How Do You Get Immunised Against Meningococcal Disease
You can get meningococcal vaccines on their own or as a combination vaccine. Different vaccines protect against different types of meningococcal disease. They are all given as a needle.
Meningococcal vaccines include:
Your doctor can tell you which vaccine they will use for your meningococcal immunisation.
All Infants Children And Adults
Any person from 6 weeks of age who wants to protect themselves against meningococcal disease is recommended to receive MenACWY vaccine and MenB vaccine
Any person who wants to protect themselves against invasive meningococcal disease can receive MenACWY and MenB vaccines from as early as 6 weeks of age.
A summary of the recommendations for use of meningococcal vaccines is shown in Table. Recommendations for meningococcal vaccines for people at risk of meningococcal disease. The table shows the type of vaccines that are strongly recommended for specific age groups and special risk groups. See below for brand and dosing recommendations.
Infants aged < 9 months can receive 2 of the 3 MenACWY brands . Infants and children aged 9 months to 2 years can receive any of the 3 MenACWY vaccine brands, following the age-appropriate dosing schedule.
For all people aged 2 years, it is preferable to receive either Menveo or Nimenrix, rather than Menactra.
There is no preference for either Bexsero or Trumenba for people aged 10 years who wish to receive a MenB vaccine. For people aged < 10 years, Bexsero is the only registered MenB vaccine available in Australia.
Recommended dose schedules
For recommended dose schedules for healthy people aged 2 years who wish to receive meningococcal vaccine, see Table. Recommendations for meningococcal vaccines for healthy people aged 2 years, by age and vaccine brand.
Are Both Meningococcal Vaccines Equally Effective
The MCV4, MPSV4 and MenB vaccines are about 85-90% effective in preventing meningococcal disease. There are actually several types of N meningitidis — the bacterium that causes meningococcal disease, five of which are common in the U.S. These vaccines together protect against all five of these strains.
MCV4 has not been available long enough to compare the long-term effectiveness of the two vaccines. But most experts think that MCV4 provides better, longer-lasting protection.
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Who Should Get Immunised Against Meningococcal Disease
Anyone who wants to protect themselves against meningococcal disease can talk to their doctor about getting immunised.
Anyone wishing to reduce their risk of meningococcal disease can be offered vaccination with meningococcal B and meningococcal ACWY from as early as 6 weeks of age.
Meningococcal immunisation is recommended for:
- babies and young children under 2 years old
- teenagers and young adults aged 15-19 years
- teenagers and young adults aged 15 to 24 years living together in close quarters, such as dormitories and military barracks
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 months to 19 years
- teenagers and young adults aged 15 to 24 years who are current smokers
- people who are travelling overseas to places where meningococcal disease is more common, or people travelling to mass gatherings like the Hajj ,
- people who have medical conditions that increase their risk of invasive meningococcal disease for example, people who have certain blood disorders, or are taking treatment for certain blood disorders people with weakened immune systems, such as people without a functioning spleen, people living with HIV and people who have had a stem cell transplant
- laboratory workers who work with the bacterium that causes meningococcal disease
Speak to your doctor or vaccination provider for advice or refer to the meningococcal recommendations in the Australian Immunisation Handbook for more information and list of medical conditions.
Can The Vaccine Cause Meningococcal Disease
No. Only the Neisseria meningitidis bacterium can cause meningococcal disease. The vaccine is fractional and contains only a part of the microbe.
IAP Advisory Committee on Vaccines & Immunization Practices, Indian Academy of Pediatrics Kamdhenu Business Bay, 5th Floor, Plot No. 51, Sector 1, Juinagar East, , Nerul, Navi Mumbai – 400706
- Phone : 27710857, 27715578, 27716573, 27710118
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Who Should Not Get A Meningococcal Vaccine
Your preteen or teen shouldn’t get the meningococcal vaccine if they:
- Has had a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction to a meningococcal vaccine before or to any vaccine component
- Is moderately or severely ill
- Has ever had Guillain-Barre syndrome
Pregnant women can get the meningococcal vaccine, but it’s only recommended for those with certain immune problems or those likely to be exposed to meningitis. With the newer MCV4 and MenB vaccines, there hasn’t been as much study in pregnant women compared to the MPSV4 vaccine.
