What Are The Risks Of Gbs With The Mcv4 Vaccine
Between 2005 and 2012, more than 18 million doses of MCV4 were distributed. It’s uncertain how many of those have actually been given. In that same time period, there have been 99 confirmed cases of GBS, a serious nervous system disorder, reported within six weeks of the vaccine being taken. There is not enough data at this time to tell whether or not the vaccine was a factor. But analysis of the data suggests that the incidence of GBS is no higher for people receiving the vaccine than the incidence of GBS in the general population.
Still, the timing of the onset of symptoms has raised concern. The CDC is continuing to study the issue and has recommended that people be told about the study when they are considering the vaccine. The current opinion is that even if there is a slight increase in the risk of GBS, it’s significantly outweighed by the risk of meningococcal disease without the vaccine.
Talk to your doctor if you have any further concerns about the vaccine and GBS.
Pediatrics, published online Feb. 1, 2011. CDC web site: “Meningitis Questions & Answers,” “Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know,” “Meningococcal Vaccination,” “Vaccines and Preventable Diseases: Meningococcal: Who Needs to Be Vaccinated?” “Meningococcal vaccine side-effects,” “GBS and Menactra Meningococcal Vaccine.”
VaccineInformation.org: “Meningococcal Disease Vaccine.”
Can The Meningococcal Vaccine Cause Meningococcal Disease
The short answer is no. There are actually four meningococcal vaccines licensed in the U.S. None of the vaccines contains live bacteria.
The vaccines contain antigens — substances that trigger the body’s immune system and cause it to make antibodies. These antibodies then protect the body by attacking and killing the bacteria if it should invade your system.
The first vaccine — meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine or MPSV4 — was approved in 1978. It’s made with the antigens contained in the outer polysaccharide or sugar capsule that surrounds the bacterium.
The meningococcal conjugate vaccine or MCV4 was approved in 2005. It uses antigens taken from the polysaccharide capsule and then bound to a separate protein that targets the body’s immune cells. This makes it easier for the body’s immune system to see and recognize the antigens.
One type of MCV4, Menveo, is licensed for use in people ages 2 to 55. Another version, Menactra, is approved for those 9 months to 55 years old. MPSV4 is the only vaccine licensed for use in people over 55 as well as people 2 to 55. Both vaccines protect against four types of meningococcal disease.
How Much Does A Meningococcal Vaccine Cost
The cash price for meningococcal vaccines differs slightly between each one. But, many people dont pay the cash price for these vaccines. Thats because theyre usually covered by insurance. Below are average retail and GoodRx prices for each vaccine .
The CDC lists meningococcal vaccines as one of the vaccines usually covered by private insurance. Insurance companies are required to cover vaccines based on recommendations from the CDC.
So, if your healthcare provider determines that a meningococcal vaccine is recommended in your situation, your insurance will likely cover it. But its always best to check with your insurance company if youre unsure.
The Vaccines for Children program also offers vaccines at no cost for children who are eligible .
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Menb Vaccination Of Adults At Increased Risk
MenB vaccines are not approved for use in people under 10 years old. Adults should receive a MenB vaccine if they are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease due to
- Having certain medical conditions
- Complement component deficiency
- Functional or anatomic asplenia
Those who remain at increased risk need regular booster doses.
- Administer a booster dose of MenB vaccine 1 year after series completion and then every 2 to 3 years thereafter.
- For those at increased risk due to an outbreak who previously received the MenB vaccine series, CDC recommends a booster dose if a year or more has passed since primary series completion.
Measles Mumps And Rubella Vaccine
The MMR vaccine offers protection against measles, mumps and rubella infections. Meningitis can sometimes occur as a complication of mumps. Measles and rubella can cause encephalitis . In New Zealand, the MMR vaccine is free as part of the childhood immunisation schedule, for children at 15 months and 4 years of age. Read more about MMR vaccine.
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Meningococcal Vaccine For Teens
Experts recommend the meningococcal conjugate vaccine for children when they are age 11 or 12. Teens who have not yet had this shot also need it. That’s especially the case if they are at risk for getting meningitis or have a weakened immune system. Your child should then have a booster shot at age 16, or 5 years after the first vaccine. If your child gets the first shot at age 16 or older, a booster dose is not needed.
Which Meningococcal Vaccines Are Available
In the U.S., three meningococcal vaccines are available:
- Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine , sold as Menomune
- Meningococcal conjugate vaccine , sold as Menactra, MenHibrix, and Menveo.
- Serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, sold asTrumenba and Bexsero.
MPSV4 and MCV4 can prevent four types of meningococcal disease, which make up about 70% of the cases in the U.S.
The MenB vaccines prevent the Meningococcal B strain.
