How Do We Know If The Vaccine Is Safe
Its important to know that vaccines go through more testing than any other pharmaceuticals. First, small groups of people receive the trial vaccine. Next, vaccine is given to people with certain characteristics . Then, vaccine is given to tens of thousands of people and tested for effectiveness and safety.
After that, the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices looks at the data to see whether the vaccine works and is safe. They give advice to the United States Food and Drug Administration . The FDA looks at the data and the advice from the ACIP and decides whether to approve the vaccine. The vaccine is only approved after all of these steps are done, and the experts are sure that it works and is safe.
What Are The Benefits Of Getting A Covid
COVID-19 vaccination will help keep you from getting sick from COVID-19. All COVID-19 vaccines available in the U.S. have been shown to be very effective. Experts continue to conduct more studies about whether the vaccines also keep people from spreading COVID-19. Wearing masks and social distancing help lower your chance of getting the virus or spreading it to others, but these measures are not enough. The combination of getting vaccinated and following CDCs recommendations to protect yourself and others will offer the best protection from COVID-19.
Further Data Needs For Booster Vaccination Policies
The decision to recommend and implement a booster dose is complex and requires, beyond clinical and epidemiological data, a consideration of national strategic and programmatic priorities, and importantly an assessment of the prioritization of globally limited vaccine supply. In this context, priority should be given to the prevention of severe disease and sustaining health systems. Evidence is accumulating to inform global recommendations, which may be refined as additional data become available. Additional data needs can be grouped into the following categories:
1. Assessing the need for booster doses:
Refined data on epidemiology and burden of disease:
- Epidemiology of breakthrough cases, by disease severity, age, co-morbidity and risk groups, exposure, type of vaccine and time since vaccination, and in the context of variants of concern
Refined vaccine-specific data:
- Efficacy, effectiveness, duration of protection of vaccination in the context of circulating variants of concern.
- Supplementary evidence from immunological studies assessing binding and neutralizing antibodies over time, as well as biomarkers of cellular and durable humoral immunity.
2. Assessing the performance of booster doses:
- Data on duration of protection of homologous and heterologous boosters.
- Safety and reactogenicity of booster vaccination, including heterologous boosting from larger-scale studies.
- Impact of booster vaccination on transmission.
3. Additional considerations include:
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Can Children Receive A Covid
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now recommends a COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 5 and older. Johns Hopkins Medicine encourages all families to have eligible children vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine. Currently, Pfizers vaccine is the only approved COVID-19 vaccine for children.
Read more about what parents need to know about the COVID-19 vaccine.
Why Should You Consider Getting Your Child Vaccinated
Vaccination, along with other preventative measures, can protect children from COVID-19 using the safe and effective vaccines already recommended for use in adolescents and adults in the United States. Similar to what was seen in adult vaccine trials, vaccination was nearly 91% effective in preventing COVID-19 among children ages 5-11 years. In clinical trials, vaccine side effects were mild and similar to those seen in adults and with other vaccines recommended for children. The most common side effect was a sore arm.
COVID-19 vaccines have undergone – and will continue to undergo – the most intensive safety monitoring in U.S. history. Vaccinating children will help protect them from getting COVID-19 and therefore reducing their risk of severe disease, hospitalizations, or developing long-term COVID-19 complications.
Getting your children vaccinated can help protect them against COVID-19, as well as reduce disruptions to in-person learning and activities by helping curb community transmission.
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Keep Taking Covid Precautions After Getting Vaccinated
The truth of the matter is that when we get vaccinated, were still going to need to play it safe. While most people will achieve some level of immunity between two weeks to a month after being vaccinated, a small percentage wont. Depending on your overall health, it also could take your body a little longer to build up a line of defense against the coronavirus.
Researchers are still figuring out how the body uses antibodies and other tools in the immune system to fend off COVID-19, and they dont yet have all the answers. According to Ogbuagu, we really need to achieve herd immunity the point at which transmission is reduced because most people have immunity before its really, truly safe enough to return to normal life.
For this virus, we probably need at least 70% of people to be immune, so that means were going to need to achieve a fairly high vaccination rate, Yang said.
So while theres a solid chance youll be protected once youre fully vaccinated, we should all still plan to practice COVID-prevention measures wearing a mask, avoiding crowded spaces and washing our hands until cases begin to dramatically drop.
This article has been updated with new data on the vaccines.
Experts are still learning about COVID-19. The information in this story is what was known or available as of publication, but guidance can change as scientists discover more about the virus. Please check the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the most updated recommendations.
Why Do I Need Two Vaccinations
The evidence from the clinical trials showed that people build up better protection against COVID-19 symptoms when the vaccine is given in two, smaller doses, with an interval between them.
