Monday, September 25, 2023

How Many Strains Of Hpv Does The Vaccine Cover

Who Should Get Hpv Vaccine

Do all types of HPV cause cancer?

HPV vaccination is recommended at ages 1112 years. HPV vaccines can be given starting at age 9 years. All preteens need HPV vaccination, so they are protected from HPV infections that can cause cancer later in life.

  • Teens and young adults through age 26 years who didnt start or finish the HPV vaccine series also need HPV vaccination.

CDC recommends that 11- to 12-year-olds receive two doses of HPV vaccine 6 to 12 months apart.

  • The first dose is routinely recommended at ages 1112 years old. The vaccination can be started at age 9 years.
  • Only two doses are needed if the first dose was given before 15th birthday.

Teens and young adults who start the series later, at ages 15 through 26 years, need three doses of HPV vaccine.

  • Children aged 9 through 14 years who have received two doses of HPV vaccine less than 5 months apart will need a third dose.
  • Three doses are also recommended for people aged 9 through 26 years who have weakened immune systems.

Vaccination is not recommended for everyone older than age 26 years.

  • Some adults age 27 through 45 years who are not already vaccinated may decide to get HPV vaccine after speaking with their doctor about their risk for new HPV infections and the possible benefits of vaccination for them.
  • HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit, because more people in this age range have already been exposed to HPV.

Mechanism Of Cervical Cancer

Normal cervical cells => The body is exposed to high-risk HPV and the immune system cannot fully eliminate viruses within 2 years, inducing pre-cancer changes. Pre-cancerous cervical cells can turn to be cervical cancer in the next 10 years => Pre-cancerous stage => Cancer of Cervix

Besides cervical cancer, some cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus and oropharynx are also caused by certain strains of HPV. However, molecular mechanism of developing cancers after being exposed to HPV widely varies among individual patients, depending on their immune systems. For instance, immunocomprimised patients with HIV infection or SLE are more susceptible to develop cancerous stage quicker than 10 years.

As a normal mechanism of the body after being infected with HPV, an immune system can usually get rid of viruses . While most HPV infections are characterized by spontaneous viral clearance, some HPV strains are highly persistent. The median time to clearance of high-risk HPV infection in most cases with proper immune function is approximately 8 months. 70% of viruses can be eliminated from the body within a year. Nonetheless, clearance requires an effective cell-mediated immune response. In case that high-risk HPV group has been persistently detected longer than 2 years, the risk of further developing to cervical cancer drastically increases 200-400 times while detection of other strains in high-risk HPV group increases the chance of cervical cancer 30-40 times.

How Much Does An Hpv Test Cost

At some clinics, the cost of an HPV test can be as low as $30. Cervical cancer screening as part of a wellness exam is also covered by the vast majority of private and government insurance. Some STI screening may also be covered as part of a wellness exam.

But the doctor may also charge you the cost of a clinic or office visit. That will make your overall bill higher.

If you elect to have a Pap test at the same time, you may have that additional cost. Whats more, each separate STI test you elect to have could add to your total.

Insurance often covers an HPV test conducted in a doctors office, but very few cover the cost of an at-home test. Call your insurance company before your visit if you have questions about what your plan will or wont cover.

If you dont have health insurance, you can call local clinics or doctors and request prices. This way, you can find an office that fits your budget and provides the services you need.

Once the test results are back, you may need to consider what comes next.

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Question: What Do I Need To Do If I Want To Be Vaccinated With The 9

Answer: Clinical studies have assured both efficacy and safety of the 9-valent HPV vaccine after receiving GARDASIL® or CERVARIX® longer than a year. However, there are some studies that ensure vaccine safety even though it has been given in less than 12 months after the administration of GARDASIL® or CERVARIX®.

In conclusion, the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines are aimed at protecting against high-risk HPV type 16 and 18, resulting in less chance of developing precancerous changes, defined as Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or cervical dysplasia. CIN is characterized by a premalignant condition of the cervix and usually detected by screening with cytological test and HPV testing. If left untreated, CIN can develop into invasive cervical cancer. However, the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines can only minimize the chance of developing high grade CIN e.g. CIN II-III, there are still some possibilities of developing low grade lesion e.g. CIN I. In addition, they do not prevent the infection of other HPV strains that possibly cause other diseases. Therefore, the novel 9-valent HPV vaccine covers broader spectrum, targeting 9 HPV strains grouped in high-risk HPV that most commonly cause cervical cancer and other cancers as well as genital warts. Nevertheless, individual benefits obtained from the 9-valent HPV vaccine should be further discussed among different females.

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Hpv Vaccination For Men Who Have Sex With Men

Vaccine halves cancer

Men who have sex with men have not benefited in the same way from the longstanding girls’ programme, so may be left unprotected against HPV.

Since April 2018, MSM up to and including 45 years of age have been eligible for free HPV vaccination on the NHS when they visit sexual health clinics and HIV clinics in England.

Ask the doctor or nurse at the clinic for more details.

