difficult to measure accurately. However, a systematic review found PCVs were associated with large reductions in risk of pneumococcal acute otitis media, but there was no evidence of benefit against allcause otitis media in high-risk children over 1 year of age or older children with a history of respiratory illness.
You May Like: How Much Does A Tdap Shot Cost At Cvs
How Is Pneumonia Diagnosed
Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and do a physical exam. He or she may order a chest X-ray and a complete blood count . This is usually enough for your doctor to know if you have pneumonia. You may need more tests if you have bad symptoms, are an older adult, or have other health problems. In general, the sicker you are, the more tests you may need.
Your doctor may also test mucus from your lungs to find out if bacteria are causing your pneumonia. Finding out what is causing your pneumonia can help your doctor choose the best treatment for you. However, often the organism can’t be found and a broad-spectrum antibiotic may be given.
Who Should Not Get The Vaccine
People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.
Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .
Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.
A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.
Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.
There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.
The two types are:
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
- Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.
According to the
- roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
- 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
- 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease
Recommended Reading: Can You Get Tdap At Cvs
Does It Work Against New Variants
SAGE has reviewed all available data on the performance of the vaccine in tests to assess efficacy against a variety of variants. These tests indicated that the vaccine was effective against virus variants.
SAGE currently recommends the use of the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine according to the WHO Prioritization Roadmap, even if virus variants are present in a country. Countries should assess the risks and benefits taking into consideration their epidemiological situation.
Preliminary findings highlight the urgent need for a coordinated approach for surveillance and evaluation of variants and their potential impact on vaccine effectiveness. As new data become available, WHO will update recommendations accordingly.
What Is The Pneumonia Vaccine
The pneumonia vaccine is an injection that prevents you from contracting pneumococcal disease. There are two pneumococcal vaccines licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States:
The Center for Disease Control recommends the PCV13 vaccine for:
- All children younger than 2 years old
- People 2 years or older with certain medical conditions
The CDC recommends PPSV23 for:
- All adults 65 years or older
- People 2 through 64 years old with certain medical conditions
- Smokers 19 through 64 years old
Don’t Miss: Tdap Vaccine At Cvs
Mmr Vaccine And Egg Allergies
The MMR vaccine normally is given twice in childhood: once at 15 months, and again in a booster shot at ages four to six. This vaccine is considered safe for people who have even severe egg allergies.
The shot is cultured in chicken embryos, but no traces of egg protein remain in the finished product. Medical researchers have looked at the effects of the vaccine in children with egg allergies, and have found no allergic reactions resulted from getting the shot.
Note that research has shown it’s safe for children with egg allergies to receive the MMR vaccine. Still, if you have concerns about it, you should talk to your child’s pediatrician.
Cough And Cold Medicines
Be careful with cough and cold medicines. They may not be safe for young children or for people who have certain health problems, so check the label first. If you do use these medicines, always follow the directions about how much to use based on age and weight.
Always check to see if any over-the-counter cough or cold medicines you are taking contain acetaminophen. If they do, make sure the acetaminophen you are taking in your cold medicine plus any other acetaminophen you may be taking is not higher than the daily recommended dose. Ask your doctor or pharmacist how much you can take every day.
Recommended Reading: How Much Is Tdap Vaccine At Cvs
How Do The Pneumonia Vaccines Work
Like all vaccines, pneumococcal vaccines work by showing the immune system a version of the microbe, or a part of it, that is responsible for the infection. The pneumococcal vaccine contains part of the pneumococcus bacterias outer shell, made of molecules called polysaccharides. The immune system learns to recognize it, attack it, and defend the body against it, should it ever come into contact with the real bacteria.
The body does this by making antibodies against the shell of the pneumococcus bacteria. These antibodies stay in your bloodstream as part of your immune system. If you are exposed to pneumococci in the future, the antibodies recognize the bacterias shell and launch a targeted defense.
There are strains of pneumococcus, so the vaccines are made up of molecules from many of those strains.
Effectiveness Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine
Children respond very well to the pneumococcal vaccine.
The introduction of this vaccine into the NHS childhood vaccination schedule has resulted in a large reduction in pneumococcal disease.
The pneumococcal vaccine given to older children and adults is thought to be around 50 to 70% effective at preventing pneumococcal disease.
Both types of pneumococcal vaccine are inactivated or “killed” vaccines and do not contain any live organisms. They cannot cause the infections they protect against.
Don’t Miss: Tdap Shot Cvs
What To Know About The Pneumococcal Vaccine
Who needs it: The CDC recommends one pneumococcal vaccine for adults 19 to 64 with certain risk factors . If you work around chronically ill people say, in a hospital or nursing home you should get the vaccine, even if you’re healthy. People 65 and older can discuss with their health care provider whether they should get PCV13 if they haven’t previously received a dose. A dose of PPSV23 is recommended for those 65 and older, regardless of previous inoculations with pneumococcal vaccines.
How often: Space immunizations out. You should receive a dose of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine , then, a year later, a dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine . People with any of the risk factors should get one dose of PCV13 and PPSV23 before age 65, separated by eight weeks.
Why you need it: Pneumococcal disease, which can cause pneumonia, kills around 3,000 people a year. Young children and those over 65 have the highest incidence of serious illness, and older adults are more likely to die from it.
Editors note: This article was published on Oct. 26, 2020. It was updated in September 2021 with new information.
Also of Interest