A Meningococcal Capsular Group A Conjugate Vaccine For Africa
For the past two decades, the only meningococcal vaccines available in sub-Saharan Africa were a bivalent group A and C and a trivalent group A, C, and W135 polysaccharide vaccine . These vaccines are poorly immunogenic in infants, the age group at greatest risk of acquiring disease, and have only a transient effect, if any, on colonization and spread of infection. For these reasons, meningococcal vaccination in Africa was largely done in response to epidemics, which was a logistically challenging strategy. Although an emergency response plan had been developed in collaboration with the WHO and the CDC,436 implementation was often delayed because of limitations of surveillance or logistics. One study estimated that even under optimal circumstances, fewer than 60% of outbreak-related cases were prevented by implementing vaccination after an epidemic was recognized.436 An improved meningococcal vaccine, therefore, was needed.
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Common And Local Adverse Events
Conjugate meningococcal vaccines
Injection site reactions occur in up to 59% of vaccinees. Fever is reported in up to 5% of recipients and systemic reactions, such as headache and malaise, are reported in up to 60% of recipients.
Mild reactions, including injection site reactions , occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Irritability occurs in up to 80% of infants and fever in up to 9% when other vaccines were administered. Headaches and malaise occur in up to 10% of older children and adults. These reactions last no more than a few days.
Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccines
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration, sleepiness and irritability. Higher rates of fever have been observed with simultaneous administration of 4CMenB vaccine and routine infant vaccines therefore, routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen or separating 4CMenB vaccination from routine vaccination schedule has been proposed for preventing fever in infants and children up to three years of age.
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration and irritability.
Can The Meningococcal Vaccine Cause Meningococcal Disease
The short answer is no. There are actually four meningococcal vaccines licensed in the U.S. None of the vaccines contains live bacteria.
The vaccines contain antigens — substances that trigger the body’s immune system and cause it to make antibodies. These antibodies then protect the body by attacking and killing the bacteria if it should invade your system.
The first vaccine — meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine or MPSV4 — was approved in 1978. It’s made with the antigens contained in the outer polysaccharide or sugar capsule that surrounds the bacterium.
The meningococcal conjugate vaccine or MCV4 was approved in 2005. It uses antigens taken from the polysaccharide capsule and then bound to a separate protein that targets the body’s immune cells. This makes it easier for the body’s immune system to see and recognize the antigens.
One type of MCV4, Menveo, is licensed for use in people ages 2 to 55. Another version, Menactra, is approved for those 9 months to 55 years old. MPSV4 is the only vaccine licensed for use in people over 55 as well as people 2 to 55. Both vaccines protect against four types of meningococcal disease.
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Do Teens Need A Meningitis Vaccine Booster
If your kids were 11 or 12 years old when they were first vaccinated against meningitis, they may need a booster shot in their teens. It often depends on the type of meningitis vaccine that was given.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , teens and young adults may need a booster, or follow-up, meningitis vaccination, depending on when they were first vaccinated and any high-risk circumstances they might be facing.
Meningitis is an infection of the blood and cerebrospinal fluid with severe consequences, including hearing loss, learning delays, the loss of fingers or toes, and even death. A number of different types of bacteria, viruses, and even fungi can cause meningitis. One of the common causes of bacterial meningitis is the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. When children are vaccinated, it is to protect against several subtypes of this bacteria.
The risk for meningitis infections increases among teens and college students, in part because these groups spend so much time in close quarters, easily exposing one another to infectious agents. For many years, the meningitis vaccine used for teens was the MPSV4, or polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine. A new meningitis vaccine, the MCV4, or meningococcal conjugate vaccine, was approved in 2005. It is recommended for use in children over age 2 and in young adults, and is now usually given to kids at their 11- or 12-year-old check up, unless they needed to be vaccinated sooner.
Guidance On Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization
To ensure the ongoing safety of vaccines in Canada, reporting of AEFIs by vaccine providers and other clinicians is critical, and in some jurisdictions, reporting is mandatory under the law.
Vaccine providers are asked to report AEFIs, through local public health officials, and to check for specific AEFI reporting requirements in their province or territory. In general, any serious or unexpected adverse event felt to be temporally related to vaccination should be reported.
For additional information about AEFI reporting, please refer to Adverse events following immunization. For general vaccine safety information, refer to Vaccine safety and pharmacovigilance in Part 2.
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Meningococcal Disease: What You Need To Know
What is meningococcal disease?
Meningococcal disease is a very serious bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. It is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children ages 2 through 18 in the United States. Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, which are the membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord.
High fever, headache, vomiting, stiff neck and a rash are common symptoms of meningococcal disease. Among those who develop meningococcal disease, 10 to 15 percent die, despite treatment with antibiotics. Permanent brain damage, hearing loss, kidney failure, loss of arms or legs, or chronic nervous system problems can occur in those who survive.
