The Case Fatality Rate
There is a straightforward question that most people would like answered. If someone is infected with COVID-19, how likely is that person to die?
This question is simple, but surprisingly hard to answer.
Here we explain why that is. Well discuss the case fatality rate, the crude mortality rate, and the infection fatality rate, and why theyre all different.
The key point is that the case fatality rate, the most commonly discussed measure of the risk of dying, is not the answer to the question, for two reasons. One, it relies on the number of confirmed cases, and many cases are not confirmed and two, it relies on the total number of deaths, and with COVID-19, some people who are sick and will die soon have not yet died. These two facts mean that it is extremely difficult to make accurate estimates of the true risk of death.
The case fatality rate
In the media, it is often the case fatality rate that is talked about when the risk of death from COVID-19 is discussed.1 This measure is sometimes called case fatality risk or case fatality ratio, or CFR.
But this is not the same as the risk of death for an infected person even though, unfortunately, journalists often suggest that it is. It is relevant and important, but far from the whole story.
Another important metric, which should not be confused with the CFR, is the crude mortality rate.
The crude mortality rate
But, just as with CFR, it is actually very different.
Million Covid Vaccine Doses Thrown Away In The Us Since March New Data Shows
Pharmacies and state governments in the United States have thrown away at least 15.1 million doses of Covid-19 vaccines since March 1, according to government data obtained by NBC News a far larger number than previously known and still probably an undercount.
Four national pharmacy chains reported more than 1 million wasted doses each, according to data released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in response to a public records request. Walgreens reported the most waste of any pharmacy, state or other vaccine provider, with nearly 2.6 million wasted doses. CVS reported 2.3 million wasted doses, while Walmart reported 1.6 million and Rite Aid reported 1.1 million.
The data released by the CDC is self-reported by pharmacies, states and other vaccine providers. It is not comprehensive missing some states and federal providers and it does not include the reason doses had to be thrown away. In one example of missing data, the CDC lists just 12 wasted doses for Michigan since March, but Michigan’s Department of Health and Human Services said on Wednesday that the state has thrown away 257,673 doses since December.
The number of discarded doses is still a small fraction of the total doses administered in the U.S.
Map: How Many People Are Vaccinated In Each County
County-level data is most accurate in states that report county of residence to the CDC for a high percentage of people vaccinated. In states that report the county of residence at a lower rate, the vaccination rate for counties may appear to be lower than it actually is.
For this reason, data is not shown for states that included a county of residence for less than 80% of people vaccinated there. Some states, such as Texas and Hawaii, do not report county-level information to the CDC.
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Number Of Vaccination Centres
As of 28 September This data is subject to change anytime.
Citizens above the age of 18 can book appointments through the COWIN platform or can do a Walk-In registration on site.All vaccine centres have registration desks, vaccine booths and observation rooms.Vaccine certificates can be downloaded digitally through the COWIN platform, or citizens can ask for a hard copy from vaccination centres.All government run vaccination centers provide free of cost vaccines, private centers do charge.
How Much Do Vaccines Cost Per Dose
Moderna and Pfizer–BioNTech so far have been selling the majority of their doses to high-income countries, including the U.S., Canada and the European Union. These are also the most expensive vaccines.
AstraZeneca-Oxford has the cheapest of the five vaccines. The company has committed not to profit from it while the pandemic lasts.
There have been reports of different prices being paid by governments in different parts of the world.
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Chart: How Many Shots From Each Vaccine Manufacturer Have Been Administered
The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines require two doses, and the Johnson & Johnson vaccine requires only one for the recipient to be fully vaccinated. For the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, a second shot should be administered about three or four weeks after the first, depending on which of the vaccines was given.
Read more:Comparing the COVID-19 vaccines
Delivered And Checked Doses & Doses Administered In Total
This graph shows how many vaccine doses in total were available in the Netherlands and how many doses have been administered.
In this graph, the number of doses administered is incomplete.
As of 15 September 2021, the graph no longer shows an expectation for the coming weeks. Please read the explanation in the Explanation of the data presented.
- Number of Janssen doses administered
- Number of AstraZeneca doses administered
- Number of Moderna doses administered
- Number of BioNTech/Pfizer doses administered
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Who Can Get A Vaccine Now
All those aged 16 and over can now get a Covid vaccine, as well as children with underlying health conditions who are aged 12 and above.
Those of the same age who live with people who have a suppressed immune system can also be vaccinated, to protect family members.
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All of our charts can be embedded in any site.
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Which Vaccines Are In Use
The vaccine produced by Pfizer and BioNTech was the first approved by the WHO, followed by several others.
