Pneumonia Vaccine Side Effects
Most people who get a pneumococcal vaccine do not experience many side effects. While theres always a chance of side effects for any medication, the pneumonia vaccine side effects are usually mild and go away on their own after a few days, with serious reactions being rare.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccineMild problems following pneumococcal conjugate vaccination can include:
- Reactions at the injection site
Optimizing Strategies For Vaccine Uptake In The Elderly
The paucity of RCT data and the limitations of the cohort studies done to date make the evidence base for existing pneumococcal and influenza vaccination in older adults to prevent pneumonia marginal at best. To fill the gaps with conventional vaccines, several strategies have been investigated during the last few years, searching for innovative formulations able to offer a higher and broader immune response, or an equivalent response at a lower antigen dosage, while maintaining a good safety and bioavailability profile.95,96 Three innovative vaccine approaches are currently being pursued for S. pneumoniae, as follows.
Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine
- People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting and injuries caused by a fall. Tell your doctor if you or your child:
- Feel dizzy
- Have vision changes
- Have ringing in the ears
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Who Should Get Prevnar 13 And Pneumovax 23
Prevnar 13 was developed for infants and children. The CDC recommends that all infants and children younger than 2 years of age get Prevnar 13. Prevnar 13 involves a series of four doses of the vaccine given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and sometime between 12 and 15 months of age.
Pneumovax 23 is the vaccine used in adults. It does not work in infants and children under 2 years old.
Most adults do not need a pneumococcal vaccine until they reach the age of 65. Once a person turns 65 years old, the CDC recommends Pneumovax 23.
The same is true for any adult who smokes or has one or more of these chronic illnesses:
Chronic heart disease
Chronic lung disease, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic liver disease
Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines
Pneumococcal vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines, with the exception of a different formulation of pneumococcal vaccine . There should be at least an 8 week interval between a dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and a subsequent dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, and at least a 1 year interval between a dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine and a subsequent dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine refer to Immunocompromised persons for information regarding administration of pneumococcal vaccines to HSCT recipients. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections. Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.
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Do The Pneumonia Vaccines Work
The pneumococcal vaccines are very effective at preventing pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in both adults and children. In one large study of over 84,000 adults aged 65 and older, those who received PCV13 were less likely to get pneumococcal pneumonia than were those who received a placebo shot. The vaccine protected about 45% of vaccinated people from getting pneumonia and about 75% from getting an invasive pneumococcal disease. Invasive pneumococcal disease is the most serious type and can be life-threatening.
PPSV23 is also effective and protects at least 50% of vaccinated, healthy adults from invasive pneumococcal infections.
In children, PCV13 has decreased the amount of invasive pneumococcal disease. According to the CDC, PCV13 prevented about 30,000 cases of invasive disease in the first 3 years it was available.
Getting the vaccine not only protects you from getting pneumonia and other types of pneumococcal disease, but also protects vulnerable people around you who cant get vaccinated.
Children At High Risk Of Ipd
Infants at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine in a 4 dose schedule at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months followed by a dose at 12 to 15 months of age. Table 3 summarizes the recommended schedules for Pneu-C-13 vaccine for infants and children at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition by pneumococcal conjugate vaccination history.
In addition to Pneu-C-13 vaccine, children at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition should receive 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine at 24 months of age, at least 8 weeks after Pneu-C-13 vaccine. If an older child or adolescent at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition has not previously received Pneu-P-23 vaccine, 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine should be administered, at least 8 weeks after Pneu-C-13 vaccine. Children and adolescents at highest risk of IPD should receive 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine refer to Booster doses and re-immunization. Refer to Immunocompromised persons for information about immunization of HSCT recipients.
Table 3: Recommended Schedules for Pneu-C-13 Vaccine for Children 2 months to less than 18 years of age, by Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination History
|Age at presentation for immunization||Number of doses of Pneu-C-7, Pneu-C-10 or Pneu-C-13 previously received|
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How Effective Is Each Vaccine
Vaccines help protect against disease, but no vaccine is 100% effective.
Studies show that at least one dose of Prevnar 13 protects 80% of babies from serious pneumococcal infections, 75% of adults age 65 and older from invasive pneumococcal disease , and 45% of adults age 65 and older from pneumococcal pneumonia.