Menacwy Vaccine Mandates For Colleges And Universities
|Return to State Mandates on Immunization main page|
|An empty box in this table indicates a “NO” answer|
|Proof of vaccination or waiver required?||Implementation date|
|all incoming freshmen residing on campus||yes|
|all incoming students residing on campus||yes|
|yes, within 5 yrs of enrollment||1/1/2017|
|all students residing on campus||yes|
|all incoming students residing on campus or in fraternity/sorority houses||yes|
|first year students living in on-campus housing||yes|
|all incoming students under 21 years of age||yes|
|all incoming students residing on campus||yes|
|all incoming students residing on campus||yes|
|full-time health science residential students||yes|
|newly enrolled full-time students & age < 21 yrs||yes vax at > 16 yrs||SY 2018-19|
|all students residing on campus||yes|
|all incoming freshmen < 23 yrs||yes|
|all students with 6 sem hrs or 4 qtr hrs||yes|
|all incoming students < 21 yrs and residing in campus housing||yes|
|all incoming students residing in campus housing||yes|
|all students residing in dorm or housing unit||yes|
|all incoming first-year students < 22 yrs residing on campus||yes|
|yes, within 5 yrs of enrollment||1/14/2019|
|all first year students residing on campus||yes|
|all incoming full time students||yes|
|If you have updated information concerning this table, please call 647-9009 or email . This table was compiled by the Immunization Action Coalition using information provided by state health departments.|
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Why Are Meningococcal Vaccines Recommended
Meningococcal disease is caused by a type of bacteria. It can lead to an infection of the bloodstream or meningitis, or both, and can be life-threatening if not quickly treated. The MenACWY vaccine is very effective at protecting against four strains of the bacteria, while the MenB vaccine protects against a fifth strain.
Meningococcal B Vaccine For Children Less Than Two Years Of Age
Fever is common in children aged two or under two years of age when meningococcal B vaccine is given.
It is recommended to use paracetamol 30 minutes before every dose of meningococcal B vaccine given to children under two years of age or as soon as practicable. Follow this with two more doses of paracetamol given 6 hours apart, even if the children do not have a fever.
This is to:
- reduce the chance of fever occurring
- reduce the severity of fever that does occur.
Be sure to give the paracetamol dose that is written on the bottle according to your child’s weight.
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Which Meningococcal Vaccines Are Available
In the U.S., three meningococcal vaccines are available:
- Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine , sold as Menomune
- Meningococcal conjugate vaccine , sold as Menactra, MenHibrix, and Menveo.
- Serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, sold asTrumenba and Bexsero.
MPSV4 and MCV4 can prevent four types of meningococcal disease, which make up about 70% of the cases in the U.S.
The MenB vaccines prevent the Meningococcal B strain.
MCV4 is preferred for people age 55 and younger. The recommendation for teens is one dose at age 11 and one dose at age 16. The doctor or nurse injects one dose into the muscle. If MCV4 is not available, you can use MPSV4. The doctor or nurse injects one dose beneath the skin.
MPSV4 is the only meningococcal vaccine approved for use in people over 55.
The MenB vaccines are recommended for ages 10-24, by the CDC for high risk patients, but can also be used in older adults. Trumenba is administered in three doses while Bexsero requires two doses.
Meningococcal Disease Information For Health Professionals
Bexsero was added to the Immunisation Schedule for certain special groups who are close contacts of a meningococcal disease case or who have a higher risk of meningococcal disease from 1 July 2021. .