Evidence shows that the second dose not only increases your protection against Covid but gives you longer-lasting protection so it is very important that you have both doses. COVID-19 can make you very seriously ill and have long-term effects on your health so getting the maximum protection possible will give you the best chance of avoiding this. For example, having two doses has been shown to be over 90% effective in preventing hospitalisation.
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What Do We Know About These Vaccines
The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, locally known as Covishield, is made from a weakened version of a common cold virus from chimpanzees. It has been modified to look more like coronavirus – although it can’t cause illness.
Covaxin by Indian firm Bharat Biotech is an inactivated vaccine which means that it is made up of killed coronaviruses, making it safe to be injected into the body.
The vaccine ran into controversy after India’s regulators gave it emergency approval in January while the third phase of the trial was still underway, sparking scepticism and questions from experts. Bharat Biotech, which makes the vaccine, has since published data suggesting 78% efficacy.
The Sputnik vaccine, developed by Moscow’s Gamaleya Institute, also generated some controversy initially after being rolled out before the final trial data had been released. But scientists say its benefits have now been demonstrated.
It uses a cold-type virus, engineered to be harmless, as a carrier to deliver a small fragment of the coronavirus to the body. After being vaccinated, the body starts to produce antibodies especially tailored to the virus.
The ZyCoV-D vaccine uses plasmids – or small rings of DNA that contain genetic information – to deliver the jab between two layers of the skin.
The three-dose ZyCoV-D vaccine prevented symptomatic disease in 66% of those vaccinated, according to an interim study quoted by the vaccine maker Cadila Healthcare.
What About Booster Shots
Moderna is working on a booster shot that will target the omicron variant of COVID for this fall as nations around the world prepare to distribute annual vaccinations against the virus.
“We are discussing with public health leaders around the world to decide what we think is the best strategy for the potential booster for the fall of 2022. We believe it will contain omicron,” CEO Stephane Bancel told CNBC’s “Squawk Box” on Monday.
Also Monday, Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla said a vaccine that targets the omicron variant will be ready in March, and the company has already begun manufacturing the doses.
“This vaccine will be ready in March,” Bourla told “Squawk Box.” “We already starting manufacturing some of these quantities at risk.”
Bourla said the vaccine will also target the other variants that are circulating. He said it is still not clear whether or not an omicron vaccine is needed or how it would be used, but Pfizer will have some doses ready since some countries want it ready as soon as possible.
Bourla said it’s not clear whether a fourth dose is needed. He said Pfizer will conduct experiments to determine if another dose is necessary.
But Bancel on Thursday said the efficacy of boosters against COVID-19 will likely decline over time, and people may need a fourth shot in the fall to increase their protection.
However, Bancel said the efficacy of boosters will probably decline over the course of several months, similar to what happened with the first two doses.
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Is There Anything I Should Do Before Getting My Covid
There are only two cautions before getting a COVID-19 vaccine:
- Dont medicate with over-the-counter pain relievers before coming in for your shot. We dont know yet what impact that might have on your vaccine-induced antibody response.
- If you are getting a flu shot or another vaccination, do it at least 14 days before your first COVID-19 shot. If possible, a month before is preferable but not required.
Otherwise, eat and drink as normal and go about your daily activities.
After your vaccination, its OK to take over-the-counter pain relievers if you need them for a headache, mild fever or any other discomforts.
Booking Your 2nd Dose
People aged 16 or over are eligible for a 2nd dose.
People aged 18 or over should have their 2nd dose from 8 weeks after their 1st dose.
Most people aged 16 or 17 should have their 2nd dose from 12 weeks after their 1st dose.
- If you book online, you’ll be asked to book appointments for both doses. You can manage your COVID-19 vaccination appointments to view your appointments and rebook if you need to.
- If you had your 1st dose at a walk-in vaccination site, you can book your 2nd COVID-19 vaccination appointment online. You’ll need to wait 24 hours after your 1st dose before you can book.
- If you have your 1st dose through your GP surgery, you’ll be contacted when it’s time to book your 2nd dose.
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Factors To Be Considered When Developing A Booster Vaccination Policy
Current situation in countries
At least 126 countries worldwide have already issued recommendations on booster or additional vaccination and more than 120 have started programmatic implementation. The majority of these countries are classified as high-income, or upper middle-income. No low-income country has yet introduced a booster vaccination programme. The most commonly prioritized target populations for booster doses are older adults, health workers and immunocompromised individuals . The degree of primary vaccination coverage in the eligible adult population varies. In several of these countries which are administering booster doses the coverage rates for complete primary vaccination are below 30%.
Global equity and supply
In view of the continued supply uncertainties in global vaccine access and equity, individual country vaccine booster dose policy decisions need to balance the public health benefits to their population with support for global equity in vaccine access necessary to address the virus evolution and pandemic impact.