Studies show that one dose of Pneumovax 23 protects 50% to 85% of healthy adults against invasive pneumococcal disease.
Who Should Not Get The Vaccine
People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.
Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .
Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.
A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.
Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.
There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.
The two types are:
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
- Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.
According to the
- roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
- 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
- 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease
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Who Should Not Get Pneumovax 23 Or Prevnar 13
Children younger than 2 years of age should not get Pneumovax 23. In addition, while there is no evidence that Pneumovax 23 is harmful to pregnant women or their babies, as a precaution, women who need Pneumovax 23 should get it before becoming pregnant, if possible.
Before you get either Prevnar 13 or Pneumovax 23, tell your health provider if you have had any life-threatening allergic reaction to or have a severe allergy to pneumococcal vaccines or any vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid . Also, tell your health provider if you are not feeling well. If you have a minor illness like a cold, you can probably still get vaccinated, but if you have a more serious illness, you should probably wait until you recover.
Vaccine Effectiveness And Time Since Vaccination
In general, lower VE was observed in studies with longer maximum time since vaccination . A Spanish prospective cohort study showed how VEs varied according to the time since vaccination . The VE increased and became more significant after excluding the patients vaccinated more than 60 months ago from the analysis. The VE estimates were 25% , 51% , 62% and 48% in the analysis exclusively including the recently vaccinated patients for any-CAP, pCAP, bacteremic-pCAP and nonbacteremic-pCAP, respectively. The VE estimates were 8% , 32% , 53% and 29% for any-CAP, pCAP, bacteremic-pCAP and nonbacteremic-pCAP, respectively, in the analysis regardless of time since vaccination .
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Before Taking This Medicine
You should not receive Prevnar 13 if you ever had a severe allergic reaction to a pneumococcal or diphtheria toxoid vaccine.
Tell the vaccination provider if you or the child has:
a bleeding or blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia or easy bruising or
a weak immune system .
Before your child receives Prevnar 13, tell your doctor if the child was born prematurely.
You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving Prevnar 13.
Tell the vaccination provider if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Babies And The Pneumococcal Vaccine
Babies are routinely vaccinated with a type of pneumococcal vaccine known as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as part of their childhood vaccination programme.
Babies born on or after 1 January 2020 have 2 injections, which are usually given at:
- 12 weeks old
- 1 year old
Babies born before this date will continue to be offered 3 doses, at 8 and 16 weeks and a booster at 1 year.
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Summary Of Information Contained In This Naci Statement
The following highlights key information for immunization providers. Please refer to the remainder of the Statement for details.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause many types of diseases including invasive pneumococcal disease , and community-acquired pneumonia .
For the prevention of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in adults, two types of vaccines are available in Canada: pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 pneumococcal serotypes and pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing 13 pneumococcal serotypes.
NACI has been tasked with providing a recommendation from a public health perspective on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults who are 65 years of age and older, following the implementation of routine childhood pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.
Information in this statement is intended for provinces and territories making decisions for publicly funded, routine, immunization programs for adults who are 65 years of age and older without risk factors increasing their risk of IPD. These recommendations supplement the recent NACI recommendations on this topic that were issued for individual-level decision making in 2016.
The Pneumonia Vaccine Explained
While pneumonia is usually mild, it can have deadly consequences for portions of the population, especially people over the age of 65. In fact, Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria that causes pneumococcal disease, is the No. 1 cause of pneumonia worldwide.
The vaccine indirectly protects adults by stopping children from spreading the bacteria
“But this bacteria doesn’t just cause pneumonia. It’s a nasty human pathogen that can invade the brain and bloodstream, leading to ear infections, sinus infections, even meningitis,” says Dr. Michael Ben-Aderet, associate medical director of Hospital Epidemiology at Cedars-Sinai.
“It can make people very sick, and it’s a key cause of death among the elderly.”
In 2017, an estimated 3,600 people died from invasive pneumococcal disease in the U.S. alone.
