Plants As Bioreactors For Vaccine Production
The idea of vaccine production via transgenic plants was identified as early as 2003. Plants such as tobacco, potato, tomato, and banana can have genes inserted that cause them to produce vaccines usable for humans. In 2005, bananas were developed that produce a human vaccine against hepatitis B. Another example is the expression of a fusion protein in alfalfa transgenic plants for the selective directioning to antigen presenting cells, therefore increasing vaccine potency against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus .
Wirksamkeit Von Abgeschwchten Lebendimpfstoffen
- Der Schutz einer abgeschwächten Lebendimpfung überdauert oft den eines toten oder inaktivierten Impfstoffs.
- Die Impfungen liefern eine lebende Version des Keims oder Virus, der die Krankheit verursacht, in den Körper. Obwohl der Keim lebendig ist, handelt es sich um eine schwächere Sorte, die keine Krankheitssymptome verursacht, da sie sich im Körper einmal nicht vermehren kann.
- Abgeschwächte Lebendimpfstoffe können verwendet werden, um eine Immunität gegen Viren oder Bakterien zu entwickeln, obwohl Viren am häufigsten verwendet werden.
- Diese Form der Impfung funktioniert, indem sie einem Virus oder Keim eine ausreichende Vermehrung ermöglicht, damit der Körper Gedächtnis-B-Zellen bilden kann, die ein Virus erkennen und sich daran erinnern und eine Immunantwort gegen es für viele Jahre nach der ersten Reaktion aktivieren können.
- Abgeschwächte Lebendimpfungen induzieren eine Immunantwort, die mit der einer natürlichen Infektion vergleichbar ist. Dennoch kann die Person das Virus nicht auf andere übertragen und wird nicht an der durch das Virus verursachten Krankheit erkranken.
- Die Impfungen bieten lebenslangen Schutz vor Krankheiten, und es sind im Allgemeinen nur eine oder zwei Dosen des Impfstoffs erforderlich, um diese Immunität zu liefern.
Zu den Arten von Krankheiten, für die abgeschwächte Lebendimpfstoffe verwendet werden, gehören:
- Masern, Mumps und Röteln
What About Existing Drugs
Scientists expect that recently approved antiviral drugs, such as Mercks pill, will work as effectively against the new variant because these drugs do not target the spike protein they work by stopping the virus from replicating. However, there is a bigger risk that monoclonal antibodies, such as Regenerons treatment, could fail or partially fail because they target parts of the virus that will have mutated.
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The Herd Immunity Imperative
Vaccines don’t just work on an individual level, they protect entire populations. Once enough people are immunized, opportunities for an outbreak of disease become so low even people who aren’t immunized benefit. Essentially, a bacteria or virus simply won’t have enough eligible hosts to establish a foothold and will eventually die out entirely. This phenomenon is called “herd immunity” or “community immunity,” and it has allowed once-devastating diseases to be eliminated entirely, without needing to vaccinate every individual.
Stimulation Of Immunity By Vaccines
As with any challenge to the immune system, the body must first detect the threat whether it is a pathogenic agent or an immunization. This initial detection typically is done by the innate immune system although, B-cells may also perform this function. This detection process begins when the immune system recognizes epitopes on antigens. Epitopes are small subregions on the antigens that simulate immune recognition.
Multiple components of the innate immune system will then respond to this challenge. These components of innate immunity will opsonize or bind to the agent and aid in its engulfment by antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages or monocytes. These antigen-presenting cell will then process the antigens from this pathogenic agent and insert the processed antigen along with the MHC protein onto the surface on the antigen-presenting cell.
If it is a viral antigen, the antigen will be bound with MHC I protein and presented by the antigen-presenting cell to a CD8 cell which will likely trigger cell-mediated immunity. If it is a bacterial or parasitic antigen, the antigen will be bound with MHC II protein and presented by the antigen-presenting cell to a CD4 cell which will likely trigger antibody-mediated immunity.
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How Can We Make Sure That Covid
To overcome the pandemic, we have to overcome it everywhere in the world. But we will only succeed if vaccines are available and affordable to all countries.
The COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access Facility is working to make this happen, by ensuring that all participating countries, regardless of income levels, will have equal access to the vaccines in its portfolio once they are developed. But only three of the vaccines currently in phase III clinical trials are part of the COVAX portfolio.
There is a serious danger that low-income countries may be shut out of vaccine access, as they are less able to procure deals directly with pharmaceutical companies. For example, wealthy countries have signed deals to buy roughly 600 million doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine . This accounts for nearly half of Pfizer-BioNTech’s total production capacity up to the end of 2021.
So countries that have secured large numbers of vaccine doses, like the UK, must commit to donate their suitable excess doses to COVAX, so that they too can be fairly distributed.
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Does The Pfizer Booster Shot Have Side Effects
The CDC said those who received the Pfizer booster reported fewer side effects than after getting the second dose of Pfizer’s vaccine, with headache, fever, fatigue, pain and chills the most frequently reported mild side effects.
