Usual Adult Dose For Human Papillomavirus Prophylaxis
Cervarix:Females, up to 25 years old: 0.5 mL, intramuscularly, at 0, 1, and 6 monthsGardasil:Females and males, up to 26 years: 0.5 mL, intramuscularly, at 0, 2, and 6 monthsGardasil 9:Females and males, up to 45 years: 0.5 mL, intramuscularly, at 0, 2, and 6 monthsUses: For the prevention of cervical, vulvar, and anal cancer caused by Human Papillomavirus in females, and prevention of anal cancer, genital warts, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia cause by HPV in males.
Women Who Are Pregnant Or Breastfeeding
HPV vaccines are not recommended for pregnant women.
Women who become pregnant after starting the HPV vaccination course are recommended to stop the vaccination course and receive the remaining doses after pregnancy.
Women who are inadvertently given a dose of HPV vaccine around the time of conception or during pregnancy should be told that there is a large body of evidence suggesting that vaccination does not harm the mother or the fetus in these situations.
In the 9vHPV vaccine clinical trials, some women became pregnant during the trial, despite recommendations for participants to avoid pregnancy. The overall proportions of pregnancies that resulted in an adverse outcome were similar among 9vHPV vaccine recipients and placebo or control vaccine recipients.21 In addition, pooled analyses of women who became pregnant during clinical trials of 2vHPV and 4vHPV vaccines showed that, overall, there were no differences in pregnancy outcomes between HPV vaccine recipients and control vaccine recipients.22-24
Breastfeeding women can receive HPV vaccines.25
HPV vaccination is generally safe and well tolerated. The safety profile and the spectrum of adverse events after vaccination in males are similar to those in females.26,27
For all HPV vaccines, injection site reactions are the most commonly reported adverse event.21,28,29
In most clinical trials, systemic adverse events were comparable between HPV vaccine recipients and control vaccine recipients, and included:29,30
How You Can Get Hpv
HPV which stands for Human Papillomavirus is a sexually transmitted virus that you can catch from an infected person through:
- sexual activity, including oral sex
- intimate skin-to-skin contact with an infected person
You don’t have to have intercourse to get HPV.
Without immunization, three out of four sexually active Canadians will be infected with HPV at some point in their lives.
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Extra Doses Of 9vhpv Vaccine
People who have completed the recommended number of doses of 2vHPV or 4vHPV vaccine are not routinely recommended to receive 9vHPV vaccine, because the extra benefit is thought to be marginal.
However, if the person wants protection against the additional HPV types, there appears to be no safety concerns associated with giving 9vHPV after a completed 2vHPV course. 13 The rate of injection site reactions may increase.
The Health Risks Of Hpv
HPV causes almost all cervical cancers but is also linked to cancer of the throat, oral cavity, penis, anus, vagina or vulva. More research is needed to define the extent of these linkages.
Anogenital warts, although rarely associated with cancer, are still a significant burden for those affected often leading to physical, emotional and social problems. They can be effectively treated by applying prescribed medication either in a doctor’s office or by you at home. Other medical treatments include cryotherapy , an electric current, or a laser or surgical removal of the warts but these methods do not always eliminate HPV infection. Even with treatment, warts can recur.
HPV does not appear to affect a woman’s ability to become pregnant. Although considered rare, the baby may be at risk of getting an HPV infection in the throat. A C-section delivery is not routinely recommended, unless there is a significant obstruction or other risks.
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Should Hpv Vaccines Be Given To People Who Are Already Infected With Hpv Or Have Cervical Cell Changes
ACIP recommends that people who have an HPV infection and/or an abnormal Pap test result that may indicate an HPV infection should still receive the HPV vaccine if they are in the appropriate age group because the vaccine may protect them against high-risk HPV types that they have not yet acquired. However, these people should be told that the vaccination will not cure them of current HPV infections or treat the abnormal results of their Pap test .
Although HPV vaccines have been found to be safe when given to people who are already infected with HPV, the vaccines provide maximum benefit if a person receives them before he or she is sexually active .
It is likely that someone previously infected with HPV will still get some residual benefit from vaccination, even if he or she has already been infected with one or more of the HPV types included in the vaccines.
Vaccine Safety And Coverage
A 2 versus 3 dose HPV vaccine series would have an impact on the number of HPV vaccine related adverse events following immunization that are reported. While the accumulating evidence on the safety of the available HPV vaccines is very reassuring, as reported multiple times by the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety ,Footnote 58 reducing the number of doses in the series would reduce the opportunity for AEFIs. Similarly, reducing the number of doses in the series may have a favourable impact on vaccine coverage.
