How Many Children Were Studied In The Clinical Trials And For How Long
Pfizers trial included 2,268 children ages 5 to 11, two-thirds of whom received two doses of the vaccine three weeks apart the rest were injected with two doses of saltwater placebo. Given how rarely children become severely ill, the trial was not big enough to draw meaningful conclusions about the vaccines ability to prevent Covid or hospitalization. Instead, the researchers relied on measurements of the children’s immune response, on the assumption that the protective levels of antibodies seen in older people would be as protective in younger children.
The Pfizer study for older children enrolled 2,260 participants ages 12 to 15. Of those children, 1,131 received the vaccine and 1,129 received saline placebo shots. The vaccine worked even better in children than it did in adults. No children in the vaccine group got sick with Covid-19, while 18 children in the placebo group became ill. The company is still gathering information, including testing the trial participants every two weeks for the coronavirus.
Moderna recently released the results of its trial testing the vaccine in 3,732 people ages 12 to 17, two-thirds of whom received two vaccine doses. There were no cases of symptomatic Covid-19 in fully vaccinated adolescents, the company reported.
What If I Book An Appointment Through The Nhs Website Or 119 And I Need To Rearrange It
If you need to rearrange an appointment that you booked through the NHS website, you can do this through the manage your appointments section on the booking page. If you booked through 119, you can also ring to rearrange your appointment.
If you cant attend your appointment for any reason, please cancel or rearrange it so that the appointment slot can be given to someone else who needs it.
Ive Received A Letter But Someone I Live Who Is The Same Age Hasnt Yet Can We Get Vaccinated Together
The NHS is inviting eligible people in a phased basis as supplies of the vaccine allow. It is important that you wait for your letter from the NHS, and you will not be able to book without one.
If you have received a letter and live with someone who is also eligible but has not received a letter, it is likely that theirs will follow shortly. If you like you can wait and book at the same time.
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Ive Seen Rumors Online About The Vaccines And Fertility Are They True
A false claim has been circulating online that the new vaccine will threaten womens fertility by harming the placenta. Heres why its not true.
The claim stems from the fact that the vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna cause our immune systems to make antibodies to something called a spike protein on the coronavirus. The false claim about fertility risk is based on the unfounded concern that these antibodies could also attack a similar protein that is made in the placenta during pregnancy, called syncytin. In reality, the spike protein and syncytin are similar only in one very small region, and theres no reason to believe antibodies that can grab onto spike proteins would lock onto syncytin.
Whats more, the human body generates its own supply of spike antibodies when it fights off the coronavirus, and theres been no sign that these antibodies attack the placenta in pregnant women who become sick with Covid-19. If they did, youd expect that women who got Covid-19 would suffer miscarriages. But a number of studies show that Covid-19 does not trigger miscarriages.Carl Zimmer
What Do We Know About A Single Dose Of Pfizer
Clinical trials of the Pfizer vaccine were designed to test the efficacy of the vaccine more than one week after the second dose. However, these trials also provided the first hints that a single dose could offer some protection as early as 12 days afterwards.
Real world data now supports these early observations a single dose is highly effective against hospitalisation four weeks after vaccination.
Meanwhile, early research and reports suggest a first dose of Pfizer could be between 50% and 90% effective at preventing infection.
Preliminary data also suggest people who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 after one dose of the Pfizer vaccine are up to 50% less likely to transmit that infection to other members of their household.
Read more:Mounting evidence suggests COVID vaccines do reduce transmission. How does this work?
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How Well Do The Covid
Anyone who gets COVID-19 can become seriously ill or have long-term effects . The COVID-19 vaccines are the best way to protect yourself and others.
Research has shown the vaccines help:
- reduce your risk of getting seriously ill or dying from COVID-19
- reduce your risk of catching or spreading COVID-19
- protect against COVID-19 variants
The 1st dose should give you some protection from 3 or 4 weeks after you’ve had it. But you need 2 doses for stronger and longer-lasting protection.
There is a chance you might still get or spread COVID-19 even if you have a vaccine, so it’s important to follow advice about how to avoid catching and spreading COVID-19.
What This Means For You
More research needs to be done, but it’s become clear that COVID-19 vaccines will need to be given more than just once. It’s likely that boosters and annual vaccineswhether the existing shots, or other therapies yet to be developedwill be needed throughout your life.
Like most vaccines, the COVID-19 vaccines work in more than one way to prevent infection. The first involves the production of antibodies.
Your body uses antibodies to fight off infection, but not as easily when it has never seen a novel, or new, virus. Because COVID-19 was a new virus, human bodies had not developed an antibody defense for it. The vaccines help it to achieve that.