The CDC said as of Nov. 14, 99% of those who received the Pfizer vaccine for the first two shots chose to receive a Pfizer booster, with the rest picking a Moderna or Johnson & Johnson booster. Here’s more on mixing and matching vaccines.
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Will Existing Vaccines Work Against It
Scientists are concerned by the number of mutations and the fact some of them have already been linked to an ability to evade existing immune protection. These are theoretical predictions, though, and studies are rapidly being conducted to test how effectively antibodies neutralise the new variant. Real-world data on reinfection rates will also give a clearer indication on the extent of any change in immunity.
Scientists do not expect that the variant will be entirely unrecognisable to existing antibodies, just that current vaccines may give less protection. So a crucial objective remains to increase vaccination rates, including third doses for at-risk groups.
Why Is The Flu Vaccine Important
Most people who get the flu have a mild illness. But for some, it can be serious and even deadly. Serious complications from the flu are more likely in babies and young children, pregnant women, older adults, and people with certain long-term health conditions like diabetes or asthma.
Getting vaccinated every year is the best way to lower your chances of getting the flu. Flu vaccines cant cause the flu. Keep in mind that getting the flu vaccine also protects the people around you. So when you and your family get vaccinated, you help keep yourselves and your community healthy.
This is especially important if you spend time with people who are at risk for serious illness from the flu like young children or older adults. Learn more about how vaccines help protect your whole community.
The flu is caused by a virus. Common symptoms of the flu include:
- Fever and chills
- Feeling very tired
Some people with the flu may throw up or have diarrhea this is more common in children than adults. Its also important to know that not everyone with the flu will have a fever.
The flu is worse than the common cold. Its a common cause of problems like sinus or ear infections. It can also cause serious complications like:
- Worsening of long-term health problems, like asthma or heart failure
- Inflammation of the brain, heart, or muscles
- Multi-organ failure
The flu is contagious, meaning it can spread from person to person. The flu can spread when:
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In What Order Will We Get The Coronavirus Vaccine
Currently, all people aged 18 or over can book a jab in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern. This can be done by accessing the NHS vaccine online booking system for each respective country, or by calling 119.
The government prioritised the most vulnerable people, with the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation has recommended a priority order, based on who is at the highest risk of death. By early June, people aged 25-29 were being called for their first jabs, with the government aiming to have all adults receiving at least one vaccination by the end of July.
Public appeals to come forward for vaccine appointments also intensified as clusters of the Delta variant grew in a number of towns and cities.
The JCVI order is:
- Older adults in a care home and care home workers
- All those aged 80 and over and health and social care workers, though they may move up the list
- Anyone 75 and over
- All those aged 60 and over
- All those 55 and over
- All those aged 50 and over
- The rest of the population, with priority yet to be determined.
However, experts have warned that the general public should not get their hopes up that life could return to normal once the high-risk had been vaccinated. Although many social restrictions including a legal requirement to wear a face-covering in certain indoor areas are being dropped on July 2019, certain rules remain in place. These include the need to isolate if you are tested positive for coronavirus.
A Different Type Of Covid
Whatever happened to Novavax and Sanofi’s COVID-19 vaccines? Many people thought at the beginning of the pandemic that these were the two most likely vaccines to succeed.
AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
A new kind of COVID-19 vaccine is about to roll out around the world. It’s called a protein subunit vaccine. Early on in the pandemic, many experts thought this was the kind of vaccine that would be most likely to succeed, and so far, it hasn’t. NPR’s Joe Palca has this story about why it’s taken so long for these vaccines to be ready for distribution and why they’re still needed.
JOE PALCA, BYLINE: When Operation Warp Speed began spending billions of dollars to facilitate the development of a COVID vaccine, it chose three vaccine technologies to back – mRNA vaccines being developed by Pfizer and Moderna, viral vector vaccines like Johnson & Johnson and protein subunit vaccines being made by Sanofi and Novavax. The first two technologies were successful, mRNA vaccines wildly successful, and there are now billions of vaccine doses in this country and around the world. A year ago, Novavax was confident its proteins subunit vaccine would also be out there. Here’s Greg Glenn, Novavax president of research and development, in an interview we did in September last year.
MCELRATH: It’s just that they’re just a little further behind than the others.
ALI ELLEBEDY: From a scientific perspective, it would be definitely great to have the subunit vaccine.
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Can The Vaccines Be Tweaked And How Long Could That Take
Yes, teams behind vaccines are already working on updating vaccines with the new spike protein to prepare for an eventuality where a new version might be needed.
A lot of the preparation work for such an update took place when the Beta and Delta variants emerged although in those cases existing vaccines have held up well. This means research teams were already poised to create new versions of vaccines and have discussed with regulators what additional trials would be required. However, it could still take four to six months before updated vaccines, if required, are widely available.
When Will The Coronavirus Vaccines Be Rolled Out
Many of the approved coronavirus vaccines are currently being administered across the UK.