In summary, Bexsero vaccination will be funded for people who are:
- close contacts of meningococcal cases of any meningococcal group
- previously had meningococcal disease of any group
- at higher risk of meningococcal B disease because they:
- are pre- or post-splenectomy
- have functional or anatomic asplenia
- have HIV
- are pre- or post-solid organ transplant
- are post-bone marrow transplant
- are pre- or post-immunosuppression that will be/is longer than 28 days.
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Menactra Eligibility For People Aged 1325 Years In An Eligible Close
Who will be eligible?
- One dose for adolescents and young adults aged 1325 years inclusively who are entering within the next 3 months, or in their first year of living in a boarding school hostel, tertiary education halls of residence, military barrack, or prison.
- CATCH-UP EXTENDED to 30 November 2021, one dose for individuals aged 1325 years inclusively who are in their second, third or more years living in a boarding school hostel, tertiary education halls of residence, military barrack, or prison
Are international students eligible?
- All students aged under 18 years are eligible to receive funded vaccines as per the National Immunisation Schedule regardless of residency status.
- Students aged 18 years or older must be eligible to receive publicly funded health and disability services in New Zealand to receive funded vaccines, including meningococcal ACWY vaccine.
How do eligible individuals access the vaccine?
- From 1 December 2019 those who qualify would be able to make an appointment with their primary care provider to receive the meningococcal ACWY vaccination up to 3 months before entering a boarding school hostel, tertiary education hall of residence, military barracks or prison close-living situation.
How far in advance of moving into a close-living situation should people be vaccinated?
How many doses are required?
How does primary care access vaccine?
Can primary care claim for providing the vaccine?
Who else can receive funded meningococcal ACWY vaccine?
Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine
- People sometimes faint after medical procedures, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Tell the provider if you or your child feel dizzy, have vision changes, or have ringing in the ears.
- As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a severe allergic reaction, other serious injury, or death.
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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Immunisation
All medicines and vaccines can have side effects. Most of the time they are not serious.
For most people, the chance of having a serious side effect from a vaccine is much lower than the chance of serious harm if you caught the disease.
Talk to your doctor about the possible side effects of meningococcal vaccines, or if you or your child have symptoms that worry you after having a meningococcal vaccine.
Common side effects of meningococcal vaccines include:
- pain, redness and swelling where the needle went in
- feeling unsettled or tired
See the Vaccinate to protect your baby against meningococcal B brochure for information on how to manage fever following meningococcal B vaccination in under 2 year olds.
The Consumer Medicine Information links in How do you get immunised against meningococcal disease? lists the side effects of each vaccine.
Menveo Nimenrix And Menactra
The product information for Menveo, Nimenrix and Menactra states that vaccine should be administered as a single dose to people aged 2 years.
ATAGI recommends that these vaccines can be given in a 2- or 3-dose primary schedule to people aged 2 years who are at increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease according to Table. Recommendations for MenACWY vaccine for people with a specified medical condition that increases their risk of invasive meningococcal disease.
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Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals. Review of meningococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious meningococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, conjugate meningococcal vaccines are in limited use. Information on vaccination schedules in other countries can be found on the World Health Organization website. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional general information.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the injection, along with headache, fever, or tiredness. Serious problems, such as allergic reactions, are rare.
The meningococcal vaccines contains only a small piece of the germ, so it can’t cause meningococcal disease.
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What Kind Of Vaccines Are They
The MPSV4 vaccine is made from the outer polysaccharide capsule of the meningococcal bacteria. The meningococcal conjugate vaccines are made by conjugating the capsular polysaccharide antigens individually to diphtheria toxoid protein. Both the polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines protect against serotypes A, C, Y and W-135 and do not contain live bacteria.
Who Needs A Meningococcal Vaccine
The CDC recommends a meningococcal vaccine for:
- All children ages 11-18 or certain younger high-risk children
- Anyone who has been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak
- Anyone traveling to or living where meningitis is common, such as in sub-Saharan Africa
- Military recruits
- People with certain immune system disorders or a damaged or missing spleen
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Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine
Potential adverse reactions after meningococcal conjugate vaccines include localised pain, irritability, headache and fatigue. Fever is reported by 25 percent of adolescents who receive MenACWY-D.
