Postexposure Prophylaxis For Non
|Wound cleansing||All postexposure prophylaxis should begin with immediate thorough cleansing of all wounds with soap and water. If available, a virucidal agent such as povidine-iodine solution should be used to irrigate the wounds.|
|RIG||If possible, the full dose should be infiltrated around any wound and any remaining volume should be administered IM at an anatomical site distant from vaccine administration. Also, RIG should not be administered in the same syringe as vaccine. Because RIG might partially suppress active production of antibody, no more than the recommended dose should be given.|
|Vaccine||HDCV or PCECV 1.0 mL, IM , one each on days 0 , 3, 7, and 14.|
* A 5th dose on day 28 may be recommended for immunocompromised persons.
How Much Does A Cat Rabies Vaccine Cost
Cat rabies vaccine costs will vary tremendously depending on the vaccine used by your veterinarian. Non-adjuvanted vaccines are significantly more expensive than adjuvanted vaccines, and the three-year form is more expensive than the one-year form.
Some veterinarians will choose to eat the extra cost rather than pass it along to their clients because they feel that the non-adjuvanted vaccine is simply better medicine. Other practices, particularly those that vaccinate a lot of cats, are unable to absorb this extra cost and must pass it along.
The cost of the procedure also depends on whether the vaccine is administered in an office visit by the veterinarian or at a vaccine clinic. Be aware that, as a rule, vaccines that are inexpensive are most likely adjuvanted vaccines.
If the choice is between an inexpensive adjuvanted vaccine or nothing, I strongly recommend choosing the adjuvanted vaccine.
However, if your veterinarian offers the non-adjuvanted vaccine, and you are able to afford it, that is the preferred choice for most cats, regardless of whether it is the one- or three-year form.
So, in short, rabies vaccines for cats are very important, regardless of whether your cat goes outside or not. It is important for the health of your pet as well as for you!
So call your veterinarian, dig that cat carrier out of the basement, and head in for a rabies vaccine today.
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How Long Is The Incubation Period Between A Bite From An Infected Animal And The Appearance Of Symptoms In The Cat
This can vary from ten days to one year or longer. Incubation in the cat is generally less than in the dog and is typically three to eight weeks. Death usually occurs within ten days from the first onset of signs.
The speed at which clinical signs develop depends upon:
1. The site of infection. The nearer the bite is to the brain and spinal cord, the quicker the virus reaches the nervous tissue and causes symptoms.
2. The severity of the bite.
3. The amount of virus injected by the bite. Rabies virus is not always present in saliva of an infected animal.
“Rabies virus is not always present in saliva of an infected animal.”
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Adverse Events Following Human Rabies Immunoglobulin
Human rabies immunoglobulin has an excellent safety profile, and generally no chance of immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Hypersensitivity reactions are more common with some equine rabies immunoglobulins used overseas.13
Lyssaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus. There are 12 known species in the genus Lyssavirus, including classical rabies virus and closely related lyssaviruses such as ABLV
History Of Aaha Vaccination Guidelines
In the 1970s, the United States Department of Agriculture licensed all vaccines, with the exception of rabies.
They based their recommendations on challenge studies performed from only a few weeks to a few months after vaccination. So they didnt know how long immunity really lasted. Field observation suggested that immunity after both natural infection and vaccination was long-lived.
But anyway, all the vaccine labels included the statement Annual Revaccination Recommended. So vets vaccinated yearly.
In the mid 1970s, Dr Ronald Schultz and others questioned this practice. So they began doing their research into vaccine DOI. Here was their 1978 recommendation
Based on our observations and existing knowledge of duration of immunity following natural infection and/or vaccination we published An Ideal Immunization Schedule for Dogs and Cats in 1978. We recommended a series of puppy/kitten vaccinations followed by revaccination at 1 year, then revaccination every 3 years.
So even then, more than 40 years ago, Dr Schultz believed that revaccination every 3 years was enough.
