How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given
The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.
If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.
But if you get your 1st vaccine dose at the age of 15 or over, you’ll need to have 3 injections.
Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will need 3 doses of the vaccine .
If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:
- the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
- the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose
It’s important to have all 3 vaccine doses to be properly protected.
Can’t I Avoid Cervical Cancer By Simply Getting Routine Pap Testing
No. At one time cervical cancer was the most common cause of cancer in the United States. One test changed that: the Papanicolaou test. The Pap test is performed by scraping cells from the opening of the cervix and examining them under the microscope to see whether they have begun to show changes consistent with the early development of cancer . Typically, the length of time from infection with HPV to development of cervical cancer is about 15-20 years. For this reason, although most HPV infections occur in teenagers and young adults, cervical cancer is more common in women in their 40s and 50s.
The Pap test is one of the most effective cancer screening tests available and has dramatically reduced the incidence of cervical cancer in the United States. But the test isn’t perfect and not all women get tested as often as they should.
On the flip side, even if you have been vaccinated against HPV, you are still recommended to get the Pap test.
What Do The Vaccines Protect Against
Gardasil® provides protection against four HPV types: two that cause approximately 70 per cent of all cervical cancers and two that cause approximately 90 per cent of all anogenital warts in males and females . Gardasil®9 prevents up to an additional 14% of anogenital cancers caused by the additional five HPV types included in the vaccine.
Cervarix® provides protection against the two HPV types that cause approximately 70 per cent of all cervical cancers .
The HPV vaccines will not have an impact on an existing infection or any of the outcomes of an existing HPV infection, such as anogenital warts. The vaccines are preventative against infection with the virus types for which they are indicated. There is currently no vaccine that will give protection against all HPV types.
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Hpv Vaccination In Boys
Historically, HPV vaccination efforts have been focused on young women and girls since their risk for developing HPV-related cancers is 10 times higher than males. Men relied on herd immunity from women being vaccinated against HPV as their primary method of prevention. Those efforts have shifted as HPV vaccines among both men and women continue to provide long-lasting protection in both sexes. As of 2011, the CDC recommends administration of the HPV vaccine to young men and boys according to a similar schedule as that for women.
Hpv Vaccination For Transgender People
Trans women are eligible in the same way as MSM if their risk of getting HPV is similar to the risk of MSM who are eligible for the HPV vaccine.
Trans men are eligible if they have sex with other men and are aged 45 or under.
If trans men have previously completed a course of HPV vaccination as part of the girls’ HPV vaccine programme, no further doses are needed.
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Can Genital Hpv Infections Be Treated
HPV infections cannot be treated however, the symptoms of HPV can be treated, at least to some extent. For example, genital warts can be treated with medications or surgically removed however, they may return, and the patient may still be infected with HPV and could, therefore, still transmit the infection.
For Hpv Vaccination: The Younger The Better
The Swedish study is the largest to compare cervical cancer diagnoses among women who did and did not receive an HPV vaccine. In Sweden, the only HPV vaccine available during the time period studied was one that protects against four HPV types: HPV 6, HPV 11, HPV 16, and HPV 18. Infections with types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancers, and types 6 and 11 cause 90% of genital warts.
All of the females followed in the study were between the ages of 10 and 30. Approximately 528,000 of them had received at least one dose of the vaccine between 2006 and 2017, and the remaining 1.14 million had not been vaccinated. More than 80% of those vaccinated received the vaccine before they were 17 years old.
Overall, 19 of the vaccinated women were diagnosed with cervical cancer during the study period, compared with 538 of the unvaccinated women. After adjusting for different factors that can influence cervical cancer risk, those numbers translated into a 63% reduced risk of being diagnosed with cervical cancer among females who had been vaccinated compared with those who hadnt.
The nearly 90% reduction in cervical cancer among women who were vaccinated at a younger age makes sense, said Dr. Kreimer.
The evidence highlights the importance of continuing to introduce HPV vaccination programs and maintaining a high coverage, preferably for girls at young age, to maximize the benefits, Dr. Sparén said.
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Key Facts About The Hpv Vaccine
This vaccine gives protection against the most high risk strains of the Human Papillomavirus , including ones which cause cervical, mouth and genital cancers. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women under the age of 35. About 3,200 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer in the UK every year and around 900 women die from it.
There are three HPV vaccines available which protect against two, four or nine types of the HPV virus. These are Cervarix , Gardasil and Gardasil 9 . All of them protect against the two most common high-risk types of the virus: 16 and 18. These two strains are linked to over 70% of cervical cancers and 63% of penile cancers as well as most mouth, anus and throat cancers.
In the UK Gardasil and Gardasil 9 are available. Gardasil is offered for free as part of the NHS programme. In addition to types 16 and 18, it also protects against types 6 and 11, which are responsible for around 90% of genital warts. Cervarix vaccine was previously used in the UK until 2012 and is also used in other countries.