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Hpv Cervical Cancer Vaccine: 15 Facts

Here’s what you need to know about Gardasil.

Gardasil, the new vaccine against human papilloma virus — which causes cervical cancer and genital warts — is now available nationwide.

Here is what you need to know now about this new vaccine.

1. What is Gardasil?

Gardasil is a vaccine, licensed for use in June 2006, by the FDA. It targets four strains of human papillomavirus — HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18. HPV-16 and HPV-18 account for about 70% of all cervical cancers. HPV-6 and -11 cause about 90% of genital warts. HPV is also linked to anal cancer.

2. How does HPV spread?

Sexual activity spreads the virus, a very common one. It’s one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the country, according to the CDC, with more than 20 million people currently infected and another 6.2 million contracting the virus each year.

About half of those with HPV are aged 15 to 24. Surveys suggest 3.7% of U.S. girls have sex by age 13, and 62.4% have had sex by the 12th grade.

3. Who should get the vaccine?

Gardasil is approved by the FDA for girls and women ages 9 to 26. The CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that the vaccine be given routinely to girls at age 11 to 12 years old, although doctors may choose to vaccinate girls as young as 9. The CDC also recommends the vaccine for women age 13 to 26 who did not receive the vaccine at an earlier age.

4. What is the best way to talk to my daughter about this?

6. How effective is the new vaccine?

How Do Hpv Vaccines Work

Like other immunizations that guard against viral infection, HPV vaccines stimulate the body to produce antibodies that, in future encounters with HPV, bind to the virus and prevent it from infecting cells.

The current HPV vaccines are based on virus-like particles that are formed by HPV surface components. VLPs are not infectious because they lack the viruss DNA. However, they closely resemble the natural virus, and antibodies against the VLPs also have activity against the natural virus. The VLPs have been found to be strongly immunogenic, which means that they induce high levels of antibody production by the body. This makes the vaccines highly effective.

The vaccines do not prevent other sexually transmitted diseases, nor do they treat existing HPV infections or HPV-caused disease.

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How Many Doses Of Hpv Vaccine Are Needed

The HPV vaccine is given as a series of shots. ACIP specifies different dosing schedules, depending on the age when the vaccination series is started . Children who start the vaccine series before their 15th birthday need only two doses to be fully protected. People who start the series at age 15 or older and people who have certain conditions that weaken the immune system need three doses to be fully protected.

Researchers are currently investigating whether a single dose of HPV vaccine might be effective. See What research is being done on strategies to prevent HPV infection?

Why Is Hpv Vaccination Important

The most common STI in the world: HPV

The combination of HPV vaccination and cervical screening can provide the greatest protection against cervical cancer. Also, HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing cancers caused by HPV at sites other than the cervix.

Not only does vaccination protect vaccinated individuals against infection by the HPV types targeted by the vaccine that is used , but vaccination can also reduce the prevalence of the vaccine-targeted HPV types in the population, thereby reducing infection in individuals who are not vaccinated . For example, in Australia, where a high proportion of girls are vaccinated with Gardasil, the incidence of genital warts went down during the first 4 years of the vaccination program among young maleswho were not being vaccinated at the timeas well as among young females .

Further evidence that large-scale HPV vaccination confers protection for unvaccinated individuals comes from a 2019 meta-analysis of girls-only HPV vaccination programs in 14 high-income countries that included 60 million vaccinated people . That analysis showed that, up to 8 years after the start of vaccination, diagnoses of anogenital warts decreased by 31% among women aged 2529 years, by 48% among boys aged 1519 years, and by 32% among men aged 2024 years, compared with the period before vaccination began.

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What If I Choose Not To Have The Hpv Vaccination

As HPV is common and unavoidably – and often unknowingly – shared once you start having sex, if you are not vaccinated you are at risk of catching the HPV virus.

For all people with a cervix, inclusive of those who identify as men , regular cervical screening will ensure early detection and treatment of HPV-related abnormal cells and prevention of most cervical cancer.

How Effective Is The Hpv Vaccine In Preventing Hpv

When doses are given at the recommended ages and at the appropriate intervals, it has been shown to prevent 90% of cancer-causing HPV. Research has also shown that fewer teens and young adults are getting genital warts. The number of cervical precancers are decreasing since HPV vaccines have been in use.

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How Is The Hpv Vaccine Made

The HPV vaccine is made using a protein that resides on the surface of the virus. The protein is grown in the lab in yeast cells. Once the protein is grown, it assembles itself to look like the HPV virus however, importantly, it does not contain HPV genetic material, so it cant reproduce itself or cause illness. The vaccine is composed of the surface protein from nine different types of HPV.

Questions About Hpv Vaccine Safety

HPV Prevention: What You Can Do Now

I dont want to get the HPV vaccine for my child because I have heard that all of the safety studies were completed by the vaccine manufacturer. Is this true?

