What About The Booster Vaccine
The COVID-19 vaccine booster programme will give people extra protection this winter. Everyone aged 16 and over is eligible for a booster vaccine. Booster vaccines will be prioritised according to age, as well as any risk factors for COVID-19 . Some children aged 12 or over are eligible for the coronavirus booster.
You can get your booster once three months have passed since your second dose of the coronavirus vaccination. You’ll be invited to get your booster vaccine by your local NHS service. In England, people over 18 can also book online or go to a walk-in vaccination centre. Find out more about how and when to get your booster on the NHS website.
Most people will have the Pfizer vaccine for the booster . A half dose of the Moderna vaccine has also been approved for use. If you cant have Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, you may be offered a booster dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine.
What Are The Side Effects
Vaccines are very safe. It is much safer to get the vaccine than to get pneumococcal disease.
Many people have no side effects from the vaccines. For those that do, side effects are usually mild and last 1 to 2 days . Serious side effects are very rare.
It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is a very rare possibility, between one in 100,000 and one in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. Should this reaction occur, your health care provider is prepared to treat it. Emergency treatment includes injection of epinephrine and transfer by ambulance to the nearest emergency department. If symptoms develop after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.
It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your immunizing health care provider.
Who Can’t Get The Coronavirus Vaccine
Most people can get the coronavirus vaccine.
You shouldnt have the vaccine if you have had a severe allergic reaction to any of the vaccine ingredients, or experience anaphylaxis after the first dose.
Serious allergic reactions are rare. If you do have a reaction to the vaccine, it usually happens in minutes. The vaccine is only being given in safe health care environments with facilities to treat allergic reactions if they happen. For advice specific to you and your condition, its best to speak to your GP who knows your medical history.
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What Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Do
Pneumonia is a serious condition that attacks the lungs, causing coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing. It often requires hospitalisation, and can be life-threatening especially for the elderly or for people with weakened immune systems.
Pneumonia can be caused by viruses and fungi, but its usually caused by a bacterial infection. This is why both types of the pneumonia vaccine work by generating antibodies to kill pneumococcal bacteria. Once youve had the vaccine, your body will be able to use these antibodies to quickly fight off the bacteria strains that cause pneumonia.
Types Of Pneumonia Vaccine
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine also known as Prevenar 13 offers protection against 13 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. This type is given to young children as part of their routine NHS vaccinations. Its also available for adults under 65 through our vaccination service.
The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine also known as Pneumovax 23 offers protection against 23 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. This type is given to adults over 65 and anyone with a very high risk of pneumonia.
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How Effective Is The Coronavirus Vaccine Is Protection Instant
All approved coronavirus vaccines are very effective. But protection from any vaccine takes time to build up and, in general, the older you are the longer it takes. Its thought that it will take at least 2 weeks in younger people and at least 3 weeks in older people before you can expect a good antibody response.
A recent study has shown that fully vaccinated people are three times less likely to be infected with coronavirus. The first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine will give you some protection from the virus. But you need to have 2 doses of the vaccine to give you the best protection. Therefore, its really important you continue to protect yourself and others from catching or spreading the virus.
Pneumovax 23 Solution For Injection In Pre
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Pneumovax® 23 solution for injection in pre-filled syringe
Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine
The 0.5 mL dose of vaccine contains 25 micrograms of each of the following 23 pneumococcal polysaccharide serotypes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 8, 9N, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 17F, 18C, 19F, 19A, 20, 22F, 23F, 33F.
Excipient with known effect
Sodium less than 1 mmol per dosage unit.
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
Solution for injection in pre-filled syringe.
The vaccine is a clear, colourless solution.
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is recommended for active immunisation against pneumococcal disease in children aged from 2 years, adolescents and adults.
See section 5.1 for information on protection against specific pneumococcal serotypes.
The immunisation schedules for Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine should be based on official recommendations.
Adults and children of 2 years of age or older- one single dose of 0.5 millilitre by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is not recommended for use in children below 2 years of age as the safety and efficacy of the vaccine have not been established and the antibody response may be poor.
Persons with asymptomatic or symptomatic HIV infection should be vaccinated as soon as possible after their diagnosis is confirmed.