The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine is now the most widely used around the globe.
Unlike Pfizer’s jab – which has to be kept at an extremely cold temperature – the Oxford vaccine can be stored in a normal fridge, which makes it easier to distribute.
The African Union has started the distribution of 400 million vaccines produced by Janssen – which, unlike the Pfizer and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines, only requires one dose.
Most governments are starting with doses for the over-60s, health workers and people who are clinically vulnerable.
In countries such as Israel and the UK, there are already promising signs the vaccines are reducing hospital admissions and deaths.
Worldwide, more than 100 possible vaccines are undergoing trials to test their efficacy and safety.
How Many Doses Do I Need Of The Vaccines What About Booster Shots
Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines
The mRNA vaccines come in two doses. The first dose of the vaccine helps prepare your immune system and the second dose provides most of the immunity. Once you receive both doses of the vaccine, it will likely take several weeks for your body to develop immunity. Both doses are important to ensure full protection.
- People receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine will need a second dose 21 days after the first, while those who get the Moderna vaccine will need a booster 28 days later.
- Persons should not be scheduled to receive the second dose earlier than recommended . However, second doses administered within a grace period of four days earlier than the recommended date for the second dose are still considered valid. Doses inadvertently administered earlier than the grace period should not be repeated.
- The second dose should be administered as close to the recommended interval as possible. However, if it is not feasible to adhere to the recommended interval, the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines may be scheduled for administration up to six weeks after the first dose. There are currently limited data on efficacy of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines administered beyond this window. If the second dose is administered beyond these intervals, there is no need to restart the series.
According to the FDA and CDC:
Additional Dose for Immunocompromised Patients
Johnson & Johnson Vaccine
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Monitoring And Reporting Requirements
In order to mitigate the risks of using this unapproved product under EUA and to optimize the potential benefit of Moderna COVID19 Vaccine, the following items are required. Use of unapproved Moderna COVID19 Vaccine for active immunization to prevent COVID19 under this EUA is limited to the following :
- vaccine administration errors whether or not associated with an adverse event,
- serious adverse events* ,
- cases of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome , and
- cases of COVID-19 that result in hospitalization or death.
- *Serious adverse events are defined as:
Update Your Proof Of Vaccination
If your Nova Scotia COVID-19 Proof of Vaccination has an error or missing information, call to report an issue with your proof of vaccination. You can also call to report an issue if you cant get your Nova Scotia COVID-19 Proof of Vaccination online using your Canadian Health Card number and the email address or phone number you used to book your vaccination appointment.
When you call to report an issue with your proof of vaccination, you may need to provide your:
- email address or phone number you used to book your appointment
- Health Card number
- type, date and location of COVID-19 vaccine you received
After you report an issue, it should take 2 weeks to get a new digital copy of your Nova Scotia COVID-19 Proof of Vaccination. It can take longer if more information is needed.
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Do People Have To Receive Two Doses And Do They Have To Be The Same Type Of Covid
Yes, it is important that every person who receives a COVID-19 vaccine receive the full two-dose course of a vaccine. Both Pfizer and AstraZeneca require 2 doses to provide the best immunity. Pfizer doses are given at least 21 days apart. AstraZeneca doses can be given 4 12 weeks apart, but the Australian Technical Advisory Group in Immunisation recommend doses should be 12 weeks apart. When its your turn to get the COVID-19 vaccine, you will be able to make that equally important follow up appointment.
It is important you get the same type of COVID-19 vaccine. This is because the evidence from clinical trials shows this is effective and is what is approved for use by the Therapeutic Goods Administration .
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There have been reports of severe allergic reactions to the mRNA vaccines. Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines appear, on rare occasions, to trigger anaphylaxis, a severe and potentially life-threatening reaction. People who develop anaphylaxis must be treated with epinephrine the drug in EpiPens and may need to be hospitalized to ensure their airways remain open. The CDC says people should be monitored for 15 minutes after getting a Covid-19 shot, and 30 minutes if they have a history of severe allergies. J& J recently revealed that a single case of anaphylaxis has been reported in someone who received its vaccine.
It will take time to come up with a firm estimate of how frequently this side effect occurs. The most recent data from the CDC suggest that anaphylaxis occurs at a rate of about 2.5 cases per one million doses given of the Moderna vaccine, and 4.7 cases per million doses of the Pfizer. Many of the people who have developed anaphylaxis have a history of severe allergies and some have had previous episodes of anaphylaxis.
The mRNA vaccines carry a small risk of myocarditis and pericarditis, two types of heart inflammation that are most commonly seen soon after people receive their second shots, health officials have said. Men under 40 seem to be at highest risk, particularly those aged 12 to 17. Most cases reported have been mild and resolved.