Even as supply has continued to ramp up, hurdles in access and distribution have led to the prevailing inequities that can only be resolved by high coverage and supply and through countries commitment to global vaccine goals and targets, and to assisting other countries in need.
Public health use case and optimization of vaccine impact
Who Is Eligible For A Covid
According to the CDC and FDA, the following groups of people are eligible for COVID-19 vaccine boosters or third doses:
- People with compromised immune systems age 12 and older: The CDC recommends that people with moderately to severely compromised immune systems receive an additional dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine at least 28 days after a second dose. This is for the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines.
- People 16 years and older: Anyone in this age group who received the two-dose Pfizer or Moderna vaccines can get a booster dose six months after their second dose.
- People who received a single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine: Anyone who got a Johnson & Johnson shot can get a booster dose two months after their first dose, according to the CDC.
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Osha Ets And Recent Miosha Action
As previously reported, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit recently lifted a judicial stay that had previously prevented the implementation of OSHAs ETS for employers with 100 or more employees. OSHA responded to this ruling by issuing new compliance dates for the ETS: Covered employers were given until today, January 10, 2022, to comply with all provisions, except for the testing requirement for unvaccinated employees. The testing requirement was rescheduled to take effect on February 9, 2022.
Several petitioners filed immediate emergency appeals to the Supreme Court asking the Court to reinstitute the judicial stay, pending a full hearing and decision on the matter. The Supreme Court granted the request and held an emergency hearing this past Friday, January 7, 2022 regarding a judicial stay of the ETS.
However, as of today, January 10, the Supreme Court has not yet issued a ruling. That means the federal ETS is in effect and will proceed according to the new compliance dates announced by OSHA, pending the Supreme Courts disposition of the case. You can find a full discussion of those requirements in our previous advisory.
What’s The Difference Between A Supplemental Third Dose And A Booster Shot
Based on CDC recommendations, third vaccine doses are available now for people who are considered moderately or severely immunosuppressed, while booster shots of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine are available to adults with high risk medical conditions for COVID, or are at high risk for getting COVID due to their occupation. Learn more here. You can also find out if you’re eligible for a COVID-19 booster dose or a third dose here.
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Which Vaccine Will I Get
You cannot usually choose which vaccine you have. When you book, you’ll only be offered appointments for vaccines that are suitable for you.
Most people can have any of the COVID-19 vaccines, but some people are only offered certain vaccines.
- if you’re pregnant or under 40 you’ll usually be offered appointments for the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna vaccines
- if you’re under 18, you’ll only be offered the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine
You should have the same vaccine for both doses, unless you had serious side effects after your 1st dose.
How Do We Know There Wont Be Side Effects In 5 Or 10 Years Time
So far, thousands of people have been given a COVID-19 vaccine and reports of serious side effects, such as allergic reactions, have been very rare. No long-term complications have been reported.
Like every other vaccine in the world and indeed like every medicine and treatment COVID-19 vaccines may cause side effects in some people who are vaccinated.
This does not mean that every person who has a vaccine will experience side effects, or that the side effects will be particularly bad or damaging.
Its also important to remember that no vaccine will be approved or even be tested in a phase 3 clinical trial if it hasnt first passed other safety checks. At every stage of a vaccines development, from animals studies right through to phase 1 and phase 2 trials, safety is always being checked and side effects monitored.
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How Long Do The Vaccines Take To Work
Protection starts around seven days after your first dose. To get the maximum amount of protection, people need to have their second dose. Full protection takes effect around a week or two after the second dose.
The first dose should give you some protection from 3 or 4 weeks after youve had it, but you need two doses for stronger and longer-lasting protection.
There is a chance you might still get or spread COVID-19 even if you have a vaccine, so its important to follow advice about how to avoid catching and spreading the virus.
What Is An Emergency Use Authorization
Three vaccines Pfizer, Moderna, and Janssen have received Emergency Use Authorization from the federal Food and Drug Administration. Pfizer has also been approved for people ages 16 and older. Learn more about what this means and other information about the vaccines in the FDA fact sheets for recipients and caregivers: Comirnaty/Pfizer, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson .
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How Do Vaccines Work
Our immune system is made up of special cells and chemicals that fight infection. We gain immunity against diseases either naturally , or through immunisation.Vaccines are made up of a modified version of a disease-causing germ or toxin , alternatively mRNA vaccines instruct our cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually given by injection or a small drink that contains the vaccine. The immune system responds to the weakened, partial or dead germ or inactivated toxin as if it was a fully-fledged germ, and makes antibodies to destroy it. These antibodies are made without us catching the illness.