The safety of two doses of MenACWY-D was assessed in a phase III trial of infants: dose one was administered at age 9 months and dose two was administered at age 12 months, with or without routine childhood vaccines. The percentage of participants with solicited systemic reactions after MenACWY-D administration alone at age 12 months was lower than after the vaccination at age 9 months , lower than the control groups at age 12 months and lower than when MenACWY-D was administered concurrently with the routine childhood vaccines .
The safety profile of MenACWY-T is very similar to other meningococcal conjugate vaccines.
There is no evidence of an association between meningococcal conjugate vaccines and GBS. An early report in the US of a suspected temporal association between MenACWY-D and GBS was followed by a large retrospective cohort study in the US that found no evidence of an increased risk of GBS following administration of MenACWY-D. If indicated, meningococcal conjugate vaccines may be administered to individuals with a history of GBS.
What Are The Risks Of Gbs With The Mcv4 Vaccine
Between 2005 and 2012, more than 18 million doses of MCV4 were distributed. It’s uncertain how many of those have actually been given. In that same time period, there have been 99 confirmed cases of GBS, a serious nervous system disorder, reported within six weeks of the vaccine being taken. There is not enough data at this time to tell whether or not the vaccine was a factor. But analysis of the data suggests that the incidence of GBS is no higher for people receiving the vaccine than the incidence of GBS in the general population.
Still, the timing of the onset of symptoms has raised concern. The CDC is continuing to study the issue and has recommended that people be told about the study when they are considering the vaccine. The current opinion is that even if there is a slight increase in the risk of GBS, it’s significantly outweighed by the risk of meningococcal disease without the vaccine.
Talk to your doctor if you have any further concerns about the vaccine and GBS.
Pediatrics, published online Feb. 1, 2011. CDC web site: “Meningitis Questions & Answers,” “Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know,” “Meningococcal Vaccination,” “Vaccines and Preventable Diseases: Meningococcal: Who Needs to Be Vaccinated?” “Meningococcal vaccine side-effects,” “GBS and Menactra Meningococcal Vaccine.”
VaccineInformation.org: “Meningococcal Disease Vaccine.”
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Who Should Get The Meningococcal Vaccines
The MenACWY vaccine is recommended for college freshman living in a dormitory. The vaccine has been recommended for 11-12 year olds since 2005, so it is possible that incoming freshmen have already received a dose. If you received a dose before age 16, you should get a booster before you go to college.
Administration With Other Vaccines
Vaccine providers may administer MenACWY and MenB vaccines during the same visit, but at a different injection site, if feasible. Providers can also administer meningococcal and other vaccines during the same visit, but at a different injection site, if feasible. Administer each vaccine with a separate syringe.
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Interchangeability Of Meningococcal Vaccines
If possible, complete the primary course of MenACWY vaccination with the same vaccine brand. If this is not possible, use an alternative brand following the dose recommendations by age. See Recommended dose schedules.
People can receive booster doses of MenACWY vaccine using any brand. Menveo or Nimenrix are preferred to Menactra in people aged 2 years.
Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable. Use the same vaccine to complete the vaccination course.
The only absolute contraindications to meningococcal vaccines are:
- anaphylaxis after a previous dose of any meningococcal vaccine
- anaphylaxis after any component of a meningococcal vaccine
Previous meningococcal disease, regardless of the serogroup, is not a contraindication to receiving any meningococcal vaccine.
Previous vaccination with the strain-specific MenB vaccine used in New Zealand is not a contraindication to receiving either Bexsero or Trumenba.
Previous vaccination with a quadrivalent polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine is not a contraindication to receiving any MenACWY vaccine. See People who have previously received a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Laboratory workers or Travellers.