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Additive Preventive Effect Of Influenza And Pneumococcal Vaccines In Elderly Persons
Coinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza has been observed in several epidemics.86â88 It is speculated that the damage to the airway epithelial lining caused by influenza promotes bacterial growth,89â91 and that in turn bacterium-derived proteases enhance viral virulence. With the ongoing debate about the efficacy of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, there have been a few trials that examined the combined effect of simultaneous influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in older adults. In a large-cohort study of Swedish patients â¥ 65 years of age, Christenson et al92 studied the additive effectiveness of pneumococcal and influenza vaccination on a population of Stockholm residents aged 65 years and older. The study resulted in a 29% reduction in the incidence of all-cause pneumonia and a 35% reduction in the death rate from all-cause pneumonia in the vaccine group.92 Moreover, patients who were hospitalized for influenza or pneumonia after having received both vaccines had a significantly shorter mean length of stay than those who were not vaccinated. More recently, a randomized trial involving 786 Japanese individuals aged â¥65 years showed a significant reduction in direct medical costs for pneumonia who received routine influenza vaccination during the first year following the PPV vaccinations for subjects older than 75 years of age and for those who had difficulty walking, but not for all study subjects older than 65 years.34
How The Pneumococcal Vaccine Works
Both types of pneumococcal vaccine encourage your body to produce antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.
Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to neutralise or destroy disease-carrying organisms and toxins.
They protect you from becoming ill if you’re infected with the bacteria.
More than 90 different strains of the pneumococcal bacterium have been identified, although most of these strains do not cause serious infections.
The childhood vaccine protects against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacterium, while the adult vaccine protects against 23 strains.
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What Causes Pneumonia
There are many types of germs that can cause pneumonia. However, there are five main causes of pneumonia:
- Infectious agents, such as fungi
- Various chemicals
The most common causes are bacteria and viruses in the air we breathe. Pneumonia is classified according to the type of germ that caused the illness and where the infection was picked up.
Community-acquired pneumoniaCommunity-acquired pneumonia is the most common type of pneumonia. Its usually contracted near hospitals or other health care facilities from things like:
- Bacteria. The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in the US is Streptococcus pneumoniae.
- Bacteria-like organisms. Mycoplasma pneumoniae can also cause pneumonia and typically produces milder symptoms, also known as walking pneumonia.
- Fungi. Most common in those with chronic health problems or weakened immune systems. Fungi can be found in soil or bird droppings and vary depending on location.
- Some viruses that cause colds and the flu can cause pneumonia. This is the most common cause of pneumonia for children younger than 5.
Hospital-acquired pneumoniaThere is a possibility of catching pneumonia during a hospital stay for a different illness. This can be serious, since the bacteria that causes it can be more resistant to antibiotics. People on breathing machines often used in intensive care units are at higher risk of getting this type.
What Is Prevnar 13
In 2009, the vaccine was introduced for use in infants and young children in Europe. Its now allowed in more than 120 countries across the globe. Prevnar 13 is approved for use in adults 50 years of age and older in more than 90 countries, and is also approved in the U.S. and European Union for use in older children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years.
Prevnar 13 was licensed by the FDA under an accelerated approval process to address an unmet medical need in older adults. As a requirement of the accelerated approval pathway, Pfizer conducted CAPiTA to verify clinical benefit.
Prevnar 13 is also known as Prevenar 13, its name in many overseas markets.
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Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. Review of pneumococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present, as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious pneumococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is in limited use. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are new to Canada.
What Does This Mean
The announcement means that there hopefully will be fewer cases of pneumonia since adults can be effectively protected from it.
Pneumococcal pneumonia is a significant cause of illness and death in adults around the world, and the potential to reduce the burden of this disease through direct vaccination of adults represents a meaningful public health benefit, Dr. Emilio A. Emini, Pfizers senior vice president of vaccine research and development, said. Pfizer looks forward to sharing the CAPiTA data with U.S. and worldwide regulatory authorities and vaccine technical committees, to help inform decisions regarding potential Prevnar 13 label and recommendation updates.
Information on the study will be presented on March 12 at the 9th International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases in Hyderabad, India.
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Where Can I Find These Vaccines
Your doctors office is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child.
PCV13 is part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, it is regularly available for children at:
- Pediatric and family practice offices
- Community health clinics
If your doctor does not have pneumococcal vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.
Pneumococcal vaccines may also be available for adults at:
- Health departments
- Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers
Federally funded health centers can also provide services if you do not have a regular source of health care. Locate one near youexternal icon. You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get pneumococcal vaccines in your community.
When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local registry, if available. This helps doctors at future encounters know what vaccines you or your child have already received.