2003 Enter The AAHA
The DOI research prompted the AAHA to form the AAHA Canine Vaccine Task Force.
They evaluated the data from challenge and serological studies. In 2003 they noted that the core vaccines had a minimum DOI of at least 7 years. But still, they made the statement revaccination every 3 years is considered protective.
2006 AAHA Findings
2011 AAHA Update
2017 AAHA Guideline
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How Long Does A Rabies Vaccine Last
This is a legal question as well as a medical one. State law determines how long your dogs vaccination is considered protective, and the law varies from state to state.
There are rabies vaccines that are labeled as being effective for either one year or three years, though the actual contents of the vaccine may be the same. Labeling is a legal matter of testing and proof, and the difference between the two vaccines is the testing done by the manufacturer.
Some states require your pet to be vaccinated against rabies annually, no matter if the vaccine is considered to be effective for one year or three. Your veterinarian will know the legal requirements of your state and will help you to stay on schedule with your pets.
How To Administer The Rabies Vaccine
The rabies vaccine can be given subcutaneously or intramuscularly, depending on the species. Although this article focuses on dogs, it is worth mentioning that the vaccination site for cats is important because rabies vaccination can lead to sarcoma formation. Per American Veterinary Medical Association vaccine guidelines, the injection should be given as distally as possible in the right rear leg of cats,4 so that should a tumor form, it can be removed by limb amputation.
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Receiving The Vaccine Before Exposure
The standard schedule is three vaccine doses over the period of 21 to 28 days. However, persons running a high risk of contracting the disease might need an additional booster dose 6 to 24 months after the standard three shots. Some people might even need regular booster doses every 6 to 24 months. Heres what the standard pre-exposure schedule looks like:
- The first shot is administered as appropriate.
- The second dose is administered 7 days later.
- The third dose is administered 21 to 28 after the first dose.
Purified Chick Embryo Cell Vaccine For Pre
The product information for purified chick embryo cell vaccine states that it is for intramuscular injection only.
ATAGI recommends that the intradermal route is an acceptable alternative to the intramuscular route for pre-exposure prophylaxis.
The product information for purified chick embryo cell vaccine recommends that, for people who are considered to be at ongoing risk of exposure to rabies , a serological test should usually be performed at least every 2 years, with shorter intervals if appropriate to the perceived degree of risk.
ATAGI recommends boosters every 3 years for people at ongoing occupational risk. See People with ongoing occupational exposure to lyssaviruses are recommended to receive booster doses of rabies vaccine in Recommendations.
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When To Administer The Rabies Vaccine
Timing of the first rabies vaccination depends on state and city guidelines, hospital policy, and species. For dogs, it is typically first administered to puppies 12 to 16 weeks of age and then repeated in 1 year. Some vaccines are approved for subsequent 1-year use and some for 3-year use. However, regardless of the age of the patient or labeled vaccine duration, the first 2 vaccinations must be 1 year apart. Check your individual hospital protocol, local ordinances, and vaccine manufacturer to determine an appropriate rabies vaccine schedule for dogs in your practice.
How Often Do Cats Need To Get A Rabies Vaccine
There are a number of different brands of rabies vaccines for cats available on the market, and each brand comes with manufacturer guidelines that must be adhered to by the administering veterinarian.
The major differences between feline rabies vaccines are whether they contain an adjuvant or not.
Older vaccines contained materials called adjuvants, which act to boost the immune response to the vaccine. These vaccines worked very well to prevent disease, but in a very small numbers of cats, they were linked to the development of both local reactions and much more serious problems, like growths at the site of the vaccine.
Most veterinarians have now changed to the non-adjuvanted form of the rabies vaccine for cats. Originally, this vaccine was only released as a one-year vaccine. That meant that starting at the age of 12 weeks, a cat would need to receive the vaccine annually to ensure protection from the disease.
