Monday, September 25, 2023

How Long Did It Take To Develop The Flu Vaccine

Why Do I Need To Get Vaccinated Every Year

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You need to get the flu vaccine every year because protection from the previous vaccination becomes less effective over time. Each year the influenza viruses can change. The strains in the vaccine usually change each year in response to the changing virus pattern. Read more about vaccination against influenza.

How Effective Is The Nhs Flu Immunisation Programme

The flu vaccine works better in some years than others . Across all age groups including children, the flu vaccine prevented 15-52% of flu cases between 2015 – 2020 .

Protection from the flu virus varies for different age groups. In children aged 2-17, the flu vaccine prevented 66% of flu cases in 2016-17, 27% of flu cases in 2017-18, and 49% of flu cases in 2018-19. However, in the over 65 age group the inactivated flu vaccine worked less well than it did in other adults and children. In 2016-17, the data suggest that the inactivated flu vaccine did not work at all in people aged over 65, whilst in 2017-2018 it resulted in slightly better results in that age group. Due to the lower effectiveness of the inactivated flu vaccine in older people, a vaccine containing an adjuvant was introduced for the 2018-19 season. This is a substance that strengthens and lengthens the immune response to the vaccine and resulted in better prevention of flu in people aged 65 or over in flu seasons since 2018-19. The adjuvanted vaccine is still recommended for this age group in the 2021-22 season.

It is not understood why flu vaccines do not work so well in older adults. However, this reinforces the importance of vaccinating children and healthcare workers, both of whom can help to stop the spread of flu to older adults.

Polio Spreads Across The Globe

It took almost 50 years for another scientific study to detail the features of the disease and its connection with the spinal cord. At this point, German doctor Jacob Heine shared his findings in 1840 on poliomyelitis. This was the first medical report of the disease and acknowledgement that it was an official disease.

But a little more than 50 years after that breakthrough, the U.S. had its first polio outbreak. Located in Vermont, the 1894 epidemic affected 132 people, leading to 18 deaths.

Fast forward to 1921.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the 32nd president of the US, contracted polio at the age of 39. Despite being limited to a wheelchair for most of his life after, the presidents illness was largely kept a secret from the public.

Polio didnt just affect the common person it affected nearly anyone that came in contact. The potentially deadly disease swept the nation and the world without a cure or vaccination to subside the neurological and physical traumas it caused.

In 1935, Maurice Brodie and John Kolmer attempted to create a vaccination that ended with disastrous results.

Brodie tested the vaccine on himself and thousands of children volunteered by their parents. Within one year the trial ended and nine children who received the vaccine had died. Lab tests later showed that Kolmers experimental vaccine was the cause.

Due to a failure trial of Brodie and Kolmers vaccination, hope was not high.

Although, a medical hero stepped into the scene in 1947.

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Safety Monitoring After Vaccination

Even after emergency use authorization has been granted, Dr. Kenyon said safety data will continue to be collected, as participants are followed for up to 2 years. This adds another layer of reassurance as a person shifts from a trial to a real-life setting.

The trial is tens of thousands of participants, but for the vaccine program, you are getting into the millions. While unlikely, it may uncover any undetected toxicities that were not picked up by the trial.

The V-safe .

It is a smartphone-based system where you will be contacted actively by CDC to see how you are doing after being vaccinated and therefore pick up any adverse events that were not picked up in the trials, Dr. Kenyon explained.

Where Can I Get Vaccinated Against The Flu

Flu: Symptoms, treatment, contagiousness, and do I have it?

People eligible for a free flu vaccineEligible people can get a free vaccination from their family doctor/general practice. It is usually the practice nurse who gives the vaccine. Many community pharmacies provide free flu vaccinations to people aged 13 years and older and pregnant women . People who are not eligible to receive a free flu vaccineThe flu vaccination is available from:

  • your family doctor/general practice

Please contact your healthcare provider about the cost of getting the flu vaccine.

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How Well Does The Flu Vaccine Work

The flu vaccine is not 100% effective. However, on average it halves the number of people who get the flu. This reduces the amount of flu circulating in the community, puts less pressure on healthcare services and leads to fewer admissions to hospital.

Those who respond least well to the flu vaccine are those who are at most risk of complications from the flu: very young children, older adults and people with long-term health conditions. This is why its a good idea for everyone else to get the flu vaccination its a way to help the more vulnerable members of your community.

Dr Nikki Turner of the Immunisation Advisory Centre explains more about the effectiveness of the flu vaccine.

The Forties: Inactivated Influenzavaccines

Influenza vaccination had two main objectives: to protect against disease, and to achieve a high vaccination rate in order to ensure protection in unvaccinated people. The first vaccine was an inactivated, monovalent preparation which only contained a subtype of the influenza A virus .

In December 1942, large studies were begun to be conducted on the first influenza virus vaccines these provided the first official proof that inactivated influenza vaccines could yield effective protection against flu epidemics .

The efficacy and safety of inactivated vaccines were first studied between 1942 and 1945 in the meantime, a new strain of flu virus was discovered, the influenza virus type B, which is the main cause of seasonal epidemics, as was the phenomenon of so-called “influenza mismatch”. Influenza mismatch is caused by major and minor mutations of circulating viruses. As a result, the virus contained in the vaccine does not match the circulating strain, determining a reduction in the effectiveness of subtype A influenza vaccines.

