Thursday, September 28, 2023

How Long Is Tdap Vaccine Good For

How Do You Get Tetanus

How long does the Tdap vaccine for whooping cough last? Where do I get it?

Tetanus is a serious disease caused by bacteria called Clostridium tetani.

The spores of the bacteria live in soil, dust, saliva, and manure. If an open cut or wound is exposed to the spores, they can enter your body.

Once inside the body, the spores produce toxic bacteria that affects muscles and nerves. Tetanus is sometimes called lockjaw because of the stiffness it can cause in the neck and jaw.

The most common scenario for catching tetanus is stepping on a dirty nail or sharp shard of glass or wood that pierces through the skin.

Puncture wounds are most prone to tetanus because theyre narrow and deep. Oxygen can help kill the spores of the bacteria, but unlike gaping cuts, puncture wounds dont allow oxygen much access.

Other ways you may develop tetanus:

  • contaminated needles
  • wounds with dead tissue, such as burns or frostbite
  • a wound thats not cleaned thoroughly

You cant catch tetanus from someone who has it. Its not spread from person to person.

The time between exposure to tetanus and the appearance of symptoms ranges between a few days to a few months.

Most people with tetanus will experience symptoms within

Is Whooping Cough Vaccination In Pregnancy Working

Yes, it is. Published research from the UK vaccination programme shows that vaccinating pregnant women against whooping cough has been highly effective in protecting young babies until they can have their first vaccination when they are 8 weeks old.

Babies born to women vaccinated at least a week before birth had a 91% reduced risk of becoming ill with whooping cough in their first weeks of life, compared to babies whose mothers had not been vaccinated.

An additional benefit is that the protection the mother receives from the vaccination will lower her own risk of infection and of passing whooping cough on to her baby.

How Long Does A Measles Vaccine Last

If you already got the government-recommended dosage of the MMR vaccine, the CDC says you don’t need to re-up.

“CDC considers people who received two doses of measles vaccine as children according to the U.S. vaccination schedule protected for life, and they do not ever need a booster dose,” the organization says.

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Preparations Authorized For Use In Canada

Pertussis-containing vaccines

  • ADACEL®, Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
  • ADACEL®-POLIO , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
  • BOOSTRIX® , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • BOOSTRIX®-POLIO , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • INFANRIX®-IPV , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • INFANRIX®-IPV/Hib , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • INFANRIX hexaTM® , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • PEDIACEL® , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
  • QUADRACEL® , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.

In Canada, pertussis vaccine is only available as an acellular preparation in a combination vaccine. The amount of acellular pertussis antigen present varies by product. Preparations containing higher concentrations of acellular pertussis antigen are administered for primary immunization of infants and young children less than 7 years of age and may be administered as a booster for children 4 years to less than 7 years of age. Preparations containing a lower concentration may also be administered as a booster dose to children 4 years to less than 7 years of age and are the recommended product for older children, adolescents and adults .

For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within Health Canada’s authorized product monographs available through the Drug Product Database. Refer to Table 1 Contents of Immunizing Agents Available in Canada in Part 1 for a list of all vaccines available for use in Canada and their contents.

Vaccine And Immunoglobulin Safety And Adverse Events

More Evidence Showing Pertussis Vaccination For Pregnant ...

Refer to Adverse Events Following Immunization in Part 2 for additional general information. Refer to Diphtheria Toxoid, Pertussis Vaccine, Poliomyelitis Vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccine and Hepatitis B Vaccine in Part 4 for additional information regarding other components in tetanus toxoid-containing combination vaccines.

Common and local adverse events

Tetanus-toxoid containing vaccines

Redness, swelling and pain at the injection site are the most common adverse reactions to childhood tetanus toxoid-containing combination vaccines. A nodule may be palpable at the injection site and persist for several weeks. Abscess at the injection site has been reported. These events are most often related to administering the vaccine subcutaneously in error.

In clinical trials, injection site adverse reactions, including tenderness, erythema, swelling, or any combination, were reported in 10% to 40% of children after each of the first 3 doses of tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine. Mild systemic reactions such as fever, irritability fussiness or any combination were commonly reported , as well as drowsiness .


Mild soreness at the injection site and slight temperature elevation may occur following TIg injection.

Less common and serious or severe adverse events

Tetanus-toxoid containing vaccines

Serum sickness, brachial plexus neuropathy, encephalomyelitis and transverse myelitis have rarely been reported in association with tetanus vaccination.


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Where Can I Learn More

  • Talk to your immunizing health care provider.

About pertussis

  • Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a serious infection of the airways caused by pertussis bacteria.
  • The bacteria are easily spread by coughing, sneezing, or close face-to-face contact.
  • Pertussis starts like a common cold with symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, mild fever, and a mild cough. Over the next two weeks, the cough gets worse, leading to severe, repeated, and forceful coughing spells that often end with a whooping sound before the next breath.
  • The cough of pertussis can last several months and occurs more often at night.
  • The cough can make a person gag or spit out mucus and make it hard to take a breath.
  • In babies, pertussis can cause periods of apnea in which their breathing is interrupted.
  • Pertussis can cause pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, or death. These complications are seen most often in infants.
  • About 1 in 170 infants who get pertussis may die.

