Tracking Side Effects Once A Vaccine Is Administered
The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System is a national vaccine safety surveillance program co-sponsored by the Food and Drug Administration and the CDC.
VAERS collects and analyzes information from reports of adverse events that occur after the administration of US licensed vaccines. Reports are welcome from all concerned individuals: patients, parents, healthcare providers, pharmacists, and vaccine manufacturers. To submit a report, use VAERS reporting pageexternal icon.
Who Should Get The Flu Vaccine
Anyone over the age of 6 months can have the flu vaccine. The flu vaccine is free for these people, who are considered to be at greater risk of complications from the flu:
- pregnant women
- people aged 65 years and over
- people under 65 years of age with with certain chronic conditions, such as chronic heart disease, chronic liver disease, diabetes, cancer, asthma and COPD
- children aged 4 years or under who have been in hospital for respiratory illness or have a history of significant respiratory illness, including children aged 659 months who were hospitalised with measles.
Check with your doctor if you are uncertain about whether you qualify for a free flu vaccine. Read more about the eligibility criteria.The vaccination is also recommended if you are in close contact with people with weakened immune systems, as these people may be less able to fight off the flu or are at high risk of complications from it. Frontline healthcare workers usually have the vaccine funded by their employer.
The Eighties: Subunit Vaccines
In 1980, the first subunit vaccines were licensed in the United Kingdom and are currently available in several countries worldwide.
In 1978, as a result of a major mutation, a new virus strain, H1N1, appeared on the global epidemiological scene. This strain, which was similar to a virus circulating in 1958, emerged in Russia and began to co-circulate, either simultaneously or alternately, with the previous one .
Antigenic drift, caused by frequent changes in the composition of the virus, determined the need to update the vaccine composition each year. This necessity prompted both the implementation of the first surveillance systems and the production of the first trivalent vaccine, which included three formulation strains , in order to ensure effective protection during the 1978 pandemic.
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Do Immunosuppressed People Require 2 Doses Of Influenza Vaccines
People with certain immunocompromising conditions should receive 2 doses, a minimum of 4 weeks apart, of QIV formulation of influenza vaccine in the first year of being immunosuppressed. Only 1 dose is required annually thereafter. An exception to this is in patients 65 years, as they are recommended to only receive 1 dose of the higher-immunogenicity QIV .
Can I Have The Flu Vaccine If I Take Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a type of medicine used to treat some cancers, including metastatic melanoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, non-small celllung cancer and other solid organ tumours. Checkpoint inhibitors include ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab.
People taking checkpoint inhibitors may have a higher risk of immune-related side effects following influenza vaccination. Talk to your oncologist about the risks and benefits of the flu shot.
For more information on the flu vaccine, go to the Department of Health website or call the National Immunisation Hotline on 1800 671 811.
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Administer Vaccine Now Or Later
If there seems to be a huge increase in pandemic flu cases, officials will be tempted to trigger vaccine delivery before safety and efficacy studies are completed.
Would that be safe? The pandemic swine flu bug is a type A H1N1 virus. One of the seasonal flu bugs is a type A H1N1 flu bug. Seasonal vaccine doesn’t protect against the new swine flu bug. But there’s a long history of safety and efficacy for flu vaccines made of H1N1 antigens, notes flu expert John Treanor, MD, chief of infectious diseases at the University of Rochester, New York.
“You might be sitting at the end of August faced with the decision to do this,” Treanor tells WebMD. “If we wait, we can’t do vaccination until November. If the pandemic flu follows the seasonal-flu pattern with the bulk of activity in January through March, fine. But if we see this second wave coming in September, we might be faced with the decision to do vaccinations without clinical data.”
An HHS advisory committee on July 17 strongly recommended that Sebelius give the green light to vaccine production by Aug. 15 — before safety and dosing tests are finished. That would mean 60 to 80 million vaccine doses could be ready by Sept. 15.
How fast pandemic flu vaccine gets to people depends on the decision whether to give the vaccine in the traditional way or with something called an adjuvant.
Vaccinating all Americans would be an effort of historic proportions.
How Long Does It Take For The Flu Shot To Be Effective
Here’s what a doctor who treats the flu says.
Flu season has arrivedand if you haven’t gone for your annual flu shot yet, you’ve probably at least penciled it into your calendar . Seriously, there’s no reason not to. The flu vaccine is simple, takes zero time, and is the best way to reduce your odds of spending a week in flu agony.
But there’s one thing the flu shot can’t do: safeguard you from the flu immediately. In fact, the vaccine needs some time to work its magic.
It takes about two weeks after getting the vaccine for your body to build up enough antibodies to protect against the flu,Jean Moorjani, MD, a pediatrician at Orlando Health Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children, tells Health. That means the flu could still creep up on you during that two-week waiting period.
