How Effective Is It
A 2021 study examined Bexsero using data from Quebec, Italy, the United Kingdom, Portugal, and South Australia to determine its safety and effectiveness.
The researchers found that meningitis B rates decreased by 50 to 100 percent in vaccine-eligible populations. The vaccines were found to be 79 to 100 percent effective in people who received two or more doses.
Clinical trials have found promising results for Trumenba as well. is needed to understand its true effectiveness, but researchers believe that it can also provide a high level of protection.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Immunisation
All medicines and vaccines can have side effects. Most of the time they are not serious.
For most people, the chance of having a serious side effect from a vaccine is much lower than the chance of serious harm if you caught the disease.
Talk to your doctor about the possible side effects of meningococcal vaccines, or if you or your child have symptoms that worry you after having a meningococcal vaccine.
Common side effects of meningococcal vaccines include:
- pain, redness and swelling where the needle went in
- feeling unsettled or tired
See the Vaccinate to protect your baby against meningococcal B brochure for information on how to manage fever following meningococcal B vaccination in under 2 year olds.
The Consumer Medicine Information links in How do you get immunised against meningococcal disease? lists the side effects of each vaccine.
Who Needs A Meningococcal Vaccine
The CDC recommends a meningococcal vaccine for:
- All children ages 11-18 or certain younger high-risk children
- Anyone who has been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak
- Anyone traveling to or living where meningitis is common, such as in sub-Saharan Africa
- Military recruits
- People with certain immune system disorders or a damaged or missing spleen
Recommended Reading: What Is The Meningitis Vaccine Called
Why Get Immunised Against Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease is a very serious infection that can cause severe scarring, loss of limbs, brain damage and death.
Vaccination is a safe and effective way to protect yourself from meningococcal disease.
Meningococcal disease is most commonly caused by types A, B, C, W and Y. Vaccines can protect against all these types, but different vaccines protect against different types. No single vaccine protects against all types.
Which Meningococcal Vaccines Are Available
In the U.S., three meningococcal vaccines are available:
- Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine , sold as Menomune
- Meningococcal conjugate vaccine , sold as Menactra, MenHibrix, and Menveo.
- Serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, sold as Trumenba and Bexsero.
MPSV4 and MCV4 can prevent four types of meningococcal disease, which make up about 70% of the cases in the U.S.
The MenB vaccines prevent the Meningococcal B strain.
MCV4 is preferred for people age 55 and younger. The recommendation for teens is one dose at age 11 and one dose at age 16. The doctor or nurse injects one dose into the muscle. If MCV4 is not available, you can use MPSV4. The doctor or nurse injects one dose beneath the skin.
MPSV4 is the only meningococcal vaccine approved for use in people over 55.
The MenB vaccines are recommended for ages 10-24, by the CDC for high risk patients, but can also be used in older adults. Trumenba is administered in three doses while Bexsero requires two doses.
Also Check: Does Medicare Pay For Shingrix Shingles Vaccine
Who Should Get Vaccinated
Children 2 through 10 years of age should receive two doses of meningococcal vaccine only if they are at increased risk for the disease.
All 11- through12-year-old adolescents should be vaccinated with meningococcal conjugate vaccine . Effective August, 1, 2020, a booster dose to protect against meningococcal disease is required for adolescents entering the 12th grade or by 17 years of age, whichever comes first. Adolescents who receive their first dose of MCV4 at or after age 16 years do not need a booster dose.
For additional information, see our new fact sheet in English , or en Español.
Adults should get meningitis vaccine if they:
- Are a college freshmen living in a dormitory
- Are a military recruit
- Have a damaged spleen or your spleen has been removed
- Have terminal complement deficiency
- Are a microbiologist who is routinely exposed to Neisseria meningitidis
- Are traveling or residing in countries in which the disease is common.
Route Site And Needle Size
Administer meningococcal conjugate and serogroup B meningococcal vaccines by the intramuscular route. The preferred site for infants and young children is the vastus lateralis muscle in the anterolateral thigh. The preferred injection site in older children and adults is the deltoid muscle. Use a needle length appropriate for the age and size of the person receiving the vaccine.