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Pneumococcal Vaccine Development: A Historical Perspective
S. pneumoniae was first discovered in the late 19th century by U.S. Army physician George Sternberg and French scientist Louis Pasteur, when it was recognized as a major pathogenic cause of bacterial pneumonia . In 1902, German scientist Friedrich Neufeld discovered that antiserum containing different types of S. pneumoniaspecific antibodies caused a type-specific capsular swelling, or Quellung reaction, which allowed identification of multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Polysaccharides that were identified coursing along the exterior of the bacterium could be targeted for vaccine development. British physician Sir Almroth Wright conducted the first large clinical trial of a whole-cell pneumococcal vaccine. This trial was largely unsuccessful, bringing vaccine development to a relative halt for the next three decades .
Booster Doses Of Pneumococcal Vaccine
If you’re at increased risk of a pneumococcal infection, you’ll be given a single dose of the PPV vaccine.
But if your spleen does not work properly or you have a chronic kidney condition, you may need booster doses of PPV every 5 years.
This is because your levels of antibodies against the infection decrease over time.
Your GP surgery will advise you on whether you’ll need a booster dose.
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Who Should Get The Vaccine
People over age 65. As you age, your immune system doesnât work as well as it once did. Youâre more likely to have trouble fighting off a pneumonia infection. All adults over age 65 should get the vaccine.
Those with weakened immune systems. Many diseases can cause your immune system to weaken, so itâs less able to fight off bugs like pneumonia.
People who smoke. If youâve smoked for a long time, you could have damage to the small hairs that line the insides of your lungs and help filter out germs. When theyâre damaged, they arenât as good at stopping those bad germs.
People getting over surgery or a severe illness. If you were in the hospital ICU and needed help breathing with a ventilator, youâre at risk of getting pneumonia. The same is true if youâve just had major surgery or if youâre healing from a serious injury. When your immune system is weak because of illness or injury or because itâs helping you get better from surgery, you canât fight off germs as well as you normally can.
Immunologic Basis And Host Response To Pneumococcal Vaccines
S. pneumoniae is a complex bacterium with 92 different polysaccharide capsular serotypes identified to date . The human airway uses numerous mechanisms to protect from colonization and invasive pneumococcal infection. Innate immune defenses, such as mucociliary escalator and an array of pattern recognition receptors that recognize bacterial proteins, help with the initial protection against the bacteria . The antiphagocytic bacterial capsule is considered to be the most important determinant of pneumococcal virulence and is important for colonization of the nasopharynx . Pneumococcal cell wall fragments and capsular polysaccharides are recognized by antibodies that bind and activate the complement system . All pneumococci serotypes can establish a carrier state and colonize in the human nasopharynx during the first few months of life. Children are the main reservoir, with colonization rates of up to 50%.
Pneumococcus bacteria and virulence factors including capsular polysaccharide. Immune response to polysaccharide and protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. MHC=major histocompatibility complex TCR=T cell receptor. Adapted by permission from Reference .
Polysaccharide-based vaccines have been shown to result in decreased memory B-cell frequency, whereas conjugate protein-based vaccines increase serotype-specific memory B-cell responses, highlighting that these vaccines induce important T-celldependent memory responses .
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Some Adults Are At A Higher Risk For Pneumococcal Disease Than Others
In 2019, approximately 43% of IPD cases in adults occurred in those aged 65 years or older, whereas half were in adults aged 19-64 years who were at increased risk for pneumococcal disease. This indicates that more than 90% of current IPD burden is in these two populations.
Chronic health conditions or other factors that increase risk for pneumococcal disease include:
Sickle cell disease or other hemoglobinopathies
Solid organ transplant
Who Shouldnt Have The Pneumonia Vaccine
Theres a long list of people who should have the pneumonia vaccine. Even if youre not on the list you may want to get the vaccine. Speak to a pharmacist in your local store today for more advice.
There are also some people who should avoid it:
- If youve previously had a severe allergic reaction to the pneumonia vaccine or any ingredients it contains, you probably wont be able to get the jab.
- If you have a fever and youre feeling unwell youll probably need to delay your vaccine appointment until youve recovered.
- If youre pregnant, you may want to wait to receive your vaccine until youve had your baby. The vaccine is generally thought to be safe for pregnant women, but there may still be a small risk for you and your baby until youve given birth.
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When Should I Get The Flu Jab
Using the recommendations from the WHO, the vaccine goes into production in March and usually becomes available in the UK from September. Every year, the timing of the onset and peak of the flu season changes making it hard to pinpoint the exact moment when its best to have the flu jab. According to the NHS, people should aim to have the flu vaccine during October or November, although its not a problem if you get the jab later in winter.