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Common Questions About The Hpv Vaccine Schedule
ACIP makes recommendations based on the best available scientific evidence. Immunogenicity studies show that two doses of HPV vaccine given at least 6 months apart to 914-year-olds provided as good or better antibody responses as three doses given to older adolescents or young adults.
Answering parents questions: The data we have from current scientific studies show that in children age 914 years, two doses of HPV vaccine given at least 6 months apart were as good or better as three doses. The immune response for older people hasnt been studied in the same way, so information is not available for that age group. For this reason, older teens and adults should get three doses for best protection.
Yes. In a 2-dose schedule of HPV vaccine, the recommended interval is 612 months, and the minimum interval is 5 months between the first and second dose. If the second dose is given earlier than 5 months, a third dose should be given.
Answering parents questions: The recommended schedule is two doses given 6 12 months apart. The minimum amount of time between those doses is 5 months. Because your child received two doses less than 5 months apart, your child should get a third dose.
Answering parents questions: Since your child received the first dose before 15 years of age, they only need one more dose to be fully protected. However, the second dose should be given as soon as possible and not further delayed.
Gardasil 9 Vaccine Side Effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Gardasil 9:hives difficulty breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.
You may feel faint after receiving this vaccine. Some people have had seizure like reactions after receiving this vaccine. Your doctor may want you to remain under observation during the first 15 minutes after the injection.
Developing cancer from HPV is much more dangerous to your health than receiving the vaccine to protect against it. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.
Common Gardasil 9 side effects may include:
pain, swelling, or redness where the shot was given or
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.
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How Is Gardasil 9 Vaccine Given
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle in your upper arm or thigh. A healthcare provider will give you this injection.
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given in a series of 2 or 3 shots. You may have the first shot at any time as long as you are between the ages of 9 and 45 years. The second dose is given 2 to 6 months after your first shot. A third dose may be given 6 to 12 months after your first shot.
Be sure to receive all recommended doses of this vaccine or you may not be fully protected against disease.
Gardasil 9 vaccine should not be used in place of having a routine pelvic exam, Pap smear, anal, or head and neck exam to screen for cervical, anal, or head and neck cancer.
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How Long Has Hpv Immunisation Been Available In New Zealand
The HPV Immunisation Programme started in New Zealand in September 2008, for girls and young women up to their 20th birthday. Over 200,000 girls and young women have been fully immunised against HPV in New Zealand.
HPV vaccines were first approved by the United States FDA in 2006. Over 165 million doses have been distributed worldwide since then.
Questions About Hpv Vaccine Safety
I dont want to get the HPV vaccine for my child because I have heard that all of the safety studies were completed by the vaccine manufacturer. Is this true?
Vaccine safety is studied by many, many groups not just those who manufacture vaccines. The FDA reviews all data associated with studies completed by vaccine manufacturers as well as visiting manufacturing sites and continuing to monitor the vaccine as long as it is being made. Additionally, the CDC has systems in place to monitor vaccine safety, including:
- Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System which allows anyone to report side effects, allowing CDC scientists to watch for trends.
- Vaccine Safety Datalink is a collaboration with eight large healthcare organizations from various parts of the United States. Health records are monitored for vaccine receipt and illnesses to study vaccine safety.
- Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project is a national group of vaccine experts from the CDC, seven medical research centers, and other experts who conduct research around specific vaccine safety concerns, provide consultations for individual healthcare providers on specific patients, and review adverse event data. Vaccine manufacturers do not have a role in these studies.
Can the HPV vaccine cause cancer?
No. Because the HPV vaccine is made using only a single protein from each type of the virus, it cant cause HPV infection, and, therefore, it cant cause cervical cancer or other cancers.
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Does The Immunisation Protect Me From Other Sexually Transmitted Infections
The HPV vaccine is designed to protect you against the 2 types of HPV that cause 75% of cervical cancer cases.
These 2 types of HPV also cause around:
- 90% of anal cancers
- 85% of head and neck cancers
- 78% of vaginal cancers
- 25% of vulval cancers across the world.
The statistics on cancers caused by HPV are different from country to country.
The vaccine also protects against 2 other types of HPV. These cause around 90% of cases of genital warts.
However, having this immunisation won’t protect you against any other sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia.
To get the best protection it’s important you have all the required doses. If you miss the immunisation session in school, you’ll be recalled to the next one.
The most important thing is to have all the required doses as soon as they’re offered at school. If you’ve left school or are unsure if you’ve missed any vaccinations, contact your GP.
You should be given a consent form and leaflet by your school. You and your parents, or carer, should discuss the information before agreeing to have the immunisation. When you’re given the consent form, you and your parents will be asked to sign it and return it to your school even if you aren’t going to have the vaccine.
We recommend you get agreement from your parent or carer, but it isn’t always necessary.