Don’t Miss: How Many Doses Of Meningitis B Vaccine
Meningococcal Serogroup B Immunization
To prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitides serogroup B in adults at increased risk for meningococcal disease
Current vaccination schedules available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/index.htm
- Two-dose schedule: 0.5 mL IM at 0 and 6 months OR
- Three-dose schedule: 0.5 mL IM at 0, 12, and 6 months if the second dose is administered < 6 months after first dose, a third dose should be administered at least 4 months after the second dose
- Choice of dosing schedule may depend on patient risk of exposure and susceptibility to meningococcal serogroup B disease
- 0.5 mL IM as a 2-dose series administered at least 1 month apart
ACIP recommendations for at risk adults
- Immunize at risk adults with primary series
- Booster dose: Administer 1 year after primary series completed and repeat booster dose every 2-3 yr if risk remains
At risk individuals include
- Complement inhibitor use
- Microbiologists routinely exposed to Neisseria meningitidis
ACIP recommendations for adults not at risk
- Need for primary series vaccination in adults not at high risk is based on shared decision making between patient and clinician
Meningococcal Disease In Australia
Meningococcal disease can occur sporadically or in epidemics. In Australia, most cases occur during winter and early spring. Other countries with temperate climates also have this seasonal trend.95
The meningococcal serogroups that cause meningococcal disease have been changing. A meningococcal C vaccine was introduced on the National Immunisation Program in 2003 and has resulted in a large reduction in meningococcal C disease incidence.95,96
Meningococcal B has historically caused most meningococcal disease in Australia.96 Meningococcal B continues to cause around half of all reported cases of meningococcal disease in Australia.98
Meningococcal B is most common in South Australia, where a state-funded MenB vaccination program was introduced from 2018. Refer to the South Australian Health Department website for further details.
Because of substantial declines in invasive meningococcal disease caused by serogroups B and C, overall IMD incidence in Australia declined between 2003 and 2013.96
Since 2013, the incidence of meningococcal W disease has rapidly increased.98,99 Incidence of meningococcal Y disease has also been steadily increasing since 2016.98 Several states and territories implemented vaccination programs with MenACWY vaccine in 2017 to manage this disease. In 2018, MenACWY vaccine was introduced on the National Immunisation Program for toddlers aged 12 months. Adolescents are able to receive MenACWY vaccine on the National Immunisation Program from 2019.
Recommended Reading: What Type Of Vaccine Is Bexsero
You Are Pregnant Or Breastfeeding
- Pregnant women who are at increased risk for serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease may get MenACWY vaccines.
- Pregnant or breastfeeding women who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease may get MenB vaccines. However, they should talk with a clinician to decide if the benefits of getting the vaccine outweigh the risk.
What Is The Men
The Men-B vaccine protects against infection by one of the most common types of meningococcal bacteria, type B. The vaccine is approved by Health Canada.
The Men-B vaccine is not part of the routine immunization schedule in B.C. However, a vaccine for meningococcal C disease is routinely provided to infants and a vaccine that protects against meningococcal types A, C, Y and W-135 is provided to students in grade 9. Both of these vaccines are provided for free. For more information see HealthLinkBC File #23a Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccine and HealthLinkBC File #23b Meningococcal Quadrivalent Vaccines.
Recommended Reading: Is There A Vaccine For Hiv
What Are The Options For Meningococcal Vaccine
Meningococcal vaccine is highly effective at protecting against four strains of the meningococcal bacteria. Three strains are common in the United States and the fourth strain protects travelers to certain countries where the disease is more common.
The MenACWY vaccine does not contain the meningococcal B strain that may cause some cases in adolescents/young adults. The meningococcal B vaccine can be given to people age 16-23 years. MenB vaccine is also recommended for people over age 10 years with certain high-risk conditions. If your clinic does not carry the MenB vaccine, you can ask them to order it for you, or to refer you to another clinic that has the vaccine. Talk to your health care provider about this additional vaccine.
Managing Fever After Meningococcal Acwy Immunisation
Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.
If fever is present, drinking extra fluids and not overdressing can help.
