How Well Do The Covid
Anyone who gets COVID-19 can become seriously ill or have long-term effects . The COVID-19 vaccines are the best way to protect yourself and others.
Research has shown the vaccines help:
- reduce your risk of getting seriously ill or dying from COVID-19
- reduce your risk of catching or spreading COVID-19
- protect against COVID-19 variants
The 1st dose should give you some protection from 3 or 4 weeks after you’ve had it. But you need 2 doses for stronger and longer-lasting protection.
There is a chance you might still get or spread COVID-19 even if you have a vaccine, so it’s important to follow advice about how to avoid catching and spreading COVID-19.
How Do These Vaccines Work
The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines both use mRNA technology. The cells in your body naturally use mRNA all the time to create many different types of proteins that you need to stay healthy.
The mRNA in the two-dose COVID-19 vaccines provide the cells of your body with instructions on how to make the spike protein thats specific to the new coronavirus. This spike protein is found on the surface of the virus. It uses this spike protein to attach to and enter a host cell in your body.
When you get your COVID-19 vaccine, your immune system processes information on the spike protein and generates an immune response to it. This includes the production of antibodies.
Vaccines hinge on a very important aspect of your immune system, which is the fact that it has memory. After your vaccination, your immune system continues to store information on the spike protein.
If youre exposed to the new coronavirus, your immune system will then use this stored information to respond and protect you from the virus. This can help prevent you from becoming sick with COVID-19.
The entire immunity process typically takes around 2 weeks after the second dose of vaccine. Thats why you can still contract the new coronavirus and become ill if youre exposed to it shortly after getting your vaccine.
relatively weak immune response when given as just one dose. However, there was a stronger immune response when a second dose was added.
Why do you need this waiting period?
Is The Second Dose Necessary
Because both vaccines appear to have high effectiveness 14 days or more after the first dose, you may be wondering whether the second dose of the vaccine is actually necessary.
Its true that there have been discussions amongst public health officials and scientists about the possibility of delaying or eliminating the second dose of these vaccines.
The thought process behind this is that either delaying or eliminating the second dose would enable a greater number of people to get some level of protection. It would also aid in stretching vaccine supplies to more people.
However, there are some concerns about doing this. Its possible that overall immunity or vaccine effectiveness could be impacted. Additionally, lower levels of immunity could drive the emergence of more virus variants that can escape our current vaccines.
Additional research into delaying or eliminating second doses is needed. Currently, the FDA
Side effects that are felt throughout your body, such as fever, fatigue, and headache, are more common after getting the second dose of the vaccine. This is true for both the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines.
Remember that the first dose of the vaccine generates a weaker response than the second dose. Because of this, youre more likely to feel side effects after the second dose.
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Phase Two And Three Clinical Trials Vaccine And Placebo
The efficacy of the Pfizer vaccine was tested in about 44,000 participants aged 16 years and over where COVID-19 was already circulating in communities. About half of these participants were randomised to receive the vaccine and the other half received a saline placebo.
The trial looked at how many people got COVID-19 symptoms after they were vaccinated compared to how many got COVID-19 after getting the placebo.
Participants had two doses of the vaccine or placebo, getting their second dose within 19 to 42 days after their first dose. They were then closely monitored and evaluated for at least 2 months after their second dose.
Which Vaccine You Can Get
All Health Canada approved vaccines provide strong protection against COVID-19covid 19 and its variants, including the Delta variant.
Vaccines can be safely mixed for a first and second dose. To ensure maximum protection, you are encouraged to get vaccinated as soon as you can and to receive your second dose within the recommended interval.
If your first dose was:
- AstraZeneca: you can get AstraZeneca, Moderna, or Pfizer for your second dose, at least 8 weeks after your first dose with informed consent.
- Moderna or Pfizer: you can get either Moderna or Pfizer for your second dose at least 28 days after your first dose. You can switch between Moderna and Pfizer safely.
All of these options for your second dose:
- are safe
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If Your Child Is Not Up
Children and youth who are not up-to-date on other vaccines can still receive a COVID-19covid 19 vaccine.
If you or your child are behind on immunizations, we encourage you to contact your health care provider to get up-to-date.
Children between five and 11 years of age may be recommended to wait 14 days before or after the administration of another vaccine before getting their COVID-19covid 19 vaccine. Speak with your health care provider if you have questions.
Learn more about vaccines for children.
Side Effects And Safety
The COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in the UK have met strict standards of safety, quality and effectiveness.