A new route of influenza immunization was tested in December 1942, with the subcutaneous inactivated bivalent vaccine containing viruses of type A and type B. The following years, the first bivalent vaccine was licensed in the United States and became available for use in the general population .

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The History Of The Vaccine

The discovery of the flu virus led to early testing of a simple killed virus vaccine in the thirties on British troops. Later, in 1940s, the first official vaccine was tested, and it was demonstrated that this simple killed virus vaccine was effective and protected people against that strain/type of flu. However, the vaccine only protected against the strain/type of flu it contained, not any new flu that might appear.

The killed virus vaccine was locked down at the time it was made, and could only protect against the viruses that it was made from.

Where Can I Get Vaccinated

Why does it take so long to develop a vaccine to COVID-19?

People eligible for a free flu vaccineEligible people can get a free vaccination from their family doctor/general practice. It is usually the practice nurse who gives the vaccine. Many community pharmacies provide free flu vaccinations to people aged 13 years and older and pregnant women . People who are not eligible to receive a free flu vaccineThe flu vaccination is available from:

  • your family doctor/general practice

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How Long Did It Take To Develop The Flu Vaccine

  • The first flu vaccine was licensed for civilian use in the U.S. in 1945.
  • Dr. Jonas Salk was one of the lead researchers.
  • Nearly 200 million doses of vaccine were expected to be manufactured this flu season.

The 1918 influenza pandemic infected an estimated 500 million people worldwide and left 675,000 people dead in the United States, according to the CDC.

But it wasn’t until 1945 – nearly three decades later – that the first flu vaccine was licensed for civilian use in the U.S.

In contrast, an effective and safe COVID-19 vaccine was developed in less than a year. Historically, vaccines have taken years to make it to distribution.

The first-ever vaccine to be developed was for smallpox in 1796, according to the World Health Organization.

Today, vaccines are available for more than two dozen diseases. Many of the shots, like those for measles and chickenpox, are considered routine.

Scientists dedicate their entire careers to researching vaccines. Dr. Jonas Salk, famous for creating the polio vaccine in the 1950s, was one of the lead researchers on the flu vaccine a decade earlier. Before Salk died at age 80 in 1995, he worked on a vaccine for HIV, which still hasn’t come to fruition.

Since Salk’s early work on the flu vaccine, it’s become one of the most common shots given.

Here’s a look back at some of the key moments in the history of influenza and the flu vaccine, based on a timeline from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

Is It More Transmissible

This is not yet clearcut but the emerging picture is worrying. There has been a surge of cases in South Africa from 273 cases on 16 November to more than 1,200 by the start of this week. More than 80% of these were from Gauteng province and preliminary analysis suggests the variant has rapidly become the dominant strain. The R value, which indicates how fast an epidemic is growing, is estimated to be 1.47 for South Africa as a whole, but 1.93 in Gauteng. There is a chance this is a statistical blip linked to a super-spreader event but the data has triggered enough concern for precautionary measures.

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Swine Flu Vaccine Can Trigger Narcolepsy Uk Government Concedes

The government is to reverse its stance on the safety of a swine flu vaccine given to 6 million people in Britain and accept that on rare occasions the jab can trigger the devastating sleep disorder narcolepsy.

The Department for Work and Pensions has contacted people turned down for compensation last year to explain that, after a review of fresh evidence, it now accepts the vaccine can cause the condition. The move leaves the government open to compensation claims from around 100 people in Britain, and substantial legal fees if a group action drawn up by solicitors is successful.

Peter Todd, who is preparing the case at the London firm Hodge, Jones and Allen, said that damages could reach £1m for each person.

The Pandemrix vaccine, made by GlaxoSmithKline, was given to high-risk groups, including children and those with asthma, diabetes and heart disease at the height of the 2009-10 swine flu pandemic. Across Europe, around 31 million people received the jab. The vaccine was made specifically to tackle pandemics and is very different to the normal seasonal flu vaccine which has not been linked to narcolepsy.

The government U-turn follows a major study of four- to 18-year-olds by the Health Protection Agency which found that around one in every 55,000 jabs was associated with narcolepsy. A spokesman for GSK said it had details of around 900 people from 14 countries who had narcolepsy and were vaccinated.

Can I Have The Flu Vaccine If I Have An Allergy To Egg

Coronavirus (COVID

Yes, the brands of the flu vaccine for the 2021 flu season can be given to people with egg allergy. Studies have shown that flu vaccines containing one microgram or less of ovalbumin do not trigger anaphylaxis in sensitive people. The residual ovalbumin in one dose of the flu vaccine for the 2021 is below this limit.

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Why Do You Need An Annual Flu Shot

Unlike some other vaccines that have a longer protection period, flu shots are required every year to ensure proper protection. Your immune response and protection from vaccination will weaken over time, so a yearly vaccine for a common virus is the best choice to protect yourself. Plus, flu viruses change all the time, and vaccines are often updated to better protect against upcoming viruses. If you want the best protection for you and your family, then you should prioritize flu shots every year.