Although routine use of paracetamol after vaccination is not recommended , if fever is present, paracetamol can be given. Check the label for the correct dose according to your childs weight or speak with your pharmacist, especially when giving paracetamol to children.
Recommended Reading: How To Administer Meningococcal Vaccine
What Are The Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Mild side effects happen in about half those who get the vaccine. They may include redness or pain where the skin was injected. These side effects last no longer than 1 or 2 days.
Serious side effects are rare and can include high fever, weakness, and changes in behavior.
Severe allergic reactions may happen within minutes or hours of having the vaccination. These are signs of an allergic reaction:
Who Is Entitled To The Menb Vaccine
All babies are offered this vaccine as part of the routine immunisation schedule. It is also recommended for people with certain long-term health conditions who are at greater risk. These include individuals with no spleen, or a spleen that does not work properly, sickle cell anaemia, coeliac disease and complement disorders .
Don’t Miss: Where To Get Malaria Vaccine
Who Is At Most Risk For Meningococcal Disease
High-risk groups include anyone with a damaged spleen or whose spleen has been removed, those with persistent complement component deficiency , HIV infection, those traveling to countries where meningococcal disease is very common, microbiologists who routinely work with the bacteria and people who may have been exposed to meningococcal disease during an outbreak. People who live in certain settings such as college dormitories and military housing are also at greater risk of disease from some serotypes.
How Effective Is The Vaccine
There are many different MenB strains. This vaccine has been developed to offer protection against as many as possible.
Ten months after the introduction of this vaccine, cases of MenB disease had reduced by half in babies. The MenB vaccine also offers some protection against other types of meningococcal disease, including MenW.
No vaccine will offer complete protection from meningitis. Remaining vigilant is vital.
You May Like: Is Pneumococcal Vaccine Given Yearly
Why Do Teens Need A Meningococcal Vaccine
Of the 1,000-2,600 people who get meningococcal disease each year, one-third are teens and young adults. Ten percent to 15% of those who get sick with the disease will die, even with antibiotic treatment. As many as 20% of the survivorswill have permanent side effects, such as hearing loss or brain damage.
The immunization can help prevent this serious disease.
Risk By Age Group And By Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Status
Children aged < 2 years
Children aged < 2 years have the highest incidence of meningococcal cases. The disease occurs most often in infants aged 35 months.
Adolescents aged 1519 years
A high number of meningococcal disease cases occurs among adolescents and young adults aged 1524 years, with peak rates of disease occurring in 1820-year-olds. Adolescents and young adults have the highest rate of meningococcal carriage and are thought to play an important role in transmitting the bacteria in a community.4
Adolescents and young adults in this age bracket who have a higher risk of acquiring the meningococcal bacteria are:
- people who live in close quarters, such as new military recruits and students living in residential accommodation
- people who have prolonged contact with a person who is carrying meningococcal bacteria5-7
- people who are smokers8-10
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have much higher incidence rates of meningococcal disease than non-Indigenous Australians.96 This is particularly among children aged < 15 years for the 2 most common meningococcal serogroups: B and W.
Read Also: How Long Does Yellow Fever Vaccine Last
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the injection, along with headache, fever, or tiredness. Serious problems, such as allergic reactions, are rare.
The meningococcal vaccines contains only a small piece of the germ, so it can’t cause meningococcal disease.
Special Considerations For Concomitant Use Of Menactra And Dtap
Children can receive Menactra® before or concomitantly with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines. This timing avoids interference with the immunologic response to the meningococcal vaccine antigens that occurs when administering Menactra® after DTaP. Alternatively, children can receive Menveo® or MenQuadfi®, regardless of timing of DTaP vaccination.
Recommended Reading: Does Medicare Cover Zoster Vaccine
Who Should Get The Meningococcal Vaccines
The MenACWY vaccine is recommended for college freshman living in a dormitory. The vaccine has been recommended for 11-12 year olds since 2005, so it is possible that incoming freshmen have already received a dose. If you received a dose before age 16, you should get a booster before you go to college.
