Before Taking This Medicine
You may not be able to receive Menactra if you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to a meningococcal, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccine.
Menactra may need to be postponed or not given at all if you have:
a severe illness with a fever or any type of infection
a weak immune system caused by disease or by using certain medicine
a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome or
a history of premature birth.
You can still receive a vaccine if you’ve a minor cold.
Your doctor should determine whether you need Menactra during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.
Menacwy Vaccines Are Safe However As With Any Vaccine Side Effects Can Occur
About half of the people who get a MenACWY vaccine have mild problems following vaccination, such as:
- Redness where the shot was given
- Soreness where the shot was given
- Muscle pain
- Feeling tired
If they occur, these reactions usually get better on their own within 1 to 2 days. Serious reactions are possible, but rare.
CDC continually monitors the safety of all vaccines, including MenACWY vaccines. For more information, view the Meningococcal ACWY Vaccine Information Statement.
Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records
Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine, as appropriate for age, may be given regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccine, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of persons with inadequate immunization records in Part 3 for additional general information.
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Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals. Review of meningococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious meningococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, conjugate meningococcal vaccines are in limited use. Information on vaccination schedules in other countries can be found on the World Health Organization website. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional general information.
Why The Meningitis B Vaccine Is Used
There are many reasons that the meningitis B vaccine was developed and why you would want to protect yourself and those you love against it.
Meningitis B is a serious disease that progresses quickly and can lead to death. The mortality rate from meningitis B in the United States is about 10 to 15 percent when treated and up to 50 percent when untreated. Its also possible to develop long-term conditions such as hearing loss or even brain damage after recovering from meningitis B.
The MenB bacterial infection is passed between people through saliva and respiratory fluids. Activities like sharing drinks, kissing, or coughing can spread the bacterium. The meningitis B vaccine can help reduce transmission between people and prevent or manage outbreaks.
Unlike many diseases, meningitis B is most common in young people. Infants and young children are at the highest risk. Adolescents and young adults are at the next highest risk of infection.
Between 2013 and 2018, meningococcal disease outbreaks occurred at 10 universities and led to two deaths. All 10 universities implemented MenB vaccination to prevent further spread.
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Primary Uk Vaccination Course For Meningitis
In the UK, most people are given vaccines against meningitis when they are young.
However, if you are travelling to an area where there is a higher risk of catching bacterial meningitis, this existing protection may not be sufficient, and you may need to receive a booster of the meningitis vaccine.
If you have had no meningitis vaccinations, you will need to receive a full course.
If you are unsure which vaccinations you have received, speak to one of our prescribing nurses, who will be able to advise you.
Healthy Infants And Children
One dose of Men-C-C vaccine is recommended in unimmunized children less than 5 years of age. One dose of Men-C-C vaccine may be considered for children 5 to 11 years of age if they have not previously been immunized as infants or toddlers. Immunization with 4CMenB vaccine or MenB-fHBP may be considered on an individual basis, depending on individual preferences, regional serogroup B epidemiology and strain susceptibility.
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Meningococcal Acwy Vaccine Side Effects
The meningococcal ACWY vaccine is effective and safe, although all medications can have unwanted side effects.
Side effects from this vaccine are uncommon and are usually mild, but may include:
- localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
- occasionally, an injection-site lump that may last many weeks
- low-grade temperature
- children being unsettled, irritable, tearful, or generally unhappy, drowsy and tired.
What To Think About
The menigococcal vaccine can be given at the same time as other routine childhood vaccinations.
The conjugate meningococcal vaccines may be used during pregnancy when the benefits of getting the vaccine outweighs the risk.
The conjugate and multi-component vaccines may be given to women who are breastfeeding.
No evidence has shown that Canadian university students who live in dormitories or residence halls are at higher risk of getting meningococcal disease.footnote 2
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How And When Should You Receive The Meningococcal Vaccine
In most cases, adults only need one dose. But if you remain at risk, you may need a booster.
Some adults may need another type of meningitis vaccine, the serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, if they are exposed to this virus through work or travel or if they have a damaged or missing spleen, or certain immune system disorders.
Are There Any Side Effects To The Vaccination
Side effects are usually mild. The injected area may become sore and red.
Young children may get a temperature of over 37.5C , so its a good idea to check their temperature often with a thermometer. You can consider giving them age-appropriate paracetamol to help lower their temperature. Make sure theyre in comfy clothes and keep them cool.
Headaches and joint pain are most common in older children and adults. These should go away with time, but can be eased with pain relief such as paracetamol.
