What Are The Risks And Side Effects Of The Hpv Vaccine
In clinical trials and in real-world use, the HPV vaccine appears to be very safe. More than 40 million doses of the vaccine — mostly Gardasil, which was approved in 2006 — have been given in the U.S. Gardasil 9 was approved in 2014 and is now the only HPV vaccine available in the U.S.
From 2006 to 2014, there were about 25,000 reports to the government of HPV vaccine side effects. Over 90% of these were classified as nonserious. The most common side effects of the HPV vaccine are minor:
- About one in 10 people will have a mild fever after the injection.
- About one person in 30 will get itching at the injection site.
- About one in 60 people will experience a moderate fever.
These symptoms go away quickly without treatment. Other mild-to-moderate side effects resulting from the HPV vaccine include:
- Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome)
Government, academic, and other public health investigators could not identify the HPV vaccine as the cause of any severe adverse event. There were 117 deaths as of September 2015, none of which could be directly tied to the HPV vaccine. The conclusion of public health investigators was that the HPV vaccine was unlikely to be the cause of these events. Such events occur at a certain rate in any group of tens of millions of people. The vaccination before each adverse event seemed to be a simple coincidence.
National Cancer Institute: ”Human Papillomavirus Vaccines.”
Who Should Get Hpv Vaccination
The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices develops recommendations regarding all vaccination in the United States, including HPV vaccination. The current ACIP recommendations for HPV vaccination are :
- Children and adults ages 9 through 26 years. HPV vaccination is routinely recommended at age 11 or 12 years vaccination can be started at age 9 years. HPV vaccination is recommended for all persons through age 26 years who were not adequately vaccinated earlier.
- Adults ages 27 through 45 years. Although the HPV vaccine is Food and Drug Administration approved to be given through age 45 years, HPV vaccination is not recommended for all adults ages 27 through 45 years. Instead, ACIP recommends that clinicians consider discussing with their patients in this age group who were not adequately vaccinated earlier whether HPV vaccination is right for them. HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit because more people have already been exposed to the virus.
- Persons who are pregnant. HPV vaccination should be delayed until after pregnancy, but pregnancy testing is not required before vaccination. There is no evidence that vaccination will affect a pregnancy or harm a fetus.
Fact : The Hpv Vaccine Does Not Contain Harmful Ingredients
The ingredients in the HPV vaccine, like all vaccines, help make sure that it is effective and safe. These ingredients occur naturally in the environment, the human body, and foods. For example, the HPV vaccine contains aluminum like the hepatitis B and Tdap vaccines. Aluminum boosts the bodys immune response to the vaccine. People are exposed to aluminum every day through food, cooking utensils, water, and even breast milk. Aluminum-containing vaccines have been used for decades and have been given safely to more than 3 billion people.
Recommended Reading: How Long Is Hpv Vaccine Effective
Hpv Vaccine Prevents Cervical Cancer
In reported that Swedish girls and women aged 10 to 30 years old, who had been vaccinated with Gardasil resulted in a big reduction in the risk of invasive cervical cancer in the population.
In the study cervical cancer was diagnosed in 538 women who had not received Gardasil vaccine and in only 19 women who had received the vaccine.
In Ireland, Gardasil 9 vaccine given through the school imminisation programme protects against 9 out of 10 cervical cancers.
Data On Less Than Three Doses From The Cvt
Protection from cervical HPV infection by less than three doses of Cervarix® was also evaluated in the CVT . Approximately 11% of vaccine and control recipients received two doses and approximately 5% received only one dose. Perhaps surprisingly, protection in the ATP cohort from 12 month persistent HPV16/18 infection after 4 years of follow-up did not significantly differ depending on number of doses. Vaccine efficacy after three, two, or one dose was 80.9 , 84.1% and 100% , p for trend = 0.21. These results must be interpreted with some caution because the number of women receiving less than three doses was limited and the study was not formally randomized by number of doses, nor been followed beyond four years. However, these observations should encourage ongoing and future trials to more rigorously evaluate long-term efficacy of less than three doses of the two vaccines .
Read Also: How To Get Proof Of Vaccinations
Whats The Difference Between An Hpv Test And A Pap Test
The HPV test and Pap test are done the same way. A health professional uses a special tool to gently scrape or brush the cervix to remove cells for testing.
HPV is a virus that can cause cervix cell changes. The HPV test looks for cervical infection by high-risk types of HPV that are more likely to cause pre-cancers and cancers of the cervix. The test can be done by itself or at the same time as the Pap test , to determine your risk of developing cervical cancer. The American Cancer Society recommends a primary HPV test* as the preferred way to screen for cervical cancers or pre-cancers in individuals 25 to 65 years with a cervix.