Caring For Your Child After Dtap Immunization

Your child may have a fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness in the area where the shot was given. For pain and fever, check with your doctor to see if you can give either acetaminophenoribuprofen, and to find out the right dose.

A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad on the injection site may help reduce soreness, as can moving or using the arm.

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Old Tricks For New Challenges

The notion that old vaccines might help in the fight against COVID-19 has persisted in the scientific community since the early days of the pandemic.

So far, live attenuated vaccines such as the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and the bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine against tuberculosis have dominated research and discussions on the matter.

For BCG, for example, some research has suggested that the vaccine can enhance the innate immune response to subsequent infections and reduce respiratory tract infections.

Newer studies, however, have looked into inactivated vaccines particularly the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines to see if previous inoculations translate into less severe manifestations of COVID-19.

A 2020 study investigated the bacterial vaccines DTP and meningitis B and deduced that childrens likely protection against SARS-CoV-2 could be down to cross-reactivity prompted by these vaccinations.

Cross-reactivity is an important mechanism for heterologous immunity, which happens when one pathogen induces an immune response to an unrelated pathogen in the future.

Because immunity wanes over time, especially when people do not receive booster shots, the researchers concluded that this could explain why older adults have more susceptibility to COVID-19.

Despite diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis being caused by bacteria and COVID-19 by a virus, multiple studies have demonstrated heterologous immunity .

Efficacy Effectiveness And Immunogenicity

How Long Is a Tetanus Shot Good For?

Efficacy and effectiveness

Protective antitoxin concentrations occur in virtually all healthy infants and children who receive primary tetanus immunization. Efficacy in standard pre-exposure and post-wound booster immunization regimens in adults has not been assessed in randomized trials but has been demonstrated in observational studies. Cases of tetanus occurring in fully immunized persons whose last dose was within the last 10 years are extremely rare.


It has been consistently demonstrated in clinical trials that one month after completion of a three dose primary series at least 99% of vaccinees have protective antibody titer.

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Do I Need A Measles Vaccine Booster

If you were vaccinated before 1968, you’ll want to get revaccinated. This is because early vaccines used an inactived, rather than a live, virus. “This recommendation is intended to protect those who may have received killed measles vaccine, which was available in 1963-1967 and was not effective,” they advise.

How Long Can We Expect Pertussis Protection To Last After The Adolescent Booster Dose Of Tetanus

Possibly 10 years. The longest published follow-up extended five years, at which time antibody levels and cell-mediated immunity were still readily detectable . The slow antibody decay pattern suggests that protection will last for at least 10 years . However, antibody levels do not correlate well with protection against pertussis, so proof of ongoing protection will have to come from epi-demiological studies.

A major challenge for pertussis control is that neither natural infection nor immunization induce life-long immunity against subsequent infection.

Incidence rate of pertussis infections in Canada between 1924 and 2004, based on notifications to Health Canada. Reproduced from reference

Awareness about pertussis, its risks and the importance of vaccination needs to be emphasized to adolescents and adults, including health care workers and day care providers who care for children. Paediatricians should ensure that they and their office staff have set a good example.

David Scheifele MD

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What To Do To Help Protect Your Family From Whooping Cough

  • We still know the best way to protect against whooping cough is to get everyone in your family immunized. If we immunize our babies, toddlers and infants per the schedule, and get the updates as adolescents and adults, we reduce the likelihood for infection in all. We also know that as time unfolds we may need additional boosters.
  • Booster shots boost your childs and your familys immunity. Stay up to date. Heres a post from Dr Ed Marcuse on pertussis boosters. The data from this NEJM study may help the CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics better know when to recommend that our children get the next booster.
  • Keep learning. Its a part of being human to lose immunity to infections, both from natural infection and from vaccines. Over time, our bodies forget how to protect against infections. This study points out that the new generation of children who have had only acellular pertussis vaccines may need additional boosters to keep them safe. Time will tell. New recommendations may come out later this year or next.

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Talk With Your Healthcare Provider

Vaccines Help Protect against Whooping Cough

Tell your vaccination provider if the person getting the vaccine:

  • Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of any vaccine that protects against tetanus, diphtheria, or pertussis, or has any severe, life-threatening allergies
  • Has had a coma, decreased level of consciousness, or prolonged seizures within 7 days after a previous dose of any pertussis vaccine
  • Has seizures or another nervous system problem
  • Has ever had Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  • Has had severe pain or swelling after a previous dose of any vaccine that protects against tetanus or diphtheria

In some cases, your health care provider may decide to postpone Tdap vaccination until a future visit.

People with minor illnesses, such as a cold, may be vaccinated. People who are moderately or severely ill should usually wait until they recover before getting Tdap vaccine.

Your health care provider can give you more information.

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How Do I Spot Whooping Cough In My Baby

Be alert to the signs and symptoms of whooping cough, which include severe coughing fits that may be accompanied by difficulty breathing or vomiting after coughing, and the characteristic “whoop” sound.

If you are worried your baby may have whooping cough, contact your doctor immediately.