Recently, however, a non-adjuvanted three-year vaccine has been made available to veterinarians. This vaccine is only given once every three years after the initial one-year booster.
It is relatively expensive, so many veterinarians still prefer to use the annual form of the non-adjuvanted vaccine.
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People At Risk Through Their Work
Vaccination is also recommended for anyone at risk of being exposed to rabies through their job , such as:
- people who regularly handle bats
- people who handle imported animals, such as workers at animal quarantine centres
- laboratory workers who handle rabies samples
If you think this applies to you, speak to your employer or occupational health provider. If you regularly handle bats in a voluntary role, speak to a GP about the rabies vaccine.
Is It About Money
Its easy to suspect profits are at the root of vets resistance to update their protocols. Without vaccines, clients might be less inclined to make yearly veterinary visits. The American Animal Hospital Association reports that vaccine revenues are about 15% of the average practices income. So veterinarians stand to lose big.
I suspect some are ignoring my work, says Schultz. Tying vaccinations into the annual visit became prominent in the 1980s and a way of practicing in the 1990s. Now veterinarians dont want to give it up.
Another noted immunologist, Dr Richard Ford, Professor of Medicine, North Carolina State University, said
Both the AAHA and the AVMA must do more to step up to the plate,
But the reality is the vets dont have to listen to the AAHA or the AVMA. The state veterinary medical boards dont seem to enforce vaccine schedules, leaving it up to the individual vets. And theyre clinging to their old ways.
Dr Bob Rogers hired a Chicago-based law firm and initiated a class action suit for pet owners who werent given informed consent and full disclosure prior to vaccination administration. His article The Courage to Embrace the Truth states
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How Long Does A Rabies Shot Last
This is the central question. When should kittens get shots? On average, a kitten can receive his first rabies shot as early as 8-12 weeks of age, although the standard is between 4 and 6 months, and will need a booster to insure immunity a year later. Since reputable cat shelters and animal rescues will vaccinate cats prior to adoption regardless of age, their initial vaccination is less of an issue than maintenance. Scientific understanding of vaccination continues to develop and become more sophisticated.
Even in just the last couple of decades, weve gone from a traditional wisdom that domestic pets should be vaccinated against rabies once a year to a more detailed understanding of the inoculations staying power. Dr. Barchas asserts that rabies boosters can reliably provide immunity for up to three years. Three-year rabies vaccines are common now, and their effectiveness gives owners of exclusively indoor cats a bit more leeway.
If you cat spends any amount of time outdoors, there is no doubt about the necessity of keeping their core vaccines up to date. If your cats motions are restricted to the interior dimensions of your apartment or house, and there are no state or local laws in your area mandating regular vaccination for cats, then the frequency of boosters should be a topic you discuss with your cats veterinarian.
Can The Rabies Vaccine Cause Any Side Effects In My Pet
All vaccinations can create side effects in your pet, so monitor her after each vaccination appointment for the following signs of a vaccine reaction:
- Mild discomfort or swelling at the vaccination site
- A slight fever
These signs are mild and relatively common, appearing within a few hours after vaccination and resolving within a day or two.
But, if you notice the following signs, a more serious reaction is occurring and you should return to your veterinarian:
- Vomiting or diarrhea
- Swelling of the muzzle, or around the face, neck, or eyes
- Severe coughing
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People Who Are Travelling
You should consider being vaccinated against rabies if you’re travelling to an area of the world where rabies is common and:
- you plan to stay for a month or more, or there’s unlikely to be quick access to appropriate medical care
- you plan to do activities that could put you at increased risk of exposure to animals with rabies, such as running or cycling
It takes up to 4 weeks to complete the vaccine course, so you need to start it at least 1 month before you plan to leave.
Pregnant women are advised to have the rabies vaccine if the risk of exposure to rabies is thought to be high and there’s limited access to medical care.
Use the TravelHealthPro website to find out if there’s a risk of rabies in the country you’re travelling to.