The second way the vaccines work is to help the body develop responses in what are called memory B cells and T cells. These are immune cells that store information for future reference.
However, immunity does wane. Your individual response and other factors contribute to this loss of protection. Like human memory, cellular memory is short. Booster shots help to “remind” it to respond to a virus or other pathogen. Here’s how each of the current vaccines work.
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Ive Heard That Taking A Pain Reliever After Getting A Covid
Most experts agree its safe to take a pain reliever or fever reducer like acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve discomfort after you get vaccinated. You shouldnt try to stave off discomfort by taking a pain reliever before getting the shot.
The concern about whether pain relievers might dampen the effect of the vaccine stems from research in pediatric patients. Parents sometimes give children pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen before and after they get vaccinated to reduce fevers and aches that might occur following childhood vaccinations. Because fevers and other side effects are also a sign that the body is mounting a strong immune response, some researchers have questioned whether giving a child a pain reliever or fever reducer before or after a shot might blunt the effectiveness of the vaccine.
A review of studies of more than 5,000 children compared antibody levels in children who took pain relievers before and after vaccinations and those who did not. They found that pain relievers did not have a meaningful impact on immune response, and that children in both groups generated adequate levels of antibodies after their shots. Another study looked specifically at giving 142 children acetaminophen, ibuprofen or a placebo after a flu shot. The vaccine response was not significantly different in patients taking pain relievers or the placebo.
Moderna Covid Booster Faq: You Can Mix And Match With Pfizer After 5 Months
Booster shots for Moderna’s Spikevax vaccine have proven highly effective against omicron. You can now get boosted 5 months after a second shot of Pfizer.
New research shows the Moderna booster significantly increases protection against COVID and omicron.
The US Food and Drug Administration on Monday reduced the waiting period between the second shot of Pfizer’s mRNA vaccine and a follow-up booster from six months to five, but retained the six-month waiting period for those who received initial vaccinations of Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine. That means you can get a Moderna booster five months after an initial Pfizer vaccination, but still need to wait six months after your second shot of Moderna.
Acting FDA Commissioner in a media call on Monday, stating, “If you got J& J, you get a booster after two months. If you got Pfizer as your primary series, you can get a booster at five months or beyond. If you got Moderna, you can get a booster at six months or beyond.”
As the omicron variant continues to be the dominant COVID-19 strain in the US, responsible for nearly 60% of new infections, research indicates that, without a third shot, vaccines are minimally effective against the highly contagious mutation. The good news is that research also indicates the Moderna booster is highly effective in increasing that protection.
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Can I Get A Vaccine Privately
No. Vaccinations are only available through the NHS and are free of charge. If anyone claims to be able to provide you with a vaccine for a fee, they are likely to be committing a crime and should be reported to the police online or by calling 101.
- The NHS will never ask you for your bank account or card details
- The NHS will never ask you for your PIN or banking password
- The NHS will never arrive unannounced at your home to administer the vaccine
- The NHS will never ask you to prove your identity by sending copies of personal documents such as your passport, driving licence, bills or pay slips.
How Do We Know There Wont Be Side Effects In 5 Or 10 Years Time
So far, thousands of people have been given a COVID-19 vaccine and reports of serious side effects, such as allergic reactions, have been very rare. No long-term complications have been reported.
Like every other vaccine in the world and indeed like every medicine and treatment COVID-19 vaccines may cause side effects in some people who are vaccinated.
This does not mean that every person who has a vaccine will experience side effects, or that the side effects will be particularly bad or damaging.
Its also important to remember that no vaccine will be approved or even be tested in a phase 3 clinical trial if it hasnt first passed other safety checks. At every stage of a vaccines development, from animals studies right through to phase 1 and phase 2 trials, safety is always being checked and side effects monitored.
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I Havent Had Any Side Effects After The Vaccine Does That Mean Its Not Working
Just as some people experience side effects from medications and some dont, people have varied reactions to vaccines. While we tend to hear only about the unpleasant reactions after the vaccine, a lot of people experience only mild discomfort or no symptoms at all after getting the shot.