Read more about whooping cough vaccination in the leaflet Whooping cough and pregnancy from Public Health England.

What Is A Tdap Shot

The Tdap shot is a common tetanus vaccine. But this vaccine protects against more germs than just tetanus.

Tdap stands for tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis. Diphtheria is a bacterial infection that can cause trouble breathing, heart damage, and paralysis. Pertussis, or whooping cough, can cause pneumonia, seizures, and brain damage, especially in infants and children. The word acellular means that only part of the pertussis bacteria is used to make the vaccine.

The diphtheria and pertussis vaccines are commonly combined with tetanus because of similar recommended vaccine schedules. This helps lower the number of shots given at one time.

Tdap vaccines can be given to anyone over the age of 10. The first dose is recommended between ages 11 and 12. After that, you get regular boosters every 10 years, with a few exceptions that well discuss below. A tip to remember when to get your next tetanus vaccine is on your decade birthdays .

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What Types Of Diphtheria Tetanus And Whooping Cough Vaccines Are There

A combination vaccine contains 2 or more vaccines in a single shot in order to decrease the number of shots given.

The Food and Drug Administration licensed 12 combination vaccines for use in the United States to help protect against diphtheria and tetanus. Nine of these vaccines also help protect against whooping cough. Some of the vaccines include protection against other diseases as well, including polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, and hepatitis B.

  • DT and Td provide protection against diphtheria and tetanus.
  • DTaP provides protection against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
  • Tdap provides protection against tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough.

Upper-case letters in these abbreviations mean the vaccine has full-strength doses of that part of the vaccine. The lower-case d and p in Td and Tdap means these vaccines use smaller doses of diphtheria and whooping cough. The a in DTaP and Tdap stands for acellular, meaning that the whooping cough component contains only parts of the bacteria instead of the whole bacteria.

Is The Vaccine Safe In Pregnancy

How long is the vaccine good for after you get both doses?

It’s understandable that you might have concerns about the safety of having a vaccine during pregnancy, but there’s no evidence to suggest that the whooping cough vaccine is unsafe for you or your unborn baby.

Pertussis-containing vaccine has been used routinely in pregnant women in the UK since October 2012, and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency is carefully monitoring its safety. The MHRA’s study of around 20,000 vaccinated women has found no evidence of risks to pregnancy or babies.

To date, around 69% of eligible pregnant women have received the whooping cough vaccine with no safety concerns being identified in the baby or mother.

A number of other countries, including the US, Argentina, Belgium, Spain, Australia and New Zealand, currently recommend vaccination against whooping cough in pregnancy.

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How Can I Prevent Tetanus

Because established tetanus is often fatal, even with expert treatment, prevention is of paramount importance. The two major means of preventing tetanus are immunization and wound care.

There are two types of immunization for any disease — active and passive. Active immunization is when vaccines are given to a person so that the immune system can make antibodies to kill the infecting germ. In the U.S., health officials recommend active immunization of infants and children with DTaP — diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis — vaccine at the ages of 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 to 18 months, and again between the ages of 4 and 6. Children should next get a tetanus vaccine using the Tdap vaccine at age 11 or 12. Any adult who has not had a tetanus immunization within 10 years should get a single dose of Tdap. After Tdap, the Td vaccine is recommended every 10 years.

There is evidence that the tetanus immunization remains highly effective for much longer than 10 years.

When you have a wound, as long as it breaks the skin, it is possible to develop tetanus. Most doctors recommend the following if you have received your primary immunization in the past. If the wound is clean and you have not had a tetanus booster in the last 10 years, it is recommended that you receive one. If the wound is dirty or tetanus-prone, then your doctor would likely recommend a tetanus booster if you have not had a tetanus booster shot within the last five years.

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In People Who Are Pregnant

The Tdap vaccination is recommended for anyone who is pregnant. This shot gives your unborn baby a head start on protection against pertussis .

If you didnt get the Td or Tdap shot in the last 10 years, the shot may provide your unborn baby with protection from tetanus. It also reduces your risk of diphtheria. These conditions can be deadly to newborns.

The Tdap vaccine is safe during pregnancy.

For optimal immunity, the CDC generally recommends receiving the shot between , but its safe to receive at any point in your pregnancy.

If you dont know if youve been vaccinated, you may need a series of shots.

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Should I Be Concerned About Whooping Cough

Whooping cough is a highly infectious, serious illness that can lead to pneumonia and brain damage, particularly in young babies. Most babies with whooping cough will need hospital treatment, and when whooping cough is very severe they may die.

Research from the vaccination programme in England shows that vaccinating pregnant women against whooping cough has been highly effective in protecting young babies until they can receive their own vaccinations from 8 weeks of age.

In keeping with usual disease patterns, which see cases increasing every 3 to 4 years in England, whooping cough cases have fallen in all age groups since 2012. The greatest fall has been in young babies targeted by the pregnancy vaccination programme.

Cases of whooping cough in older age groups are still high compared to pre-2012 levels. The number of cases was particularly high in 2016, in line with the typical 3- to 4-yearly peak in disease rates.

Babies can be infected by people with whooping cough in these older age groups, so it is still important for pregnant women to be vaccinated to protect their babies.

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