MCV4 is preferred for people age 55 and younger. The recommendation for teens is one dose at age 11 and one dose at age 16. The doctor or nurse injects one dose into the muscle. If MCV4 is not available, you can use MPSV4. The doctor or nurse injects one dose beneath the skin.
MPSV4 is the only meningococcal vaccine approved for use in people over 55.
The MenB vaccines are recommended for ages 10-24, by the CDC for high risk patients, but can also be used in older adults. Trumenba is administered in three doses while Bexsero requires two doses.
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Who Is Entitled To The Menb Vaccine
All babies are offered this vaccine as part of the routine immunisation schedule. It is also recommended for people with certain long-term health conditions who are at greater risk. These include individuals with no spleen, or a spleen that does not work properly, sickle cell anaemia, coeliac disease and complement disorders .
Why Do Teens Need A Meningococcal Vaccine
Of the 1,000-2,600 people who get meningococcal disease each year, one-third are teens and young adults. Ten percent to 15% of those who get sick with the disease will die, even with antibiotic treatment. As many as 20% of the survivorswill have permanent side effects, such as hearing loss or brain damage.
The immunization can help prevent this serious disease.
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You Are Pregnant Or Breastfeeding
- Pregnant women who are at increased risk for serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease may get MenACWY vaccines.
- Pregnant or breastfeeding women who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease may get MenB vaccines. However, they should talk with a doctor to decide if the benefits of getting the vaccine outweigh the risks.
H Influenzae Type B Vaccine
This vaccine protects against H. influenzae type b bacteria, which can cause a range of mild to severe illnesses. These include throat swelling, blood infections and pneumonia.
Before the vaccine, Hib was a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under age 5.
- Hib vaccine is to infants in three to four doses, starting at 2 months old. In rare cases, it may be recommended for older children and young adults with HIV. The vaccine can be given with other vaccines.
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Why Are Meningococcal Vaccines Recommended
Meningococcal disease is caused by a type of bacteria. It can lead to an infection of the bloodstream or meningitis, or both, and can be life-threatening if not quickly treated. The MenACWY vaccine is very effective at protecting against four strains of the bacteria, while the MenB vaccine protects against a fifth strain.
Your Child Can Get Menacwy And Menb Vaccines At The Same Time
Your childs doctor can give both types of meningococcal vaccines during the same visit, but preferably in different arms. If you choose for your child to get a MenB vaccine, the preferred timing is between 16 and 18 years old. So its possible your child will get this vaccine and the MenACWY booster dose at the same visit.
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Are There Times You Shouldn’t Get The Vaccine
Typically, you want to avoid getting it if you:
- Are very sick. A mild cold is OK, but for anything more than that, it’s better to hold off.
- Had a severe, life-threatening allergy to a meningitis vaccine or some part of it. Your doctor can tell you what’s in the vaccine.
- Had a severe reaction to the DTap vaccine or latex
- Have Guillain-Barre syndrome. Ask your doctor if the vaccine is safe for you.
- Have a latex allergy
May be pregnant or are breastfeeding. It’s typically best to avoid the vaccine in this case, but if it’s needed, your doctor can help weigh the pros and cons.
Are Both Meningococcal Vaccines Equally Effective
The MCV4, MPSV4 and MenB vaccines are about 85-90% effective in preventing meningococcal disease. There are actually several types of N meningitidis — the bacterium that causes meningococcal disease, five of which are common in the U.S. These vaccines together protect against all five of these strains.
MCV4 has not been available long enough to compare the long-term effectiveness of the two vaccines. But most experts think that MCV4 provides better, longer-lasting protection.
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When Are Meningococcal Vaccines Given
Vaccination with MenACWY is recommended:
- when kids are 11 or 12 years old, with a booster given at age 16
- for teens 1318 years old who haven’t been vaccinated yet
Those who have their first dose between the ages of 1315 should get a booster dose between the ages of 1618. Teens who get their first dose after age 16 won’t need a booster dose.
Kids and teens who are at higher risk for meningococcal disease need the full series of MenACWY vaccines, even if they’re younger than 11 years old. This includes kids who:
- live in or travel to countries where the disease is common
- are present during an outbreak of the disease
- have some kinds of immune disorders. If the immune disorders are chronic, these kids also need a booster dose a few years later, depending on their age at the first dose.
The sequence and dosage depends on the child’s age, medical condition, and vaccine brand. Some types of meningococcal vaccines can be given as early as 8 weeks of age.
Kids 10 years and older with these risk factors also should get the MenB vaccine. They’ll need 2 or 3 doses depending on the brand. They might need more booster doses as long as the risk factor remains.
For those without risk factors, the decision to receive the MenB vaccine should be made together by teens, their parents, and the doctor. For them, the preferred age range is 1618 years. Usually, they need 2 doses.
Menveo Nimenrix And Menactra
The product information for Menveo, Nimenrix and Menactra states that vaccine should be administered as a single dose to people aged 2 years.