Anyone can get meningococcal disease, but it is most common in infants less than one year of age and people with certain medical conditions, such as the lack of a spleen. Teenagers aged 15 to 19 and college freshmen who live in dormitories have a higher risk of getting meningococcal disease.
Fortunately, meningococcal disease is not as contagious as the common cold or the flu. The bacteria are spread by respiratory and throat secretions . The bacteria are not spread by casual contact or by simply breathing the air where a person with meningitis has been.
Who needs to be vaccinated?
The following people are at high-risk for meningococcal disease and should get vaccinated:
Who should NOT be vaccinated?
What you need to know about vaccine safety
What Are The Side Effects
About half of people who get a MenACWY vaccine have mild side effects following vaccination:
- Redness or pain where they got the shot
These reactions usually get better on their own within 1 to 2 days, but serious reactions are possible.
Following a MenB shot, more than half of people who get the vaccine will have mild problems:
- Soreness, redness, or swelling where you got the shot
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Before Taking This Medicine
You may not be able to receive Menactra if you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to a meningococcal, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccine.
Menactra may need to be postponed or not given at all if you have:
a severe illness with a fever or any type of infection
a weak immune system caused by disease or by using certain medicine
a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome or
a history of premature birth.
You can still receive a vaccine if you’ve a minor cold.
Your doctor should determine whether you need Menactra during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.
Commonly Asked Questions About The Meningococcal Vaccine
When are meningococcal vaccines typically given? There are two types of meningococcal vaccine:MenACWY and MenB. MenACWY should be given to teens and pre-teens a booster dose should be given 4-5 years after the initial vaccine. MenB vaccines may be given to older teens between 16 and 18. The vaccine is typically administered in 2 doses.
For children younger than 10 and adults, MenACWY is only recommended for patients with certain risk factors. Likewise, MenB may be administered to children over 10 and adults who are at higher risk for certain types of meningitis.
Can meningococcal vaccines cause fever or illness?Yes,a small percentage of patients experience side effects including fatigue, fever, nausea, or diarrhea after a vaccine. Then MenB vaccine is more likely to cause side effects than MenACWY, though either could generate a reaction. These symptoms normally disappear 3-5 days after the vaccine was administered. If symptoms persist outside of this timeframe, patients may need to seek follow-up care to test for more serious complications.
Can meningococcal vaccines cause allergic reactions?Pre-filled syringesmay contain latex, so patients with a sensitivity should discuss inoculation alternatives with their doctor. Anyone who has experienced an allergic reaction after a vaccine should speak to their doctor about safety concerns before they receive further shots.
- Medical costs covering complications
- Legal fees
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Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records
Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine, as appropriate for age, may be given regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccine, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of persons with inadequate immunization records in Part 3 for additional general information.
How Long Is Mcv4 Vaccine Good For
Meningitis vaccines are thought to only last for about five years, according to the Center for Young Women’s Health. Adults can also get the meningitis vaccine if their doctors recommend it. Certain situations can warrant the use of meningitis vaccinations.
Similarly, do adults need meningitis booster? People 56 years or older who are recommended meningococcal vaccination because they are at increased risk for meningococcal disease should receive a meningococcal conjugate vaccine. CDC recommends meningococcal vaccination for some adults.
Keeping this in view, how many doses of meningococcal vaccine are needed?
For those without risk factors, the decision to receive the MenB vaccine should be made together by teens, their parents, and the doctor. For them, the preferred age range is 1618 years. Usually, they need 2 doses.
What is the mcv4p vaccine?
MCV4 – Meningococcal VaccineMeningococcal disease is an infection caused by a strain of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis. Here is information about the vaccine that you can use to help protect yourself and your family from meningococcal disease.
Do Meningococcal Vaccines Work
Meningococcal disease is a relatively rare infection, and thus, it is difficult to perform studies that demonstrate efficacy. Approval of meningococcal vaccines is based on the measurement of serum bactericidal antibody . In general, conjugate vaccines produce a higher and longer-lasting SBA titre than polysaccharide vaccines. MCV4 induces protective SBAs to serogroups A, C, Y and W135 in adults and children older than two years of age. The meningococcal C conjugate vaccines are immunogenic in children younger than two years of age preliminary data indicate that provincial meningococcal C immunization programs have been effective at preventing infection. The incidence of serogroup C infection has declined since the introduction of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine, and only rare vaccine failures have been reported. MCV4 induces high SBA titres to serogroup C, but there are no head-to-head comparisons of MCV4 with the monovalent serogroup C conjugate vaccine.