The Pfizer vaccine has been approved for use in the UK. On 2 December, the government announced: The vaccine will be made available across the UK from next week. The first person to receive the coronavirus vaccine was 90-year-old Margaret Keenan, on 8 December.
Almost a month after the rollout of the vaccine developed by Pfizer, the jab from the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca was approved and in January 2021 began being administered in hospitals and GPs across England.
After being approved on 7 January, the first doses of the Moderna vaccine were given in early April.
The Janssen vaccine was approved at the end of May with the first doses expected towards the end of the summer.
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Pfizer Covid Booster Faq: New Variant Vaccine Side Effects Who’s Eligible And More
The new COVID-19 omicron variant is raising concerns. Here’s what to know so far about Pfizer’s booster vaccine, the mutated virus and what the CDC now recommends.
Adults who received Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine can get a booster after six months.
In response to the new COVID-19 variant called omicron, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention simplified its booster recommendation. Now, everyone ages 18 and older should get a booster shot, whether 6 months after their initial Pfizer or Moderna series or 2 months after their initial J& J vaccine
The CDC recommendation tweak comes as scientists rush to understand the new COVID variant and countries restrict travel to guard against another wave of the disease. Pfizer said it is investigating the new strain and will create a modified version of its vaccine if needed.
The omicron variant has a high number of mutations that scientists fear could help the new strain spread more quickly than the delta variant, which took hold in the US over the summer. The vaccines that are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration have proved to be highly effective in preventing severe illness. People who remain unvaccinated account for nearly all hospitalizations and deaths.
Multiple studies show that the effectiveness of vaccines may start to decline after six to eight months. Recent studies say a booster dose of Pfizer shows 95.6% efficacy against COVID-19.
Why Is The Chickenpox Vaccine Important
Chickenpox is very contagious it spreads easily from person to person. And while its usually mild, it can cause serious complications like pneumonia . Certain people like infants, people with weakened immune systems, and pregnant women are at increased risk for complications.
The chickenpox virus can also cause shingles later in life. Shingles is a disease that causes a painful skin rash and can affect the nervous system. Children who get the chickenpox vaccine may have a lower risk of developing shingles later on and those who do get shingles often have a milder case than someone who has had chickenpox.
Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent chickenpox. And when enough people get vaccinated against chickenpox, the entire community is less likely to get it. So when you and your family get vaccinated, you help keep yourselves and your community healthy.
Chickenpox is caused by a virus. Symptoms of chickenpox include:
- A red, itchy skin rash with blisters
- Not feeling hungry
Chickenpox usually spreads when a person touches chickenpox or shingles blisters or if they breathe in the virus. You can breathe in the virus after someone with chickenpox or shingles scratches their blisters, which releases the virus into the air.
Its also possible to get chickenpox from breathing in tiny droplets from people who have it that get into the air after they breathe or talk. Learn more about chickenpox.
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Viral Vector Vaccines For Covid
The University of Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine uses this technology to protect against COVID-19. This type of vaccine uses an unrelated harmless virus to deliver SARS-CoV-2 genetic material. When administered, our cells use the genetic material to produce a specific viral protein, which is recognised by our immune system and triggers a response. This response builds immune memory, so your body can fight off the virus in future.
What Is It Called
The variant was initially referred to as B.1.1.529, but on Friday was designated as a variant of concern by the World Health Organization because of its concerning mutations and because preliminary evidence suggests an increased risk of reinfection with this variant. The WHO system assigns such variants a Greek letter, to provide a non-stigmatising label that does not associate new variants with the location where they were first detected. The new variant has been called Omicron.
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What Are Pfizer’s Plans For The Omicron Covid
Pfizer said it is investigating the new mutated COVID-19 strain and is working to have more information about how effective its vaccine is against the omicron variant within two weeks, Reuters reported. If the drug-maker needs to create a tailored version of its vaccine to guard against the omicron variant, it could have the updated vaccine available in approximately 100 days, it said.
Moderna said it’s now working on a vaccine candidate modified for the new variant.
Determining Whats Right For You
According to Dr. Varga, you should be open to receiving any vaccine thats available to you. All three of the vaccines that received EUA are extremely effective against COVID-19, he says. They each provide protection against severe COVID-19 illness and death. Thats the most important thing.
Some people are concerned that the efficacy of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is slightly lower than Pfizer and Moderna, but experts advise the public not to worry. Dr. Anthony Fauci, the White House Chief Medical Advisor, shared with NBC, If you go to a place and you have J& J, and thats the one thats available now, I would take it, Fauci said. I personally would do the same thing. I think people need to get vaccinated as quickly and as expeditiously as possible.
Some Johnson & Johnson Benefits include:
- It provides excellent protection against COVID-19 related hospitalizations and deaths
- You dont have to worry about getting a second shot
- It doesnt require special storage, like the Pfizer vaccine that needs to be stored in ultra-cold freezers
Having the Johnson & Johnson vaccine available opens up so many doors and will get us closer to herd immunity, faster, says Dr. Varga. Between the one-dose option and the standard storage requirements, theres increased opportunity to get the shot into the arms of more people across the globe.
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