Our in-store pharmacist will talk to you about possible side effects before the vaccination.
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Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
Before a vaccine became available for it, Haemophilus influenzae type b was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Hib is much less common today due to vaccinations.
Doctors usually administer the Hib vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. They will administer it again between the ages of 12 and 15 months.
The dosing regimen depends on the brand of vaccine an infant receives.
Doctors will give this vaccine either alone or as part of a combination vaccine.
Managing Fever After Meningococcal Acwy Immunisation
Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.
If fever is present, drinking extra fluids and not overdressing can help.
Although routine use of paracetamol after vaccination is not recommended , if fever is present, paracetamol can be given. Check the label for the correct dose according to your childs weight or speak with your pharmacist, especially when giving paracetamol to children.
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Most Health Insurance Plans Pay For Menb Vaccination For Teens And Young Adults
Most health plans must cover CDC-recommended vaccines with no out-of-pocket costs if an in-network healthcare provider administers the vaccine. Check with your insurance provider for details on whether there is any cost to you for this vaccine.
The Vaccines for Children, or VFC, program provides vaccines for children 18 years old and younger who are
- Not insured
- American Indian or Alaska Native
Parents can find a VFC provider by contacting their local health department. VFC will cover the cost of MenB vaccination for those
- 16 through 18 years old
- 10 through 18 years old at increased risk due to a medical condition
- 10 through 18 years old identified as being at increased risk due to a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak
You Are Pregnant Or Breastfeeding
- Pregnant women who are at increased risk for serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease may get MenACWY vaccines.
- Pregnant or breastfeeding women who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease may get MenB vaccines. However, they should talk with a doctor to decide if the benefits of getting the vaccine outweigh the risks.
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Common And Local Adverse Events
Conjugate meningococcal vaccines
Injection site reactions occur in up to 59% of vaccinees. Fever is reported in up to 5% of recipients and systemic reactions, such as headache and malaise, are reported in up to 60% of recipients.
Mild reactions, including injection site reactions , occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Irritability occurs in up to 80% of infants and fever in up to 9% when other vaccines were administered. Headaches and malaise occur in up to 10% of older children and adults. These reactions last no more than a few days.
Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccines
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration, sleepiness and irritability. Higher rates of fever have been observed with simultaneous administration of 4CMenB vaccine and routine infant vaccines therefore, routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen or separating 4CMenB vaccination from routine vaccination schedule has been proposed for preventing fever in infants and children up to three years of age.
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration and irritability.
When Are Meningococcal Vaccines Given
Vaccination with MenACWY is recommended:
- when kids are 11 or 12 years old, with a booster given at age 16
- for teens 1318 years old who haven’t been vaccinated yet
Those who have their first dose between the ages of 1315 should get a booster dose between the ages of 1618. Teens who get their first dose after age 16 won’t need a booster dose.
Kids and teens who are at higher risk for meningococcal disease need the full series of MenACWY vaccines, even if they’re younger than 11 years old. This includes kids who:
- live in or travel to countries where the disease is common
- are present during an outbreak of the disease
- have some kinds of immune disorders. If the immune disorders are chronic, these kids also need a booster dose a few years later, depending on their age at the first dose.
The sequence and dosage depends on the child’s age, medical condition, and vaccine brand. Some types of meningococcal vaccines can be given as early as 8 weeks of age.
Kids 10 years and older with these risk factors also should get the MenB vaccine. They’ll need 2 or 3 doses depending on the brand. They might need more booster doses as long as the risk factor remains.
For those without risk factors, the decision to receive the MenB vaccine should be made together by teens, their parents, and the doctor. For them, the preferred age range is 1618 years. Usually, they need 2 doses.
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What Are The Side Effects
About half of people who get a MenACWY vaccine have mild side effects following vaccination:
- Redness or pain where they got the shot
These reactions usually get better on their own within 1 to 2 days, but serious reactions are possible.
Following a MenB shot, more than half of people who get the vaccine will have mild problems:
- Soreness, redness, or swelling where you got the shot
Acwy Vaccination Is Free For Some People
In Victoria, immunisation against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y is available for free as part of the National Immunisation Program schedule for:
- children aged 12 months
- children from 13 months to under 20 years of age, who did not have their meningococcal C vaccine at 12 months
- young people in Year 10 of secondary school
- young people not in secondary school, aged 15 to 19 years.
Young people in the 15 to 19 years age group are more likely to spread the disease to others. One in five people in this age group carry the bacteria that cause meningococcal disease. Immunisation experts have advised that immunising this age group can prevent spread to other age groups and protect the wider community.
