Which Vaccines Are In Use
The vaccine produced by Pfizer and BioNTech was the first approved by the WHO, followed by several others.
The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine is now the most widely used around the globe.
Unlike Pfizer’s jab – which has to be kept at an extremely cold temperature – the Oxford vaccine can be stored in a normal fridge, which makes it easier to distribute.
Most governments have started with doses for the over-60s, health workers and people who are clinically vulnerable. After priority groups have been vaccinated, there is a wider rollout among younger age groups.
The Pfizer vaccine has been approved for everyone aged five and over in the EU, US, UK and other countries. Children aged between five and 11-years old receive a smaller dose of the vaccine than those aged 12 and over. The Sinovac vaccine is being used for children as young as three in China and Colombia.
Early studies suggest the Omicron variant of coronavirus is better able to evade vaccine protection than previous strains, though vaccination still offers strong protection against serious illness and hospitalisation.
A third ‘booster’ dose of a vaccine does appear to offer protection against infection from Omicron and at least 157 countries have begun booster vaccination programmes.
Worldwide, more than 100 possible vaccines are undergoing trials to test their efficacy and safety.
The Vaccine Testing Process
The development cycle of a vaccine, from lab to clinic.
PRECLINICAL TESTING: Scientists test a new vaccine on cells and then give it to animals such as mice or monkeys to see if it produces an immune response.
PHASE 1 SAFETY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to a small number of people to test safety and dosage, as well as to confirm that it stimulates the immune system.
PHASE 2 EXPANDED TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to hundreds of people split into groups, such as children and the elderly, to see if the vaccine acts differently in them. These trials further test the vaccines safety.
PHASE 3 EFFICACY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to thousands of people and wait to see how many become infected, compared with volunteers who received a placebo. These trials can determine if the vaccine protects against the coronavirus, measuring whats known as the efficacy rate. Phase 3 trials are also large enough to reveal evidence of relatively rare side effects.
EARLY OR LIMITED APPROVAL: Many countries have procedures for providing emergency authorizations for vaccines, based on preliminary evidence that they are safe and effective. In addition, some countries such as China and Russia began administering vaccines before detailed Phase 3 trial data was made public. Experts have warned of serious risks from jumping ahead of these results.
Younger Adults Are Likelier To Be Uncertain About Vaccination Compared With Older Adults
The surveys revealed other vaccine hesitancy trends. In the Household Pulse Survey, 21% of people with a previous COVID-19 diagnosis say they are less than certain to get fully vaccinated compared with 12% of people who didnt have a prior diagnosis.
The survey also shows that 19% of the population who have at most a high school degree or GED were unlikely to get vaccinated compared with 6% of adults with a bachelors degree or higher.
In the CDC survey, 22% of uninsured adults indicated they likely would not get vaccinated compared to 13% of insured people. Nineteen percent of adults in rural areas said the same, compared with 13% of urban residents and 14% of suburban residents.
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Billion Doses Have Been Administered Globally And 653 Million Are Now Administered Each Day Only 207% Of People In Low
Our vaccination dataset uses the most recent official numbers from governments and health ministries worldwide. Population estimates for per-capita metrics are based on the United Nations World Population Prospects. Income groups are based on the World Bank classification. A full list of our country-specific sources is available at the bottom of this page, and we also answer frequently-asked questions there.
Open the Data Explorer in a new tab. Select a group of countries at once: all European countries, 30 largest countries European Union Americas OECD.
The Our World in Data COVID vaccination data
To bring this pandemic to an end, a large share of the world needs to be immune to the virus. The safest way to achieve this is with a vaccine. Vaccines are a technology that humanity has often relied on in the past to bring down the death toll of infectious diseases.
Within less than 12 months after the beginning of the pandemic, several research teams rose to the challenge and developed vaccines that protect from SARS-CoV-2.
Now the challenge is to make these vaccines available to people around the world. It will be key that people in all countries not just in rich countries receive the required protection. To track this effort we at Our World in Data are building the international vaccination dataset that we make available on this page. It is updated each morning, with the most recent official numbers up to the previous day.
Eradication Of Diseases Through Vaccination
Eradication is the ultimate goal of vaccination against a disease.
On the way to the eradication of polio
Polio is targeted for global eradication. This has become possible through the polio vaccine that was developed in 1955. The WHO estimates that in 2015, 85% of infants around the world received three doses of polio vaccine. And the number of paralytic polio cases have since the 1980s, from an estimated 350,000 to 400,000 paralytic cases per year to 22 reported cases in 2017.