Who Can Have The Hpv Vaccine Through The Nhs Vaccination Programme
The 1st dose of the HPV vaccine is routinely offered to girls and boys aged 12 and 13 in school Year 8. The 2nd dose is offered 6 to 24 months after the 1st dose.
If you miss either of your HPV vaccine doses, speak to your school immunisation team or GP surgery and make an appointment to have the missed dose as soon as possible.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be fully protected.
If youre eligible and miss the HPV vaccine offered in Year 8 at school, its available for free on the NHS up until your 25th birthday for:
- girls born after 1 September 1991
- boys born after 1 September 2006
People who have the 1st dose of the HPV vaccine at 15 years of age or above will need to have 3 doses of the vaccine. This is because they do not respond as well to 2 doses as younger people do.
Read more about HPV vaccination safety and the possible side effects.
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Usual Pediatric Dose For Human Papillomavirus Prophylaxis
Cervarix:Females, aged 9 to 25 years: 0.5 mL, intramuscularly, at 0, 1, and 6 monthsGardasil:Females and males, aged 9 to 26 years: 0.5 mL, intramuscularly, at 0, 2, and 6 monthsGardasil 9:Females and males, aged 9 to 14 years: 0.5 mL, intramuscularly, at 0, and 6 to 12 months ORFemales and males, aged 9 to 14 years: 0.5 mL, intramuscularly, at 0, 2, and 6 months Females and males, aged 15 to 45 years: 0.5 mL, intramuscularly, at 0, 2, and 6 months
Why Is Hpv Vaccination Important
The combination of HPV vaccination and cervical screening can provide the greatest protection against cervical cancer. Also, HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing cancers caused by HPV at sites other than the cervix.
Not only does vaccination protect vaccinated individuals against infection by the HPV types targeted by the vaccine that is used , but vaccination can also reduce the prevalence of the vaccine-targeted HPV types in the population, thereby reducing infection in individuals who are not vaccinated . For example, in Australia, where a high proportion of girls are vaccinated with Gardasil, the incidence of genital warts went down during the first 4 years of the vaccination program among young maleswho were not being vaccinated at the timeas well as among young females .
Further evidence that large-scale HPV vaccination confers protection for unvaccinated individuals comes from a 2019 meta-analysis of girls-only HPV vaccination programs in 14 high-income countries that included 60 million vaccinated people . That analysis showed that, up to 8 years after the start of vaccination, diagnoses of anogenital warts decreased by 31% among women aged 2529 years, by 48% among boys aged 1519 years, and by 32% among men aged 2024 years, compared with the period before vaccination began.
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Can You Still Get Hpv If You Have The Vaccine
still gethavingHPV vaccineHPVHPVvaccineLess serious side effects may include:
- pain, swelling, redness, bruising, or itching where the shot was given
- mild fever, headache, dizziness, tired feeling
- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
- runny or stuffy nose, sore throat, cough or.
- tooth pain, joint or muscle pain.
Hpv Vaccination For Men Who Have Sex With Men
Men who have sex with men have not benefited in the same way from the longstanding girls’ programme, so may be left unprotected against HPV.
Since April 2018, MSM up to and including 45 years of age have been eligible for free HPV vaccination on the NHS when they visit sexual health clinics and HIV clinics in England.
Ask the doctor or nurse at the clinic for more details.
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What Are The Different Types Of Hpv And What Do They Do
There are more than 100 different types of HPV, and around 40 that affect the genital area.
HPV is very common and can be caught through any kind of sexual contact with another person who already has it.
Most people will get an HPV infection at some point in their lives and their bodies will get rid of it naturally without treatment.
But some people infected with a high-risk type of HPV will not be able to clear it.
Over time, this can cause abnormal tissue growth as well as other changes, which can lead to cancer if not treated.
High-risk types of HPV are linked to different types of cancer, including:
Infection with other types of HPV may cause:
- genital warts small growths or skin changes on or around the genital or anal area they’re the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the UK
- skin warts and verrucas not on the genital area
- warts on the voice box or vocal cords
The Hpv Vaccine: Doses And Timings
Gardasil has been the HPV vaccine used in the NHS vaccination schedule since 2012.
Sometime during the 2021 to 2022 academic year the HPV vaccine used in the NHS programme will switch to Gardasil 9.
2 doses are needed to complete the course, with the 2nd dose given 6 to 24 months after the 1st dose.
Gardasil 9 can be given for the 1st and 2nd dose or to complete a course that was previously started with Gardasil.
Your school will let you know when your vaccinations are due.
If you miss one of the doses, speak to the school immunisation team or your GP surgery about making an appointment to have the missed dose. Ideally, this should be done as close as possible to the date of the missed vaccine.
Page last reviewed: 10 May 2019 Next review due: 10 May 2022
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