If you want to get a flu shot, you can head to your local flu shots clinic in Suwanee, GA. Visit the trusted team at Gwinnett Urgent Care to take care of your flu shots and answer any questions you have about the flu.

How Is The Flu Vaccine Determined

Starting in 1973, the World Health Organisation began issuing guidance to all nations on the composition of the flu vaccine for each coming flu season. Each year, the World Health Organisation meets and may make different recommendations to previous years based on the data they have available and their expectations for which flu strains are likely to be the most widespread the following year.

Most nations will then have a body that determines the flu shot based on the advice of the World Health Organisation. In Australia, this body is the Australian Influenza Vaccine Committee . They meet each year at the Therapeutic Goods Administration in Canberra to determine the make-up of the flu vaccine for the upcoming flu season.

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Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season

The composition of trivalent virus vaccines for use in the 2017â2018 Northern Hemisphere influenza season recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices on August 25, 2017, was:

  • an A/Michigan/45/2015 pdm09âlike virus
  • an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 -like virus
  • a B/Brisbane/60/2008âlike virus

In addition to these components, quadrivalent vaccines will also include a B/Phuket/3073/2013âlike virus .

In California, some emergency systems were strained by a spike in H3N2 flu cases. In addition, some areas experienced local shortages of oseltamivir. The severity of the flu season seemed somewhat comparable to the 2009â10 swine flu outbreak. A February 2018 CDC interim report estimated the vaccine effectiveness to be 25% against H3N2, 67% against H1N1, and 42% against influenza B.

Do I Need The Flu Vaccine If I Am Travelling

How long could it take to develop coronavirus vaccine?

Whether or not you are at high risk for the complications of flu, you should consider getting a flu vaccination before travelling overseas because studies have shown that the flu is the most commonly contracted vaccine-preventable disease among international travellers.

  • Flu outbreaks have been linked to travellers.
  • Certain types of travel where large numbers of people are likely to be in close proximity, such as cruise ship voyages or events that include mass gatherings, are particularly high risk.
  • In tropical countries, the flu can occur throughout the year, so vaccination is worthwhile regardless of the season.
  • In temperate climates in the northern hemisphere, the flu is more common between the months of December and March.

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Other Methods Of Manufacture

Methods of vaccine generation that bypass the need for eggs include the construction of influenza virus-like particles . VLP resemble viruses, but there is no need for inactivation, as they do not include viral coding elements, but merely present antigens in a similar manner to a virion. Some methods of producing VLP include cultures of Spodoptera frugiperdaSf9 insect cells and plant-based vaccine production . There is evidence that some VLPs elicit antibodies that recognize a broader panel of antigenically distinct viral isolates compared to other vaccines in the hemagglutination-inhibition assay .

A gene-based DNA vaccine, used to prime the immune system after boosting with an inactivated H5N1 vaccine, underwent clinical trials in 2011.

On November 20, 2012, Novartis received FDA approval for the first cell-culture vaccine. In 2013, the recombinant influenza vaccine, Flublok, was approved for use in the United States.

On September 17, 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for Supemtek, a quadrivalent influenza vaccine . The applicant for this medicinal product is Sanofi Pasteur. Supemtek was approved for medical use in the European Union in November 2020.

How Likely Is It To Spread Around The World

So far, the majority of confirmed cases have been in South Africa, with a handful in Botswana and Hong Kong. A further case was detected on Thursday evening in Israel an individual who had returned from Malawi and two other cases are suspected in the country. On Friday, Belgium confirmed it had detected a case in someone who had travelled to Egypt and Turkey.

Nevertheless, given that there is community transmission in southern Africa, if there is a transmissibility advantage the new variant is likely to have already spread undetected to other countries.

Previous experience shows travel bans tend to buy time, but, short of taking a zero-Covid approach with hard lockdowns, these measures are unlikely to stop the spread of a new variant entirely.

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Influenza Vaccine Production And Design

The most common method used to produce each years seasonal flu vaccine involves a laborious, time-consuming process in which scientists must select vaccine strains months in advance of the upcoming flu season and then grow the selected flu virus strains in chicken eggs. However, sometimes an existing but unexpected flu strain will become prevalent during flu season, making the vaccine a poor match to the circulating strains.

There is also a cell-based production process in which flu virus is grown in cultured mammalian cells, instead of in chicken eggs. This approach is a modest improvement in vaccine production because it does not involve chicken eggs and has the potential for faster flu vaccine manufacturing, but it still requires the tedious process of growing the flu virus.

NIAID and its industry partners have made progress in moving from both the egg-based and cell-based flu vaccine production methods toward recombinant DNA manufacturing for flu vaccines. This method does not require an egg-grown vaccine virus and does not use chicken eggs at all in the production process. Instead, manufacturers isolate a certain protein from a naturally occurring recommended flu vaccine virus. These proteins are then combined with portions of another virus that grows well in insect cells. The resulting recombinant vaccine virus is then mixed with insect cells and allowed to replicate. The flu surface protein called hemagglutinin is then harvested from these cells and purified.

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