Recommended Immunizations For Teens Ages 16 To 18 Years Old
Between the ages of 16 and 18, there is one regularly recommended immunization and one immunization that may be recommended under certain circumstances.
An overview of immunizations for teens ages 16 to 18 years old
- MenACWY The second and final meningococcal vaccine shot is recommended at 16 years old.
- MenB The meningococcal B vaccine is recommended under specific circumstances, specifically if a college or university requires students to have this vaccination, or if a bacterial meningitis outbreak has occurred. The vaccine is given in two doses between the ages of 16 and 18. Once the first dose is given, the timing of the second dose is dependent on the manufacturer of the vaccine.
You May Like: Where To Get Yellow Fever Vaccine In New York City
When Are Meningococcal Vaccines Given
Vaccination with MenACWY is recommended:
- when kids are 11 or 12 years old, with a booster given at age 16
- for teens 1318 years old who haven’t been vaccinated yet
Those who have their first dose between the ages of 1315 should get a booster dose between the ages of 1618. Teens who get their first dose after age 16 won’t need a booster dose.
Kids and teens who are at higher risk for meningococcal disease need the full series of MenACWY vaccines, even if they’re younger than 11 years old. This includes kids who:
- live in or travel to countries where the disease is common
- are present during an outbreak of the disease
- have some kinds of immune disorders. If the immune disorders are chronic, these kids also need a booster dose a few years later, depending on their age at the first dose.
The sequence and dosage depends on the child’s age, medical condition, and vaccine brand. Some types of meningococcal vaccines can be given as early as 8 weeks of age.
Kids 10 years and older with these risk factors also should get the MenB vaccine. They’ll need 2 or 3 doses depending on the brand. They might need more booster doses as long as the risk factor remains.
For those without risk factors, the decision to receive the MenB vaccine should be made together by teens, their parents, and the doctor. For them, the preferred age range is 1618 years. Usually, they need 2 doses.
Special Considerations For Use Of Menactra For People With Functional Or Anatomic Asplenia Or Hiv
Children with functional or anatomic asplenia or HIV should not receive Menactra® before the age of 2 years. This timing avoids interference with the immunologic response to the infant series of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine . CDC recommends infants 2 through 23 months of age with functional or anatomic asplenia or HIV receive Menveo®.
People 2 years of age or older with functional or anatomic asplenia or HIV should not receive Menactra® at the same time as PCV. They should either receive Menveo® or MenQuadfi® when they get PCV or wait and receive Menactra® 4 weeks after completion of all PCV doses.
Recommended Reading: What Vaccines Does A 4 Year Old Need
Administration With Other Vaccines
Clinicians may administer MenACWY and MenB vaccines during the same visit, but at a different injection site, if feasible. Clinicians can also administer meningococcal and other vaccines during the same visit, but at a different injection site, if feasible. Administer each vaccine with a separate syringe.
People With Medical Conditions That Increase Their Risk Of Invasive Meningococcal Disease
People with medical conditions specified in List. Specified medical conditions associated with increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease are strongly recommended to receive MenACWY and MenB vaccines.
- a full primary course of MenACWY vaccine, with ongoing booster doses
- a full primary course of MenB vaccine
People with these specific medical conditions have a higher risk of invasive meningococcal disease. They are recommended to receive extra doses compared with people who do not have these conditions.
The number of doses needed depends on the vaccine brand used and the persons age when they start the vaccine course.
For people aged 2 years receiving MenACWY vaccine, it is preferable to receive either Menveo or Nimenrix, rather than Menactra. If Menveo and Nimenrix are unavailable, Menactra can be given.
There is no preference for either Bexsero or Trumenba for people aged 10 years. For people aged < 10 years, Bexsero is the only registered MenB vaccine available in Australia.
Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable. The same vaccine should be used for both vaccine doses.
Regular booster doses are required for MenACWY vaccines, but not for MenB vaccines.
For more details see:
People who have previously received a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
They should receive the 1st dose of MenACWY conjugate vaccine about 2 years after the most recent dose of 4vMenPV, with a recommended minimum interval of 6 months.1-3
Don’t Miss: How To Get Vaccine Titers