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Fda Authorizes Booster Shots Of Moderna Johnson & Johnson Covid
Our workforce is just exhausted and theyre trying to plan for kids, said Claire Hannan, the executive director of the Association of Immunization Managers. Some of our members didnt even know that the Moderna was a half dose and we just started talking about it and their jaws just dropped.
It gets more complex from there. The FDA also authorized, and CDC is expected to recommend second doses of the Johnson & Johnson shot as soon as later today for everyone who received that shot not just the narrower populations given the OK for the boosters of the Moderna or Pfizer shots. And while people who got Pfizer and Moderna are eligible for boosters from six months after they completed their primary series of those vaccines, people who got J& J are supposed to get their second shot two months after their first.
Moreover, the FDA revealed Wednesday that it is allowing a mix-and-match approach with boosters, meaning people wont need to get the same shot as a booster as they did for their primary series. This policy will complicate planning, making it difficult to anticipate how many doses of each vaccine will be needed in each area for the booster campaign.
FDA leadership acknowledged all this will pose challenges. Although it is not simple, it also is not utterly hopelessly complex, Peter Marks, director of FDAs Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, said Wednesday on a call with reporters after the agency issued the new and revised emergency authorizations.
Vaccine Development: Vaccines Approved For Use And In Clinical Trials
The speed at which the first COVID-19 vaccines were developed was extraordinary. We have previously looked into the history of vaccine development. The measles vaccine was found relatively rapidly: it took only 10 years from the discovery of the pathogen to the development of the first vaccine. But for typhoid it took more than a century, and for some diseases for which weve known the pathogens for more than a century we still havent found an effective vaccine.
The development of a vaccine against COVID-19 has been much faster than the development of any other vaccine. Within less than a year several successful vaccines have already been announced and were approved for use in some countries.
The hope is that even more manufacturers develop vaccines for COVID-19. This will be important because eventually a very large share of the world population needs to receive a COVID-19 vaccine.
We are on the way to several vaccines against COVID-19 vaccine trackers monitor the progress:
Several institutions maintain websites on which they list COVID-19 candidate vaccines that are currently being developed:
|Oxford/AstraZeneca, Sinopharm/Beijing, Sinovac, Sputnik V|
Latest Australia Covid Numbers And Statistics
This chart shows the epidemic curve for Australia, using a seven-day rolling average of daily cases. This will show any progress in flattening the curve and how effective various measures have been in suppressing the outbreak:
- Fixed an issue with scrolling in the Guardian app
- Removed the doses per 100 people by jurisdiction line chart as its less useful with so many doses being administered via GP and other clinics
- Updates to how Indigenous vaccination statistics are presented, now using the 12+ population for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous
- We have changed the way were projecting second-dose targets, as outlined in the text above. We have temporarily removed the chart with state-by-state target progress and will replace it shortly with a new chart that uses the new method
- Production and distribution section is back
- Removed hospitalisation percentage chart, this will be replaced shortly with a new chart that doesnt use active cases
- Fixed the cases trend line to stop using the latest day which usually has incomplete data
- Removed production and distribution section
- Added vaccination maps and tables for each area
- Re-added the table of rollout projections
- Added Where can I get vaccinated section, replacing When can I get vaccinated
Newshow India’s Covid Crisis Is Inflaming Global Vaccine Inequality
The number of doses that went to waste is a small fraction of the more than 438 million doses that were distributed in the country as of Tuesday and the 111.7 million additional doses the U.S. had given to other countries as of Aug. 3.
Demand for vaccines in the U.S. rose in August as cases and hospitalizations surged due to the delta variant. Still, the U.S. wasted at least 3.8 million doses in August alone, the data shows.
States, pharmacies and other vaccine providers also reported at least 4.4 million wasted doses to the CDC in June and 4.7 million in July more than in March, April and May combined.
No state health department came close to the number of doses wasted by pharmacy chains, but four reported over 200,000 wasted doses each. Texas led in reports of vaccine waste by states, with 517,746 wasted doses, North Carolina reported 285,126, Pennsylvania reported 244,214 and Oklahoma reported 226,163.
The Pennsylvania Department of Health released a statement saying, “While we do everything possible to avoid waste, and while we dont want to waste on purpose, we also dont want to miss any vaccination opportunities.”
Representatives for the North Carolina and Oklahoma health departments did not immediately respond to requests for comment. Officials in Oklahoma previously blamed vaccine waste on the need to get vaccines into arms, even if that means throwing away unused doses.
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