They can cause some side effects, but not everyone gets them.
Any side effects are usually mild and should not last longer than a week, such as:
- a sore arm from the injection
- feeling tired
You can get vaccinated against COVID-19 if you’re aged 16 or over and:
- you’re pregnant or think you might be
- you’re breastfeeding
- you’re trying for a baby or might get pregnant in the future
The vaccines you’ll be offered depends if you’re pregnant and how old you are. The vaccines cannot give you or your baby COVID-19.
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When Do You Receive Your Second Shot After Getting Your First One
- The second Pfizer-BioNTech dose should be given 21 days after your first dose
- The second Moderna vaccine dose should be given 28 days later
According to the CDC, second shots should be administered as close to the recommended interval as possible, but can be given up to 42 days after the first dose, if necessary.
Though the CDC says second doses should not be administered earlier than the recommended interval, those given “within a grace period of 4 days earlier than the recommended date for the second dose are still considered valid.”
Side Effects From The Pfizer Vaccine
Common side effects are:
- having a painful, heavy feeling and tenderness in the arm where you had your injection. This tends to be worse around 1 to 2 days after the vaccination
- feeling tired
- general aches, or mild flu like symptoms
These side effects only last a few days but are more common after the second dose.
Less common side effects
Recently, cases of inflammation of the heart have been reported very rarely in the first week after the COVID-19 vaccines.
Most of these cases have been in younger men and are more common after the second vaccination.
The side effects include:
- shortness of breath
- feeling of having a fast beating, fluttering or pounding heart
Most people recovered and felt better following rest and simple treatments.Amongst those who get severe side effects, there may be an even smaller number in whom there are some longer-term effects. Longer-term studies are underway.
If you had myocarditis or pericarditis after the first dose, you should seek medical advice before having a second dose of the vaccine.
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Cdc: Gap Between Vaccine Doses Could Be 6 Weeks
Jan. 22, 2021 — The CDC has updated its guidance on how long people can wait between the first and second doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines.
If the second dose canât be scheduled in the recommended time frame — 21 days after the first dose for Pfizer and 28 days for Moderna — people can wait up to 6 weeks, the CDC said in an update published Thursday.
âThe second dose should be administered as close to the recommended interval as possible,â the CDC said. âHowever, if it is not feasible to adhere to the recommended interval, the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines may be scheduled for administration up to 6 weeks after the first dose.â
Thereâs limited information about how well the vaccines work outside that time frame, the CDC said. If the second dose is given after 6 weeks, thereâs no need to restart the series.
CNN said the new CDC guidance âappears to clarify earlier language that said âthere is no maximum interval between the first and second doses for either vaccine.â â
The guidance is significant because the CDC had advised states not to hold back vaccines for second shots so that a maximum number of people can get the first dose. States are adding vaccination sites as they complain about vaccine shortages.
He added that delaying the second dose might not be âa big deal.â
CDC: âInterim Clinical Considerations for Use of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines Currently Authorized in the United States.â
Can You Mix Up Which Vaccine You Get For Each Dose
According to CNBC, governments have differing answers to this question but some health experts say that the mixing and matching of the vaccines should be safe. Clinical trials are ongoing on the subject, however.
Arwady said earlier this month that she wouldn’t recommend it.
“You get one, you do not need to get Moderna and Pfizer or Pfizer and J& J,” she said. “You just need one vaccine but to finish the series of that vaccine… what would be probably recommended, it would be more like if we were really at a point where we had concerns about a new variant, there would probably be a completely separate booster that would be recommended. I don’t think this is something that’s going to happen very soon if we’re not talking in a few months, we might be talking about never, but it would be more my presumption there would be more, like, I got the Pfizer vaccine and Pfizer a year from now is making a sort of a booster dose that is against a newer variant. That’s how I think it’s more likely that it might happen… right now, no please do not try to get multiple doses of different manufacturers. We do keep track of everybody’s vaccine records, and it’s not needed and it’s not recommended.”
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Who Should Receive The Influenza Vaccine During The Covid
The influenza vaccine should continue to be offered to anyone 6 months of age and older who does not have contraindications to the vaccine. NACI provides a list of populations for whom annual influenza vaccination is particularly recommended.
To reduce the risk of severe illness that could potentially arise from co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, individuals who fall into the following groups are also particularly recommended to receive the influenza vaccine:
- People at high risk of severe COVID-19 related illness
- People capable of transmitting influenza to those at high risk of severe illness related to COVID-19
Information on what is presently known about the clinical features of COVID-19, including presentation, comorbidities and the spectrum of disease severity, is available in the COVID-19 signs, symptoms and severity of disease: A clinician guide developed by PHAC.