Do I Have A Case For Damages
If you or a loved one experience severe side effects after a meningococcal vaccine, its important to keep detailed records to be used as evidence down the line. Medical documents and bills should be copied or scanned so you have backups. Then, speak to a lawyer. They can advise you on whether you have a claim and help you gather and organize evidence and start the filing process. In a time thats likely filled with stress, fear, and sadness, its important to have someone who knows the rules and procedures on your side.
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Which Meningococcal Vaccines Are Available In New Zealand
Meningococcal disease is caused by a bug called Neisseria meningitidis. At least 12 groups of N. meningitidis have been identified, including groups A, B, C, X, Y and W. The pattern of disease caused by each group varies by time and country or geographical area. There is no single vaccine that offers protection against all groups. There are different meningococcal vaccines registered in New Zealand to cover different groups:
- Menactra covers groups A, C, W, Y
- NeisVac-C covers group C
- Nimenrix covers groups A, C, W, Y
- Bexsero covers group B.
For best protection against all meningococcal disease in New Zealand, separate vaccinations against group B disease and groups A, C, Y and W disease are recommended.
Where Can I Get Vaccinated
The best place to go for vaccinations is your family medical clinic. They have your medical records and can check to see if youve already had a particular vaccination. Either your doctor or a nurse can give the vaccination. If you dont have a family doctor , you can go to one of the after-hour medical clinics. phone them first to make sure they can help you with the vaccination you need. You can find a clinic near you on the Healthpoint website. Put in your address and region, and under Select a service, click on GPs/Accident & Urgent Medical Care.Vaccines on the National Immunisation Schedule are free. Other vaccines are funded only for people at particular risk of disease. You can choose to pay for vaccines that you are not eligible to receive for free.
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What Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness caused by a type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus . Meningococcal disease is not very common in the United States, but teens and young adults are at increased risk.
The two most common types of infections are
Route Site And Needle Size
Administer meningococcal conjugate and serogroup B meningococcal vaccines by the intramuscular route. The preferred site for infants and young children is the vastus lateralis muscle in the anterolateral thigh. The preferred injection site in older children and adults is the deltoid muscle. Use a needle length appropriate for the age and size of the person receiving the vaccine.
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Countries Where Both Meningococcal Quadrivalent Polysaccharide And Quadrivalent Polysaccharide
There are two meningococcal vaccines available in the United States, MC-4 and MPS-4 and The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has published recommendations on their use.128 These vaccines as well as monovalent group C conjugate vaccines are also available in Canada. Selected properties of these vaccines are shown in Table 19-4. MPS-4 vaccine can be given both to adults and to children 2 years of age and over, whereas as of July 2006, MC-4 was recommended in the U.S. only for 1155-year-olds. However, in Canada MC-4 vaccine is also licensed for use in children 210 years of age. Routine MPS-4 vaccination of civilian populations is not recommended, primarily because of limited effectiveness in young children, the age group at greatest risk of acquiring disease, and minimal if any effect on decreasing N. meningitidis nasopharyngeal carriage in the population.
MC-4 vaccine elicits serum bactericidal antibodies of superior quality and persistence than those elicited by MPS-4 vaccine and there also is the potential for vaccination to decrease meningococcal carriage. Therefore, once MC-4 vaccine was licensed in the U.S. for persons 11 to 55 years, there was the potential to introduce routine meningococcal vaccination into the general population. The ACIP recommended routine immunization of adolescents at 11-12 years of age or, if not given at that age, before starting high school128. College freshmen living in dormitories also should receive vaccine.
Administration With Other Vaccines
Clinicians may administer MenACWY and MenB vaccines during the same visit, but at a different injection site, if feasible. Clinicians can also administer meningococcal and other vaccines during the same visit, but at a different injection site, if feasible. Administer each vaccine with a separate syringe.
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Individuals Who Should Not Get The Vaccine
You should not get the vaccine if:
- you have had an allergic reaction to any component found in the vaccine or had a severe allergy to a previous dose of a meningococcal vaccine,
- are pregnant or nursing consult with your healthcare provider,
- have previously had a neurological condition called Guillian-Barré Syndrome, or
- have moderate or severe acute illness with or without fever.
This vaccine is safe for people with medical conditions that impair the body’s immune system.
Is It Possible To Get The Vaccine And Still Get Meningitis
Because the vaccines do not protect against all causes of meningitis, it is still possible that someone could receive the vaccine and still get meningitis from a different strain not protected by the vaccine. But the risk of contracting meningococcal meningitis is significantly lower after the vaccine.
There are other causes of meningitis that are preventable. Vaccines like the Hib vaccine and the pneumococcal vaccine are also very effective at protecting against other causes of meningitis and should be included as part of a routine childhood vaccination schedule. Check with your doctor and your children’s doctor to make sure that you and your family are protected against meningitis, as well as other serious illnesses.
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