Vaccine safety is studied by many, many groups not just those who manufacture vaccines. The FDA reviews all data associated with studies completed by vaccine manufacturers as well as visiting manufacturing sites and continuing to monitor the vaccine as long as it is being made. Additionally, the CDC has systems in place to monitor vaccine safety, including:

  • Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System which allows anyone to report side effects, allowing CDC scientists to watch for trends.
  • Vaccine Safety Datalink is a collaboration with eight large healthcare organizations from various parts of the United States. Health records are monitored for vaccine receipt and illnesses to study vaccine safety.
  • Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project is a national group of vaccine experts from the CDC, seven medical research centers, and other experts who conduct research around specific vaccine safety concerns, provide consultations for individual healthcare providers on specific patients, and review adverse event data. Vaccine manufacturers do not have a role in these studies.

Can the HPV vaccine cause cancer?

No. Because the HPV vaccine is made using only a single protein from each type of the virus, it cant cause HPV infection, and, therefore, it cant cause cervical cancer or other cancers.

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How Effective Is The Hpv Vaccine

It is highly effective.

Almost all HPV infections that cause abnormal cells and cancer can be prevented by the HPV vaccine.

The HPV Vaccine targets the types of HPV responsible for around 90 percent of cervical and other HPV-related cancers, and 90 percent genital warts. Clinical trials show it is highly effective in preventing these types of HPV in young people who have not previously been exposed to them.

What Are The Different Types Of Hpv And What Do They Do

There are more than 100 different types of HPV, and around 40 that affect the genital area.

HPV is very common and can be caught through any kind of sexual contact with another person who already has it.

Most people will get an HPV infection at some point in their lives and their bodies will get rid of it naturally without treatment.

But some people infected with a high-risk type of HPV will not be able to clear it.

Over time, this can cause abnormal tissue growth as well as other changes, which can lead to cancer if not treated.

High-risk types of HPV are linked to different types of cancer, including:

Infection with other types of HPV may cause:

  • genital warts small growths or skin changes on or around the genital or anal area they’re the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the UK
  • skin warts and verrucas not on the genital area
  • warts on the voice box or vocal cords

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Hpv Strains Covered By The Vaccine Have Declined Greatly In The Us

Pam Harrison

May 16, 2022

Twelve years after the human papillomavirus vaccination program was introduced in the United States, the overall prevalence of cancer-causing HPV strains covered by the vaccine dropped by 85% among females 90% among vaccinated females and 74% among unvaccinated females a strong sign of herd immunity, a new analysis of a nationally representative database is showing.

“HPV vaccination is working well,” Hannah Rosenblum, MD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, told Medscape MedicalNews in an email.

Dr Hannah Rosenblum

“Twelve years after introduction of HPV vaccination in the US, national data demonstrate increasing impact among females, and strong herd effects among unvaccinated females,” she added. ” vaccination coverage and completion of the recommended dose in the US is lower than coverage with other adolescent vaccinations, HPV vaccination is the best way to prevent HPV infections that can lead to several cancers in both females and male.”

The study was today in Annals of Internal Medicine.

Immunizing Agents Authorized For Use In Canada

HPV and Cancer An Introduction

HPV vaccines

  • CERVARIX® , GlaxoSmithKline Inc. .
  • GARDASIL® , Merck Canada Inc. .
  • GARDASIL®9 , Merck Canada Inc.

For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within the product monograph available through Health Canada’s Drug Product Database.

Refer to Contents in Immunizing Agents Available for Use in Canada in Part 1 for a list of vaccines available for use in Canada and their contents.

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Question: What Is Schedule For The 9

Answer: Administrative schedules of the 9-valent HPV vaccine are as follows:

  • Being vaccinated before 15: Vaccines are administered as a two-dose series in which the second dose should be administered 612 months after the first dose.
  • Being vaccinated after 15: Vaccines are administered as a three-dose series in which the second dose is recommended 12 months after the first dose and the third dose is recommended 6 months after the first dose .

What Research Is Being Done On Strategies To Prevent Hpv Infection

If a single dose of HPV vaccine were effective, that would be an important advance. A large observational study using national data from women across Australia found that one dose of HPV vaccine was as effective as two or three doses in preventing high-grade cervical lesions . An analysis of data from a community-based clinical trial of Cervarix in Costa Rica, found that even one dose of the vaccine caused the body to produce approximately nine times more antibodies against HPV than the body produces in response to a natural HPV infection, and those antibody levels persisted for 11 years . In addition, the rates of HPV infection remained low for at least 10 years .

Two NCI-led clinical trials have been launched in Costa Rica to confirm and extend these findings. The ESCUDDO study, a randomized double-blind controlled trial involving 20,000 girls ages 1216 years, is testing whether one dose of either Cervarix or Gardasil 9 is as effective as two doses at preventing persistent cervical infection with HPV. PRIMAVERA-ESCUDDO, a non-randomized open-label trial, will provide earlier and complementary results to ESCUDDO about the immunogenicity of one dose of Cervarix in girls ages 914 years compared with three doses of Gardasil in women ages 1825 years.

Selected References
  • Koutsky LA, Ault KA, Wheeler CM, et al. A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 2002 347:16451651.

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