What Are The Side Effects Of Rabies Vaccines In Cats
Fortunately, reactions to vaccines are very uncommon in cats. In fact, side effects of rabies vaccines in cats are very rare. When they do happen, they include slight fever, lethargy, decreased appetite and a localized swelling at the vaccine site.
These rabies vaccine side effects usually disappear within a few days.
In extremely rare cases, cats may develop an allergic reaction to the vaccine, which includes hives, swelling of the face and itchiness.
Severe reaction can include weakness and collapse. Keep in mind that these reactions are extremely rare allergic reactions occur in fewer than 10 cats out of each 10,000 cats vaccinated.
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Will I Have To Pay For The Rabies Vaccine
You’ll usually have to pay for the rabies vaccine if you need it for protection while travelling.
The vaccine course involves 3 doses. Each dose usually costs around £40 to £60, with a full course typically costing around £120 to £180.
If you need the vaccine because there’s a risk you could be exposed to rabies through your job, your employer should be able to provide it for you free of charge. Ask your employer or occupational health provider about this.
If you regularly handle bats in a voluntary role, you should speak to a GP to see if you are eligible for a free vaccine.
Vaccination After Potential Exposure To Rabies Virus Or Other Lyssaviruses
Post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus and other lyssavirus exposures comprises:
- prompt wound management
- type of exposure
- animal source of the exposure
- persons immune status
- persons previous vaccination history
Post-exposure prophylaxis must include wound management
Wound management is a vital step after a potential exposure to rabies virus or other lyssaviruses. To help prevent rabies transmission:
Avoid suturing a bite from a potentially rabid animal. Instead, clean, debride and infiltrate the wound well with rabies immunoglobulin. See either:
Also consider whether the wound could be infected with pathogens such as Clostridium tetani, and take appropriate measures .
Assess all potential exposures from a terrestrial animal in a rabies-enzootic area, or from a bat anywhere in the world
Assess all exposures to terrestrial mammals and bats for potential classical rabies virus transmission.
There are 2 different post-exposure prophylaxis management algorithms, depending on whether the lyssavirus exposure was:
- from a bat see Figure. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis: bat exposures
These 2 algorithms are different because:16
- up to 3 days in bodies kept at 25°C to 35°C
- up to 18 days in bodies kept at lower temperatures
Potential exposure to Australian bats
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How Widespread Is Rabies
Rabies occurs in every continent except Australia and Antarctica. Most countries are affected. The majority of countries that are rabies-free are islands.
Countries or islands that are currently accepted rabies-free are:
These rabies-free countries have relied on strict quarantine laws to keep the disease out, and particularly to stop the virus from getting into the wildlife of those countries. Great Britain and some other rabies-free countries have recently changed their quarantine regulations for fully vaccinated and microchip identifiable cats and dogs that meet certain conditions.
Who Should Be Immunised Against Rabies
If you’re travelling abroad, you can find out if immunisation against rabies is recommended for any countries you are planning to visit from the NHS website Fitfortravel.
People who are at risk of infection with rabies are advised to have the rabies vaccine as a precaution. In the UK, people whose work puts them at risk of rabies are entitled to vaccination on the NHS:
- People working with the rabies virus in laboratories.
- People who work with imported animals.
- People who regularly handle species of bats in the UK.
- People whose work might bring them into contact with rabid animals.
- Healthcare workers who come into contact with patients with rabies.
- People working abroad in high-risk countries who may be in contact with animals with rabies.
In addition, people travelling to areas where there is a high risk of rabies may be advised to have the vaccine. This is not available on the NHS and must be paid for. This includes:
Travellers to parts of the world at risk of rabies where medical treatment may not be available. For example:
Vaccines for travellers are available through GP surgeries, some pharmacies, and travel clinics. Information on the risk of rabies in the country you are travelling to is available from a number of organisations. For example, the National Travel Health Network and Centre, and Public Health England . Whether you need rabies vaccination will depend on:
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