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This is why it’s important not to see your flu shot as a hall pass and let other flu-preventing precautions fall to the side. You still need to get enough sleep, maintain a healthy diet, and stick to your workout schedule to keep your immune system in fighting shape in case you do encounter the flu virus.
And of course, wash your hands with soap and water regularlyespecially before you eat or touch your eyes, nose, or mouth, all of which are conduits that allow flu viral particles to enter your body and infect you. Even after the two-week wait, never slack on these anti-flu measures.
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Why Are Adjuvanted Formulations Of Influenza Vaccine The Preferred Vaccine For Those 65 Years
A gradual decline of the immune system occurs as people age , impacting how the immune system responds to immunisation. For adults aged 65 years the adjuvanted QIV, Fluad® Quad is preferentially recommended over standard QIVs as the antibody response is increased in comparison to non-adjuvanted QIV influenza vaccines.
Can I Give My Patient < 65 Years Of Age The Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine Fluad Quad To Produce A Greater Immune Response
No. Adjuvanted formulations are currently only registered for use in those 65 years of age. They are designed to illicit a better immune response in the older population where response to the standard QIV formulations have been found to be less effective. Standard QIV formulations are recommended for those aged < 65 years.
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Who Can Get The Flu Vaccine For Free
The flu vaccine is free for New Zealanders who are:
- 65 years and over
- pregnant women
- under 65 who have certain medical conditions
- children aged 4 years or under who have been hospitalised for respiratory illness or have a history of significant respiratory illness.
Check with your doctor to find out if you qualify for a free flu vaccine. Read more about eligibility.
Factors That Determine Effectiveness
The vaccines effectiveness depends on the following:
- The age of the person vaccinated
- The state of the persons immune system, meaning the system that allows their body to defend itself against infections
- The degree of kinship between the virus strains circulating and those contained in the vaccine
The vaccine therefore does not offer 100% protection against the flu. The vaccine prevents the flu in about 40 to 60% of healthy people when the strains of viruses it contains correspond to strains circulating.
A strain of the virus included in the vaccine may not match the circulating strains. Indeed, the virus can evolve differently from what was predicted. As a result, the vaccine will be less effective against this strain. Nonetheless, the annual flu vaccine is still recommended, since it protects against the other strains included the vaccine that might be circulating.
For people aged 75 and over and those with chronic illnesses, the vaccine especially help reduce the risks of complications from the flu, hospitalisation and death.
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Who Is Most At Risk
Flu can affect you at any age, but some people are more at risk thanothers.
You are strongly advised to get the flu vaccine if you are:
- 65 years or older
- Aged from 2 to 17
- Living with a long-term health condition
- Living in a nursing home or other long-term care facility
- A carer
- In regular contact with pigs or poultry
You are strongly advised to get the flu vaccine.
Flu Vaccine For Frontline Health And Social Care Workers
If you’re a frontline health and social care worker, your employer should offer you a flu vaccine. They may give the vaccine at your workplace.
You can also have an NHS flu vaccine at a GP surgery or a pharmacy, if you’re a health or social care worker employed by a:
- registered residential care or nursing home
- registered homecare organisation
You can also have the flu vaccine if you provide health or social care through direct payments or personal health budgets, or both.
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Can I Get The Flu Vaccine If I’m Pregnant
Yes, it is strongly recommended that you get the flu vaccine if you are pregnant. It can be given in any trimester. Pregnant women are more likely to get severe complications from the flu than non-pregnant women, and it can be dangerous for their unborn baby too. Protection passed from the mother in pregnancy can protect her newborn as well. The flu vaccine has been proven to have an excellent safety record for both pregnant women and their unborn babies. Read more about pregnancy and immunisation.
What Is The Difference Between Egg
Traditional influenza vaccines are made by cultivating influenza viruses in chicken eggs. Cell-based influenza vaccines are made by growing influenza viruses in animal cells lines . By using a cell-based platform, influenza vaccines have the potential to provide protection against influenza strains that are more closely matched to the circulating influenza strains in the community.
Cell-based influenza vaccines have been used internationally since 2012 and in 2021 a cell-based influenza has been registered for use within Australia for the first time. Flucelvax quad® is available for private purchase for immunisation of those aged 9 years.
Expected side effects from cell-based influenza vaccines are consistent to the side effects expected from traditional egg-based influenza vaccines. The most commonly reported symptoms are local injection site reactions, including pain and redness.
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How Are Seasonal Flu Vaccines Made
Each year, a new flu shot is developed to try to combat the strains of the virus expected to wreak havoc that season. But who decides which viruses make it into the vaccine? What new technologies are being used to produce that vaccine more efficiently?
Coughing, chills, runny nose, and fatigue mean its that time of year againthe time when we spread holiday cheer and, well, the flu. Here at QDT we know what the flu is, how its different than the common cold, who is more susceptible to flu symptoms, and how to avoid getting and spreading the flu . You may also know that the flu shot changes each year, but how is the vaccine made? Who decides what strains of flu go into the vaccine each year, and how do they make that choice?