How Can I Manage My Symptoms
- Rest as needed. Rest often while you recover. Slowly start to do more each day.
- Drink liquids as directed. Ask how much liquid to drink each day and which liquids are best for you. Liquids help thin your mucus, which may make it easier for you to cough it up.
- Do not smoke. Avoid secondhand smoke. Smoking makes it harder for you to get better. Nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes and cigars can cause lung damage. Ask your healthcare provider for information if you currently smoke and need help to quit. E-cigarettes or smokeless tobacco still contain nicotine. Talk to your healthcare provider before you use these products.
- Use a cool mist humidifier. A humidifier will help increase air moisture in your home. This may make it easier for you to breathe and help decrease your cough.
- Keep your head elevated. You may be able to breathe better if you lie down with the head of your bed up.
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Signs Of Pneumonia Vaccine Side Effects
As with any vaccination, there are potential side effects of the pneumonia vaccination. Common side effects include:
Injection site soreness
Less than 1% of people who receive a pneumonia vaccine develop a fever. If your temperature is above 100.4 F , you have a fever.
Irritability is a feeling of agitation. When you’re feeling irritable, you’re more likely to become frustrated or upset. In children, this may present as fussiness.
Blood Clots And The Vaccine
There have recently been reports of a very rare condition involving blood clots after vaccination. While this condition remains extremely rare, there appears to be a higher risk in people shortly after the first dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine. Around 4 people develop this condition for every million doses given. Its seen as slightly more in younger people and tends to occur between 4 days and 2 weeks following vaccination.
The benefits of vaccination continue to outweigh any risks and you should still get your vaccine when invited to do so. All approved vaccines are very effective and will save lives.
If you have already had your first dose of the AZ vaccine and havent had any serious side effects, you should complete the course and come forward for your second dose, which will still be the AZ vaccine. Its important to have both doses to give you the best protection from COVID-19.
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How Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Work
Getting the pneumonia vaccine is an effective way to protect yourself against pneumonia. Itâs given as a single injection, usually into your upper arm.
Both types of pneumonia vaccine help your body to produce antibodies to protect against the pneumococcal bacteria that causes pneumonia. This means youâre less likely to become seriously ill if you do come into contact with the bacteria.
Protecting Yourself While You Wait For The Vaccine
Even though vaccines are being rolled out, you may not get yours for a while. This makes it very important you continue to protect yourself from catching or spreading the virus while you wait for yours. This includes:
- following the government guidance thats applicable to you
- washing your hands often, with warm water and soap, or using alcohol-based hand sanitiser
- staying at least 2m apart from people you dont live with, or are in your support bubble
- wearing a face covering, if you can wear one.
Read our guidance on understanding your risk of catching or becoming seriously ill with COVID-19 if you have a lung condition.
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How Long Does The Flu Vaccination Last
The flu virus is constantly evolving, therefore the flu jab you receive one year will not be effective against the flu present the following year. It will only be effective for the year it was designed for.
In order to understand this answer, its important to look into how the flu vaccine works. At the beginning of each year, the WHO gathers data to assess the strains of the virus in circulation before making a prediction about which ones will likely be present during the upcoming year. Based off this suggestion, the flu vaccine is then formulated to protect against three or four different strains of the flu virus.
The flu vaccine is therefore different every year, and some years it has a greater success rate than others.
How Is Viral Pneumonia Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will ask about your signs and symptoms and examine you. He or she will listen to your heart and lungs. Tell him or her if you have been around anyone who is sick. You may need any of the following:
- A chest x-ray may show signs of infection in your lungs.
- A mucus sample is collected and tested for the virus that caused your pneumonia. Your healthcare provider may swab your throat or the inside of your nose to get a mucus sample. He or she may ask you to cough mucus into a cup.
- Blood tests may show signs of an infection.
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What Do I Need To Bring With Me On The Day Of The Vaccine
On the day of your vaccinations, you should bring with you a face covering and your booking reference numbers, if your appointment is at a vaccination centre. If you need a carer, they can come with you on the day of your vaccine appointment.
If you take medication, you should bring a list of these with you to the vaccination centre. Dont bring the medicines themselves.
If you are on a blood thinner caller warfarin you should be going for regular blood tests to monitor the thickness of your blood. On the day of your vaccine appointment, make sure you know your latest reading and when you were last checked. If you dont know your reading, you can get it from your GP surgery. If your reading is unknown, it could mean your vaccination might not be able to go ahead. Vaccination centres dont have access to your medical records and so cant look up your reading on the day.