In the Pfizer trial, for instance, about half the participants developed fatigue. Other side effects occurred in at least 25 to 33 percent of patients, including headaches, chills and muscle pain. That means that half or more of the participants did not have those side effects, and yet the overall efficacy of the vaccine was 95 percent, suggesting that a lack of side effects does not mean a vaccine isnt working. We also know that older people tended to report fewer side effects than younger people, probably because aging immune systems arent as strong. As people age, bodily defenses against pathogens weaken, and the response to vaccines also falters. But in the Pfizer and Covid vaccine trials, older people still produced adequate levels of antibodies, indicating a strong immune response after the vaccine. If you dont have side effects after your shot, be glad you are one of the lucky ones and dont worry.Tara Parker-Pope
Getting Your Second Dose Increases Protection
Clinical trials showed the Pfizer vaccine had a higher efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 infection after receiving the second dose. This is supported by recent real-world data.The first dose primes your immune system but protection doesnt last as long because the level of antibodies falls. A second dose gives your immune response a boost with lots more antibodies to help your immune response to mature and provide longer protection.
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Will It Be Safe For People With Guillain
Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare and serious condition that occurs when the bodys immune system attacks the nerves, causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis. Nobody knows exactly what causes it, but most patients report that they had recently recovered from a respiratory or gastrointestinal infection. Guillain-Barré syndrome also has been pinpointed as a possible complication of Covid-19.
Although regulators have found that the chances of developing the condition are low, they appear to be three to five times higher among recipients of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine than among the general population in the United States. The F.D.A. has now attached a warning to the Johnson & Johnson shot about the increased risk of developing Guillain-Barré after vaccination.
For people who have had Guillain-Barré in the past, the guidance has been confusing. The official guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is that people with a past history of Guillain-Barré should get the Covid vaccine. But Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the nations leading infectious disease expert, has said that he does not recommend that people with a history of Guillain-Barré get the vaccine. We recommend those people do not get vaccinated because you might trigger a similar serious response, Dr. Fauci said.
Ive Already Had Covid
The MHRA have looked at this and decided that getting vaccinated is just as important for those who have already had COVID-19 as it is for those who havent, including those who have mild residual symptoms. Where people are suffering significant ongoing complications from COVID-19 they should discuss whether or not to have a vaccine now with a clinician.
If you have symptoms that could be coronavirus you should get a test and not get your vaccine until your period of self-isolation has ended.
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Is The Vaccine Safe For Women Who Are Pregnant Or Breastfeeding
The C.D.C. has recommended that coronavirus vaccines be made available to pregnant women, though it also suggests that they consult with their doctors when making a decision about vaccination. Covid-19 poses serious risks during pregnancy. Pregnant women who develop symptoms of the disease are more likely to become seriously ill, and more likely to die, than nonpregnant women with symptoms.
In an early analysis of coronavirus vaccine safety data, C.D.C. researchers have found no evidence that the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines pose serious risks during pregnancy. The findings are preliminary and cover just the first 11 weeks of the U.S. vaccination program. But the study, which included self-reported data on more than 35,000 people who received one of the vaccines during or shortly before pregnancy, is the largest yet on the safety of the coronavirus vaccines in pregnant people. After vaccination, pregnant participants reported the same general pattern of side effects that nonpregnant ones did, the researchers found: pain at the injection site, fatigue, headaches and muscle pain. Women who were pregnant were slightly more likely to report injection site pain than women who were not, but less likely to report the other side effects. They were also slightly more likely to report nausea or vomiting after the second dose.Emily Anthes
How Long Will It Take To Build Immunity After Getting A Covid
Put simply: It all depends on whether this is your initial COVID-19 vaccine, or if you’ve already received a full vaccination series prior . During your first vaccine, your body’s immune system becomes active and builds antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 within two weeks of your first shot. Federal guidance indicates that people are “fully” vaccinated with mRNA immunity about 2 weeks after your second dose and two weeks after the single Johnson & Johnson shot.
CDC is strengthening its recommendation on #COVID19 vaccine booster doses. Everyone ages 18 and older should get a booster shot either when they are 6 months after their initial Pfizer or Moderna series or 2 months after initial J& J vaccine. Learn more: .
But as we know, high immunity can’t last forever, and scientists have spent the bulk of this year determining how effective COVID-19 vaccines are in real-time. “Detectable antibodies peak around two to three months after full immunization, and then begin to wane thereafter,” explains Shruti Gohil, M.D., University of California Irvine Health’s associate director of epidemiology and infection prevention as well a professor at the UCI School of Medicine
Additional doses of the vaccine, then, will “revive your circulating antibody population sufficient to reduce your risk of infection,” Dr. Gohil adds.
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How To Get Your Covid
If you’re aged 16 or over you can:
- find a walk-in COVID-19 vaccination site to get vaccinated without needing an appointment
- wait to be contacted by your GP surgery and book your appointments with them
If you cannot book appointments online, you can call 119 free of charge. You can speak to a translator if you need to.
If you have difficulties communicating or hearing, or are a British Sign Language user, you can use textphone 18001 119 or the NHS 119 BSL interpreter service.