Timing Of The Second Dose
The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation currently advises that you should have your second dose around 12 weeks after your first dose. Having a 12 week gap may extend the length of time your protection will last after the second dose.
As a precaution, the JCVI believes that a gap of 8 to 12 weeks may reduce the risk of more serious but rare side effects, like myocarditis. The JCVI also suggests that if you have had a COVID-19 infection you should wait 12 weeks before having the next dose. If you have had the first dose of vaccine and been infected, you are likely to already have high levels of protection.
These gaps may be reduced to 8 weeks if we expect protection from the vaccine or from prior infection to be reduced, for example with a new variant.
There may be other reasons for having the second dose even sooner, after 8 weeks.
These reasons include:
- if you are considered to be at risk and have not yet had your second dose
- if you live with someone who is considered at risk and you want to help protect them
- if your circumstances, such as work or essential travel, require a second dose
If you are still unsure, you can discuss your decision with a doctor, nurse or pharmacist.
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If The Gap Between Your Appointments Is 6 Weeks
If you already have vaccinations booked around 6 weeks apart, you can keep your second appointment as it is, or you can choose to change it.
New bookings made through Book My Vaccine or via the COVID Vaccine Healthline will default back to 3 weeks between doses.
The important thing is to get 2 doses of the vaccine to be fully vaccinated.
Why Do I Have To Wait For My Covid
Those people most at risk from the complications of COVID-19 are being offered the vaccine first.
In the UK, there are three COVID-19 vaccines likely to be offered first. They need two separate doses to provide the best protection. These vaccines will not have a full UK marketing authorisation but will have been authorised by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency based on a full assessment of safety and effectiveness.
The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation , an independent group of experts, has recommended that the NHS offers these vaccines to those at highest risk of catching the disease and of suffering serious complications or dying from COVID-19, and to protect the NHS and social care services. This includes older adults and frontline health and social care workers. When more vaccine becomes available, the vaccines will be offered to other people at risk as soon as possible.
You should have the vaccine when it is offered if you are:
- a person living or working in a care home for older adults
- a frontline healthcare worker
- a frontline social care worker
- a domiciliary carer providing personal care
The vaccine will be offered in the following order to:
- those aged 80 years and over
- those aged 75 years and over
- those aged 70 years and over and adults identified as clinically extremely vulnerable
- those aged 65 years and over
- those aged 16 to 64 years with long term health conditions
Long term health conditions include conditions such as:
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Vaccination Card And Your Second Shot
At your first vaccination appointment, you should have received a vaccination card that tells you what COVID-19 vaccine you received, the date you received it, and where you received it. Bring this vaccination card to your second vaccination appointment.
- If you did not receive a COVID-19 vaccination card at your first appointment, contact the vaccination provider site where you got your first shot or your state health department to find out how you can get a card.
- If you have lost your vaccination card or dont have a copy, contact your vaccination provider directly to access your vaccination record.
- If you cannot contact your vaccination provider directly, contact your state health departments immunization information system . You can find state IIS information on the CDC website. Vaccination providers are required to report COVID-19 vaccinations to their IIS and related systems.
- If you enrolled in v-safe or VaxText after your first vaccine dose, you can access your vaccination information using those tools.
- If you have made every effort to locate your vaccination information, are unable to get a copy or replacement of your vaccination card, and still need a second shot, talk to a vaccination provider.
We Often Space Out Doses With Other Shots
Scientists who study vaccines werent surprised to learn that extending the window between doses produced a better immune response.
This has been known long before COVID-19, said Isaac Bogoch, an infectious diseases physician and scientist with University of Toronto.
Many of the vaccines used to protect us against other infectious diseases have multiple doses that are separated by months. Why? Because data from vaccinology, in general, suggests that extending time between doses strengthens immunity.
A 2018 study on messenger RNA vaccines from before the pandemic found that when mRNA doses are spaced out longer, the body creates stronger T cell and B cell responses .
This idea of extending the time between doses is not an accident, Bogoch said. People will form a more robust immune response with the doses separated apart, he explained.
The two Hepatitis A shots are separated by six months. With the Hepatitis B shot, the second dose is given four weeks after the first, and the final dose is given eight weeks after the second. Children getting the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine routinely get the second dose three months after the first but its OK if they miss the exact time and come in a couple months later.
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