What Goes into a Flu Vaccine?
All year long, 142 national influenza centers in 113 different countries collect data on the flu viruses impacting the worlds population. Specifically, they monitor which strains of the virus are making people sick, how efficiently those strains are spreading, and how well previous vaccines have worked to combat their targeted viruses.
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Southern Hemisphere Influenza Season
The composition of virus vaccines for use in the 2018 Southern Hemisphere influenza season recommended by the World Health Organization on September 28, 2017, was:
- an A/Michigan/45/2015 pdm09-like virus
- an A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 -like virus
- a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus
The WHO recommended that quadrivalent vaccines containing two influenza B viruses should contain the above three viruses and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.
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Headache And Other Aches And Pains
After your shot, you might have headaches or some achiness and pain in the muscles throughout your body. This also usually happens on the first day and goes away within two days. Taking pain relievers can help ease your discomfort.
Its controversial whether its safe to take acetaminophen or ibuprofen to treat these vaccine side effects.
Some research suggests that these medications might change or decrease how your body responds to the vaccine. One study involving children found that taking acetaminophen or ibuprofen didnt reduce the bodys response to the flu vaccine.
Other research is mixed. Its still unclear whether these medications should be avoided.
The Seventies: Genetic Reassortment
Split vaccines were widely used during the pandemic swine influenza in 1976 and in 1977, when the H1N1 subtype re-emerged worldwide. However, they were seen to be less immunogenic than whole virus vaccines in “primed” subjects who had never been vaccinated. Indeed, it was shown that two vaccine doses were needed in order to ensure effective protection .
At the beginning of the 1970s, an important innovation was introduced into the production of influenza vaccines: the genetic reassortment of influenza virus strains this technique enabled the vaccine strains to grow faster in embryonated hen eggs .
The first subunit vaccine was created between 1976 and 1977. This contained only the surface antigens, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase , which were isolated by means of successive purification steps.
This innovative tool proved to be highly immunogenic and well tolerated in humans, especially in children, although two doses were needed to guarantee vaccine effectiveness during epidemics .
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Flu Vaccine During Pregnancy
If you are pregnant, you should get the flu vaccine as soon as possible.This is because pregnant people are more at risk of complications from flu.
If you are pregnant through two flu seasons , you may needto get two flu vaccines . Readmore about the flu vaccine during pregnancy.
You may be able to get the flu vaccine on the same day as the whoopingcough vaccine.
How Do Flu Vaccines Work
Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in the body about two weeks after vaccination. These antibodies provide protection against infection with circulating influenza viruses.
Seasonal flu vaccines are designed to protect against the influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common during the upcoming season. All flu vaccines in the United States are quadrivalent vaccines, which means they protect against four different flu viruses an influenza A virus, an influenza A virus, and two influenza B viruses.
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Why Do I Need An Influenza Vaccine Every Year
The circulating strains of influenza virus varies each year and therefore influenza vaccines are modified annually to provide protection against those more commonly circulating strains. Optimal influenza disease protection occurs in the first 3-4 months following immunisation before it begins to wane. Annual influenza immunisation is therefore strongly recommended to have the best possible protection against influenza disease and its complications.
Allergic Reactions To The Flu Vaccine
It’s very rare for anyone to have a serious allergic reaction to the flu vaccine. If this does happen, it usually happens within minutes.
The person who vaccinates you will be trained to deal with allergic reactions and treat them immediately.
Anyone can report a suspected side effect of a vaccine through the Yellow Card Scheme.
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Who Should Have The Flu Shot
The Australian Government recommends that everyone over the age of 6 months has a flu vaccination every year.
Its difficult to predict who will catch influenza , or who will become seriously ill from it. The flu can require hospitalisation and can even be fatal.
Getting vaccinated against the flu helps protect both you and the people around you. Its particularly important to protect vulnerable people in the community who cant be vaccinated, such as babies who are younger than 6 months and adults with low immunity.
What Is An Enhanced Influenza Vaccine
An enhanced flu vaccine is one that contains an adjuvant, an ingredient designed to increase the immune-system response to the vaccine. People aged 65 and older are often given an enhanced influenza vaccine because since the immune system weakens with age they dont respond as well to the flu vaccine as healthy, younger adults.
Fluad Quad is an enhanced flu vaccine recommended for people aged 65 and over in Australia.
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Children Aged 9 And Up
From the age of 9, children that get the flu vaccine receive a single dose of it, even if they have never received a flu vaccine before.
The immune system of a 9 year old child is indeed sufficiently developed to produce enough antibodies to protect them with a single dose of the vaccine.
Children who have certain chronic diseases can get vaccinated free of charge under the Flu Vaccination Program.