A Pap test is used to find cell changes or abnormal cells in the cervix. Cells from the cervix are sent to a lab and looked at closely to see if the cells are normal or if changes can be seen.
Because a primary HPV test may not be an option everywhere, a co-test every 5 years or a Pap test every 3 years are still good options because they are all good at finding cancer and pre-cancer. But the primary HPV test is better at preventing cervical cancers than a Pap test done alone and does not add more unnecessary tests, which can happen with a co-test. The most important thing to remember is to get screened regularly, no matter which test you get.
What about testing other sites on the body?
You Have A Positive Test But Cervical Cells Are Normal
Your doctor may want to do a follow-up test to determine if you have a high risk strain of the virus. But some doctors may choose not to act on the positive result yet.
In the case that this is your first high risk HPV positive, cytology-normal result, they may want to do a follow-up screening in a year to see if the result has changed and if your cervical cells are impacted.
In short, you might enter a period of watchful waiting.
Recommended Reading: Why Two Doses Of Vaccine
What Is Human Papillomavirus
To view the full-size infographic, click this photo or the link in the text. Human papillomavirus is a virus that can infect the skin, genital and anal areas and lining of the cervix. There are many different types of papillomaviruses . Some types of papillomaviruses cause warts on the skin some types cause warts in the anal and genital areas, and some types cause cervical cancer.
Many different HPV types cause cervical cancer. Two types are the most common, accounting for about 7 of every 10 cases of cervical cancer. Similarly, many types of HPV cause anal and genital warts, but only two types account for about 9 of every 10 cases.
The HPV vaccine, known as GARDASIL®, protects against nine types of HPV that cause disease in people. The types in the vaccine are 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58.
Other viruses can cause cancer, too. For example, hepatitis B virus can cause liver cancer AIDS virus can cause sarcoma , and Epstein-Barr virus can cause cancers of the head and neck and of the immune system. These types of cancers can also be caused by other things. For example, alcohol can cause liver cancer the sun can cause skin cancer, and poisons can cause cancer of the immune system.
Cervical cancer is unique in that it has only one cause: HPV.
Cervarix: Efficacy From The Patricia Trial
In the PATRICIA trial, efficacy against HPV16/18-related CIN3 in the TVC-naïve analysis was 100% . As expected, efficacy was lower in the full TVC analysis, 45.7%. However the reduction in the rate of CIN3 in both cohorts was 0.13 per 100 women years. A recent conference abstract reported significant protection against HPV16/18 associated VIN1+ or VaIN1+ in the TVC-naïve and full TVC.
Don’t Miss: Is The Shingrix Vaccine Live
Can Hpv Cause Cancer
Yes. HPV itself isnt cancer but it can cause changes in the body that lead to cancer. HPV infections usually go away by themselves. When they dont, they can cause certain kinds of cancer to grow. These include:
- Cervical cancer in women
- Penile cancer in men
- Anal cancer in both women and men
- Oropharyngeal cancer, cancer in the back of the throat, including the base of the tongue and tonsils
All of these cancers come from HPV infections that did not go away. Cancer grows very slowly. The diagnosis may not be until years, or even decades, after a person gets HPV. Currently, there is no way to know who will get cancer after getting HPV.
Hpv Testing And Treatment
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has a helpful resource for understanding Pap and HPV tests.
What tests can a woman have related to HPV?
Two tests for women are available:
- Pap test A Pap test is done by scraping some cells from the cervix and examining them microscopically. A normal result means your cells looked as expected an abnormal result means that the cells appeared to have undergone some changes. This does not mean you have cervical cancer. In some cases the cell changes are minor and will return to normal when tested in the future. In other cases the changes are more dramatic and need to be monitored more closely.
- HPV test The HPV test determines if the human papillomavirus is present in the cervix.
Find out if you qualify for free or reduced cost screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and where near you offers the program.
Can HPV tests replace Pap tests?
No, HPV tests should not replace routine Pap tests for two reasons:
Is there a test to determine if I have HPV?
When a person is tested for STDs is HPV testing included?
I got all necessary doses of the HPV vaccine. Do I still need to get Pap tests?
You May Like: When Was The First Hpv Vaccine Given
The Schedule From 2011 To Present
Annual updates to both the childhood and adult immunization schedules offer guidance to healthcare providers in the form of new recommendations, changes to existing recommendations, or clarifications to assist with interpretation of the schedule in certain circumstances. The schedules are reviewed by committees of experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians.
Important changes to the schedule:
- New vaccines: meningococcal serogroup B vaccine
- Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: HPV , intranasal influenza vaccine
- Discontinuation of vaccine: intranasal influenza vaccine
2020 | Recommended Vaccines
* Given in combination as DTaP** Given in combination as MMR
Hpv Vaccination For Men Who Have Sex With Men
Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men have not benefitted in the same way from the longstanding girls’ programme, so may be left unprotected against HPV.