Eradication of smallpox
While the benefits might possibly be forgotten as vaccine-preventable diseases have lost their threat thanks to the introduction of the vaccines it is still true that people around the world including those in richer countries continue to benefit from vaccinations.
One of the greatest successes of global health is eradication of smallpox. Smallpox, which just decades ago killed several hundred thousand people every year was successfully eradicated in 1980 thanks to the global vaccination program.21
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How Many Doses Are Administered Daily
Daily number of doses administered per 100 people
The following chart shows the daily number of doses administered per 100 people. This is shown as the rolling seven-day average. Note that this is counted as a single dose, and may not equal the total number of people vaccinated, depending on the specific dose regime .
When Will We All Be Vaccinated
In the U.S., people age 12 or older are now eligible to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Just over half of the population has received at least one COVID-19 shot, although the pace of vaccination has slowed in recent months.
Track U.S. vaccinations:Daily updates by county and state
According to the analysis from the Duke Global Health Innovation Center, more than 12 billion doses could be produced this year, making it possible to vaccinate 70% of the world population. However, it may take longer for those doses to be administered.
A proposal to temporarily suspend certain intellectual property rights on COVID-19 vaccines until herd immunity has been reached is now backed by around 100 countries.
It is also supported by a coalition of organizations called the Peoples Vaccine Alliance, which includes the United Nations HIV/AIDS agency UNAIDS and human rights group Amnesty International. Discussions at the World Trade Organization are underway.
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Does This Mean The Vaccine Works
This is about in line with expectations. According to the CDC, the 13 jurisdictions had a 37% vaccination rate. So the CDC expected fully vaccinated people to represent 6% of cases when vaccine efficacy is at 90%.
- However, from June 20 to July 17, the CDC expected fully vaccinated people to represent 10% of cases not 18%. The 18% number would have been expected if vaccine efficacy was at 80%.
The CDC said that the new study suggests people not fully vaccinated had five times higher chance of infection, 10 times higher chance of hospitalization and more than 10 times higher chance of death from COVID-19.
Earlier this week, the CDC said there were 12,908 severe COVID-19 breakthrough cases among fully vaccinated people, which resulted in hospitalization or death, according to CNN. Of course, 173 million people in the U.S. have been fully vaccinated against the novel coronavirus.
- Per CNN, these numbers suggest you have about a 1 in 13,000 chance of having a severe breakthrough cases of COVID-19 when youre fully vaccinated.
Vaccination Rates By County Social Vulnerability
Percentage of fully-vaccinated residents. Circles sized by county population.
Counties are ranked according to the Social Vulnerability Index, a C.D.C. indicator used in public health crises that is based on socioeconomic status, housing, transportation, race, ethnicity and language. Each countys vaccination rate is its share of all residents that have been fully vaccinated, a figure that does not reflect those who have received only one dose of a two-shot vaccine.
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Percent Of Population Covered By Vaccine Purchases
If other countries aren’t vaccinated, it’s not good for the world’s health, Ezekiel Emanuel, a health policy expert and professor at the University of Pennsylvania who advised President Joe Bidens transition, told USA TODAY in late March. And its not good for returning to normal because if you want to return to normal, part of that is trade, travel, educational and other exchanges. All of that requires vaccination around the world.
Covid Vaccine: How Many People Are Vaccinated In The Uk
The UK’s Covid vaccine campaign has shifted its focus to boosters – an attempt to reduce the impact of the Omicron variant.
Almost seven in 10 of those aged 12 or over in the UK have had a booster, while nine in 10 have had a single jab and more than eight in 10 have had a second dose.
But despite more than 38 million boosters, or third doses, being given so far, more people are being urged to come forward and jabs are being rolled out to all five to 11-year-olds.
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People Do Not Know How Well We Actually Do In Global Vaccination
Today vaccines protect millions of people around the world from infectious diseases. In this fight we are much, much further ahead than most people realize.
The first chart shows the evidence for this misperception. In this chart we plotted the survey responses that people gave when they were asked How many of the worlds 1-year old children today have been vaccinated against some disease?. The correct answer was 85.8% this is the share of 1-year olds that received the third dose of the combination vaccine that protects against Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis .
But in all countries in which people were surveyed people were much too pessimistic about the global coverage. Americans think that only 35% of the worlds children are vaccinated, the true coverage is 50 percentage points higher.22
In Japan people were even more pessimistic and thought that only 18% were vaccinated. As it is often the case in questions on global development we again see that people in poorer countries have a more accurate view of the world: in Kenya and Senegal people thought that vaccines reach around two thirds of all children in the world, but even these highest estimates are 20 percentage points too low.
We hugely underestimate global vaccination coverage23
Peoples view on vaccination coverage is outdated by more than three decades
We have created a chart that shows the absolute number of one-year-olds who have received the vaccinations.