ATAGI recommends that these vaccines can be given in a 2- or 3-dose primary schedule to people aged 2 years who are at increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease according to Table. Recommendations for MenACWY vaccine for people with a specified medical condition that increases their risk of invasive meningococcal disease.
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Is It Possible To Get The Vaccine And Still Get Meningitis
Because the vaccines do not protect against all causes of meningitis, it is still possible that someone could receive the vaccine and still get meningitis from a different strain not protected by the vaccine. But the risk of contracting meningococcal meningitis is significantly lower after the vaccine.
There are other causes of meningitis that are preventable. Vaccines like the Hib vaccine and the pneumococcal vaccine are also very effective at protecting against other causes of meningitis and should be included as part of a routine childhood vaccination schedule. Check with your doctor and your children’s doctor to make sure that you and your family are protected against meningitis, as well as other serious illnesses.
Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals. Review of meningococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious meningococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, conjugate meningococcal vaccines are in limited use. Information on vaccination schedules in other countries can be found on the World Health Organization website. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional general information.
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Menacwy Vaccination Of Younger Children And Adults At Increased Risk
In certain situations, younger children and adults should receive MenACWY vaccines. Some people are at increased risk for serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease due to
- Having certain medical conditions
Those who remain at increased risk need regular booster doses.
- For children under the age of 7 years, administer a booster dose 3 years after completion of the primary series and every 5 years thereafter.
- For children 7 years old or older and adults, administer a booster dose 5 years after completion of the primary series and every 5 years thereafter.
Meningococcal Disease In Australia
Meningococcal disease can occur sporadically or in epidemics. In Australia, most cases occur during winter and early spring. Other countries with temperate climates also have this seasonal trend.95
The meningococcal serogroups that cause meningococcal disease have been changing. A meningococcal C vaccine was introduced on the National Immunisation Program in 2003 and has resulted in a large reduction in meningococcal C disease incidence.95,96
Meningococcal B has historically caused most meningococcal disease in Australia.96 Meningococcal B continues to cause around half of all reported cases of meningococcal disease in Australia.98
Meningococcal B is most common in South Australia, where a state-funded MenB vaccination program was introduced from 2018. Refer to the South Australian Health Department website for further details.
Because of substantial declines in invasive meningococcal disease caused by serogroups B and C, overall IMD incidence in Australia declined between 2003 and 2013.96
Since 2013, the incidence of meningococcal W disease has rapidly increased.98,99 Incidence of meningococcal Y disease has also been steadily increasing since 2016.98 Several states and territories implemented vaccination programs with MenACWY vaccine in 2017 to manage this disease. In 2018, MenACWY vaccine was introduced on the National Immunisation Program for toddlers aged 12 months. Adolescents are able to receive MenACWY vaccine on the National Immunisation Program from 2019.
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Where Can I Get Vaccinated
The best place to go for vaccinations is your family medical clinic. They have your medical records and can check to see if youve already had a particular vaccination. Either your doctor or a nurse can give the vaccination.If you dont have a family doctor, you can go to one of the after-hour medical clinics. Ring them first to make sure they can help you with the vaccination you need.You can find a clinic near you on the Healthpoint website. Put in your address and region, and under Select a service, click on GPs/Accident & Urgent Medical Care.Vaccines on the National Immunisation Schedule are free. Other vaccines are funded only for people at particular risk of disease. You can choose to pay for vaccines that you are not eligible to receive for free.
Persons With Chronic Diseases
Two doses of Men-C-ACYW vaccine are recommended for persons with anatomic or functional asplenia, including sickle cell disease. When elective splenectomy is planned, all recommended vaccines should ideally be completed at least 2 weeks before surgery if only one dose can be given before surgery, the second dose should be given 8 weeks after the first dose, with a minimum interval of 4 weeks. In the case of an emergency splenectomy, two doses of vaccine should ideally be given beginning 2 weeks after surgery but can be given earlier, before discharge, if the person might not return for vaccination after discharge. Persons one year of age and older with asplenia who have not received Men-C-ACYW vaccine should receive two doses administered 8 weeks apart, with a minimum interval of 4 weeks. In addition, 4CMenB or MenB-fHBP vaccine should be offered. Periodic booster doses with Men-C-ACYW vaccine are also recommended.
Refer to Table 1 for vaccination recommendations of high risk individuals due to underlying conditions. Refer to Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information and Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional general information.
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Many Colleges Require Proof Of Menacwy Vaccination Within 5 Years Before Starting School
Regardless of school requirements, CDC recommends a booster dose for all teens who received the first dose before their 16th birthday. The booster dose provides the best protection during the ages when teens are at highest risk. Teens who receive their first MenACWY vaccine dose at or after age 16 years do not need a booster dose.