Since April 2018, MSM up to and including 45 years of age have been eligible for free HPV vaccination on the NHS when they visit specialist sexual health services and HIV clinics in England.
Ask the doctor or nurse at the clinic for more details.
Read Also: Do Males Get Hpv Vaccine
How Long After Receiving The Hpv Vaccine Does It Take For The Vaccine To Work
The immune system takes one to two weeks to generate immunity to vaccines or infections. In the case of HPV vaccine, the first dose generates a primary immune response, so people will have some immunity, but protection can vary from one person to another. The last dose is important because it enhances the memory immune response. A person will have the greatest protection beginning about one to two weeks after receiving their last dose of the vaccine.
Are Hpv Tests And Pap Tests The Same
No, theyre not the same. A Pap test doesnt look for the HPV virus. Rather it takes a cell sample from the cervix to look for abnormalities. An HPV test looks for high risk HPV .
You can test positive for HPV and have a normal Pap test. Cervical changes are often caused by HPV, but having HPV doesnt always lead to abnormal Pap tests.
You May Like: Can I Get My Kitten Vaccinated For Free
How Is Gardasil 9 Vaccine Given
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle in your upper arm or thigh. A healthcare provider will give you this injection.
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given in a series of 2 or 3 shots. You may have the first shot at any time as long as you are between the ages of 9 and 45 years. The second dose is given 2 to 6 months after your first shot. A third dose may be given 6 months after your first shot.
Be sure to receive all recommended doses of this vaccine or you may not be fully protected against disease.
Gardasil 9 vaccine should not be used in place of having a routine pelvic exam, Pap smear, anal, or head and neck exam to screen for cervical, anal, or head and neck cancer.
How Much Does Hpv Vaccination Cost And Will Insurance Pay For It
Most private insurance plans cover HPV vaccination. The federal Affordable Care Act requires most private insurance plans to cover recommended preventive services with no copay or deductible.
Medicaid covers HPV vaccination in accordance with ACIP recommendations, and immunizations are a mandatory service under Medicaid for eligible individuals under age 21. In addition, the federal Vaccines for Children Program provides immunization services for children younger than 19 years who are Medicaid eligible, uninsured, underinsured, or Native American or Alaska Native.
Merck, the manufacturer of Gardasil 9, offers the Merck Vaccine Patient Assistance Program, which provides Gardasil 9 for free to people aged 19 to 45 years who live in the United States, do not have health insurance, and have an annual household income less than a certain amount.
You May Like: What Age Can Puppies Get Vaccinated
How To Get Tested
Its easy to get tested. Book an appointment with your doctor or nurse practitioner. If you are due for a routine check, they will do a Pap test for you.
If you do not have a doctor or nurse practitioner, you can find one through Health Care Connect by calling .
Some public health units, sexual health clinics and community health centres also provide Pap tests. to see if they offer Pap tests.
Women in the North West and Hamilton Niagara Haldimand Brant regions may be able to get tested in one of Cancer Care Ontarios mobile screening coaches.
Will Hpv Affect My Pregnancy Or My Baby
HPV infection does not directly affect the chances of getting pregnant.
If HPV infection leads to cervical changes that need to be treated, the treatment should not affect your chances of getting pregnant. But if you have many treatments and biopsies, which can happen with more frequent screening, the risk of pre-term labor and low birth weight babies can go up.
HPV is rarely passed from a mother to her baby. The rare cases where this has happened do not involve the types of HPV that can cause cancer. How do you get HPV? has more on HPV being transmitted from mother to baby during pregnancy.
Also Check: How Often Should I Get The Shingrix Vaccine
Should Hpv Vaccines Be Given To People Who Are Already Infected With Hpv Or Have Cervical Cell Changes
ACIP recommends that people who have an HPV infection and/or an abnormal Pap test result that may indicate an HPV infection should still receive the HPV vaccine if they are in the appropriate age group because the vaccine may protect them against high-risk HPV types that they have not yet acquired. However, these people should be told that the vaccination will not cure them of current HPV infections or treat the abnormal results of their Pap test .
Although HPV vaccines have been found to be safe when given to people who are already infected with HPV, the vaccines provide maximum benefit if a person receives them before he or she is sexually active .
It is likely that someone previously infected with HPV will still get some residual benefit from vaccination, even if he or she has already been infected with one or more of the HPV types included in the vaccines.
Can The Hpv Vaccine Cause Long
Many different clinical trials and scientific studies have looked to see if there are any links between the HPV vaccination and other conditions, including:
They have found no increase in cases of these conditions among people who have been vaccinated against HPV compared with people who have not.
In March 2017, it issued a statement concluding there’s no evidence of any link between the HPV vaccination and these conditions.
Don’t Miss: What Vaccines Should Kids Get