Diphtheria Tetanus And Pertussis Vaccine
Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are all bacterial diseases and a combination vaccine against all three diseases is commonly used.
- Diphtheria primarily infects the throat and upper airways and is fatal in 5 10% of cases.
- Tetanus is not passed person-to-person but through spores of a bacteria living in soil and animal intestinal tracts. These bacteria enter the body through wounds and release a toxin that affects the nerves, which causes muscle stiffness and spasms.
- Pertussis is a highly contagious disease of the respiratory tract, commonly known as whooping cough. Children who contract pertussis tend to have coughing spells that last four to eight weeks, but the highest fatality is in young infants. Vaccinating health workers and pregnant women is the most effective strategy for preventing disease in infants too young to be vaccinated.
The chart shows the progress over time of DTP3 immunization coverage of children around the world. By clicking on any country you can see the change in that country over time.
The WHO reports in 2017 that 85% of infants worldwide received 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine . Also in 2016 130 countries had reached at least 90% coverage with the DTP3 vaccine.56
If we look at the change over time by world region it is South Asia in particular that stands out. While 85% of one-year-olds today are immunized, that same figure was as low 6% in 1980.
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Details Of Vaccination Data
This spreadsheet is based on the information made available at the time of publishing and may be subject to changes. Please take note of any notes and caveats on each sheet.
The below attachments provide some analysis on our progress on equity. The two PDF files are high level summaries of overall progress. The Excel documents are interactive and provides the ability to delve further into those overall numbers. NB: These Excel workbooks use features that are non-compatible with versions of MS Office 2016 and earlier.
Who Needs A Polio Vaccine
Everyone who has not received a polio vaccine yet should get one, Varma said.
Federal law requires immigrants to get vaccinated against a slew of deadly viruses, and state law dictates rules about vaccination for schoolchildren.
While jurisdictions can decide their own vaccine regimens, the CDC recommends babies get a three-dose polio series, and receive a fourth shot between the ages of 4 to 6.
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Percent Of Population At Least Partially Vaccinated By Country Income Level
Low- and middle-income countries have been largely relying on COVAX, the UN-backed program, to get vaccines. Richer nations can collectively purchase vaccines, fund vaccine development and manufacturing and ensure vaccination in poorer countries.
The fund plans to provide 2 billion doses by the end of the year, with the aim of covering at least 20% of the population of participating countries. However, the program has experienced delays. Many of the COVAX program vaccines are manufactured in India, a country that limited COVID-19 vaccine exports while dealing with a serious outbreak of the virus.
Infectious diseases don’t have any boundaries or barriers. COVID doesn’t discriminate based on socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity. So, it can affect anybody, said Kuppalli. Our world will not be safe unless everybody is protected. That is how we stop the pandemic.
The Risk Of Vaccine Inequity
One danger that unequal vaccination rates around the world may pose is the emergence of new variants. The longer the period of sustained community spread, the more likely the virus will mutate. The mutated variants from the unvaccinated population might be able to infect those in the vaccinated population.
Data available for some approved vaccines suggests that they still offer robust protection from severe illness and death from the most widespread existing COVID-19 variants. However, its important to limit the spread of the virus in order to prevent mutations that may reduce the efficacy of existing vaccines. As more people get vaccinated, the virus circulation is expected to decrease, which will then result in fewer mutations.
According to Kuppalli, the infectious diseases expert, vaccinated people could go to another part of the world, get exposed to a new strain of the virus not covered by the vaccine, become infected, and transmit it to other people.
It’s making sure that we protect everybody. It’s not just about life or death but it’s also thinking about the quality of life that people have after they’ve been infected with COVID, she added.
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How Many Doses Have Been Donated By Each Country
These charts show the cumulative number of doses donated to the COVAX initiative by different countries, broken down by whether the donations have only been announced, actually donated, or delivered to the recipients. This is only available for a select number of countries for which the COVID-19 Task Force reports the necessary data.
The first chart shows the number of doses donated, while the next three charts show that number adjusted for:
COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access
COVAX is a worldwide initiative aimed at equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines directed by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations , and the World Health Organization . COVAX coordinates international resources to enable low-to-middle-income countries equitable access to COVID-19 tests, therapies, and vaccines.
What Share Of The Population Has Received At Least One Dose Of Vaccine
The following chart shows the share of the total population that has received at least one dose of vaccine. This may not equal the share with a complete initial protocol if the vaccine requires two doses. If a person receives the first dose of a 2-dose vaccine, this metric goes up by 1. If they receive the second dose, the metric stays the same.
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