Eligible young people who are away from school on the day the vaccine was given, or who do not attend secondary school, can attend either a local government community immunisation session, or a general practitioner to receive the free meningococcal ACWY vaccine. The GP may charge a consultation fee.
Contact your local government to find out when and where immunisation sessions are held.
- People with specified medical risk conditions can also receive free meningococcal ACWY vaccine. This includes people with:
- a poorly functioning spleen or no spleen, including sickle cell disease or other haemoglobinopathies
- defects in, or a deficiency of, a complement component, including factor H, factor D or properdin deficiency
- current or future treatment with eculizumab .
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Administration With Other Vaccines
Vaccine providers may administer MenACWY and MenB vaccines during the same visit, but at a different injection site, if feasible. Providers can also administer meningococcal and other vaccines during the same visit, but at a different injection site, if feasible. Administer each vaccine with a separate syringe.
What Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness caused by a type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus . Meningococcal disease is not very common in the United States, but teens and young adults are at increased risk.
The two most common types of infections are
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How Effective Is The Vaccine
There are many different MenB strains. This vaccine has been developed to offer protection against as many as possible.
Ten months after the introduction of this vaccine, cases of MenB disease had reduced by half in babies. The MenB vaccine also offers some protection against other types of meningococcal disease, including MenW.
No vaccine will offer complete protection from meningitis. Remaining vigilant is vital.
Vaccines That May Prevent Viral Meningitis
Currently, theres no vaccine available to protect against viral forms of meningitis. But other routine vaccines are thought to offer some protection because they may prevent diseases that could lead to viral meningitis.
These include vaccines for:
CDC , there arent any known serious reactions to these core meningitis vaccines.
Some people may feel lightheaded after receiving a vaccine. This is believed to be a stress response to the vaccination process, not the shot itself.
If you have a history of feeling faint or passing out from shots, or getting bloodwork done, let your healthcare professional know ahead of time. They may take steps to decrease the risk of this effect, like having a loved one present during the appointment and having you lie down for several minutes after getting your shot.
Meningitis shots are recommended for pre-teens and teens. But adults of all ages may also benefit from vaccination if they didnt get these shots earlier in life.
Hib vaccines are given to newborns in several doses.
The first MenACWY shot is typically given at . A second vaccine may be administered around 16 years of age. You may also require proof of this type of vaccination before entering college.
The CDC recommends talking with your doctor about getting a MenB shot between ages 16 and 18 , especially if you plan on going to college or joining the military. Youll also need boosters of the same brand to complete your vaccination.
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Meningococcal B Vaccine For Children Less Than Two Years Of Age
Fever is common in children aged two or under two years of age when meningococcal B vaccine is given.
It is recommended to use paracetamol 30 minutes before every dose of meningococcal B vaccine given to children under two years of age or as soon as practicable. Follow this with two more doses of paracetamol given 6 hours apart, even if the children do not have a fever.
This is to:
- reduce the chance of fever occurring
- reduce the severity of fever that does occur.
Be sure to give the paracetamol dose that is written on the bottle according to your child’s weight.
Many Colleges Require Proof Of Menacwy Vaccination Within 5 Years Before Starting School
Regardless of school requirements, CDC recommends a booster dose for all teens who received the first dose before their 16th birthday. The booster dose provides the best protection during the ages when teens are at highest risk. Teens who receive their first MenACWY vaccine dose at or after age 16 years do not need a booster dose.
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What Are The Different Types Of Vaccines For Meningitis B
In the United States, two types of meningitis B vaccines are Food and Drug Administration -approved Bexsero and Trumenba.
To receive FDA approval, both vaccines had to undergo clinical trials showing their safety and effectiveness. Both vaccines work in a similar way but use different proteins to stimulate your immune response.
Bexsero is produced by GlaxoSmithKline. Its administered in two 0.5 milligram doses, 1 month apart.
Before approval, safety data was reviewed from 3,139 subjects in clinical trials in the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, the United Kingdom, Poland, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy. Additional safety information was collected from 15,351 people who received Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sponsored vaccines at universities.
Trumenba is produced by Pfizer and is administered in two to three doses. For the three-dose schedule, the second dose is administered 1 to 2 months after the first, and the third vaccine is given 6 months after the first dose. For the two dose schedule, the second dose is given at 6 months after the first.
Before the FDA approved Tremenba, reviewers examined
People who have the highest chance of getting meningitis B include:
In the U.S. meningitis B vaccine isnt available yet for infants younger than 1 year old but is administered in the United Kingdom as part of the National Health Service vaccination schedule.