Vaccine Promising In Mice
According to researchers the new HPV vaccine might cover all types of HPV and be given as a nasal spray. Researchers say they have created a synthetic vaccine that can be delivered as a nasal spray for HPV – source of the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States and a cause of cervical cancer. The experimental vaccine, tested so far just with mice, also offers protection against different strains of HPV. The existing vaccine for HPV, called Gardasil, protects against four strains of the virus responsible for about 70% of all cervical cancers. It requires three injections for full protection. The advantages of the synthetic vaccine are that it can be synthesized as if it were a drug and, made chemically in the lab rather than having to use biological systems. A synthetic vaccine should also be cheaper. Using this approach, the vaccine could also be given nasally. In their experiments, Roden and his colleagues used a protein from one of the strains of HPV – HPV16 – to create a man-made vaccine in the laboratory. When the vaccine was given to mice by injection or as nasal spray, it protected not only against HPV16, but also against another strain of the virus -HPV45.
Steven Reinberg New HPV Vaccine Promising in Mice. It might cover all types of HPV and be given as a nasal spray, researchers say, posted 4/15/08 health day available onfile:///E:/New%20HPV%20Vaccine%20Promising%20in%20Mice.htm
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Who Should Not Get An Hpv Vaccine Or Who Should Wait
Pregnant women should not get any HPV vaccine at this time, even though they appear to be safe for both mother and the unborn baby. If a woman who is pregnant does get an HPV vaccine, its not a reason to consider ending the pregnancy. Women who started a vaccine series before they learned they were pregnant should complete the series after the pregnancy.
Make sure the health care provider knows about any severe allergies. The following should not get an HPV vaccine:
- Those with a severe allergy to yeast should not receive Gardasil or Gardasil 9.
- Anyone who has ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to anything else contained in the vaccines
- Anyone who has had a serious reaction to an earlier dose of HPV vaccine
Hpv Vaccine Safety Concerns
HPV vaccine and autoimmune diseases
Bi D, Apter D, Eriksson T, Hokkanen M, Zima J, et al. Safety of the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus -16/18 vaccine in adolescents aged 12-15 years: end-of-study results from a community-randomized study up to 6.5 years. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapy 2019 12:1-12 .In this randomized study, the authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of an adjuvanted-HPV 16/18 vaccine in more than 32,000 Finnish adolescent males and females over a 6.5-year period by comparing those who received HPV vaccine to those who received hepatitis B vaccine. The HPV vaccine adjuvant was composed of monophosphoryl-lipid A plus aluminum salts. The incidence of new-onset autoimmune diseases was similar in both vaccine groups. Similarly, those receiving HPV vaccine during pregnancy did not have an increased risk for spontaneous abortion or congenital anomalies.
Grimaldi-Bensouda L, Rossignol M, Kone-Paut I, et al. Risk of autoimmune diseases and human papilloma virus vaccines: six years of case-referent surveillance. Journal of Autoimmunity 2017 19:84-90.The authors found that HPV vaccine did not increase the risk of autoimmune diseases in females 11 to 25 years of age. Autoimmune diseases included central demyelination, multiple sclerosis, connective tissue disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroiditis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
HPV and chronic fatigue syndrome /systemic exertion intolerance disease
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Who Should Get Hpv Vaccine
HPV vaccination is recommended at ages 1112 years. HPV vaccines can be given starting at age 9 years. All preteens need HPV vaccination, so they are protected from HPV infections that can cause cancer later in life.
- Teens and young adults through age 26 years who didnt start or finish the HPV vaccine series also need HPV vaccination.
CDC recommends that 11- to 12-year-olds receive two doses of HPV vaccine 6 to 12 months apart.
- The first dose is routinely recommended at ages 1112 years old. The vaccination can be started at age 9 years.
- Only two doses are needed if the first dose was given before 15th birthday.
Teens and young adults who start the series later, at ages 15 through 26 years, need three doses of HPV vaccine.
- Children aged 9 through 14 years who have received two doses of HPV vaccine less than 5 months apart will need a third dose.
- Three doses are also recommended for people aged 9 through 26 years who have weakened immune systems.
Vaccination is not recommended for everyone older than age 26 years.
- Some adults age 27 through 45 years who are not already vaccinated may decide to get HPV vaccine after speaking with their doctor about their risk for new HPV infections and the possible benefits of vaccination for them.
- HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit, because more people in this age range have already been exposed to HPV.
The Missing Piece Of Evidence
Large clinical trials of HPV vaccineswhich enrolled thousands of participants and followed them over timeassessed their ability to prevent cervical infections with cancer-causing types of HPV and the development of precancerous lesions in the cervix that can result from those infections.
The clinical trials did not measure whether the vaccine prevents cervical cancer because precancerous lesions in the cervix found during a clinical trial would be treated, preventing their progression to cancer, Dr. Kreimer explained.
The Swedish study, however, looked back in time at a huge population of women. And for their study, the Swedish researchers had two factors in their favor: the individual-level data in the countrys nationwide public health registry and the fact that, beginning in 2007, the country has conducted a series of nationwide HPV vaccination programs.
The Swedish study isnt the first large population-based study of HPV vaccines. In Australia, for example, researchers have shown that the countrys universal HPV vaccination program, launched in 2007, led to massive declines in infections with the HPV types covered by the vaccine, while also protecting against HPV infections in unvaccinated people, a phenomenon known as herd immunity.
Nevertheless, no studies had gone on long enough to deliver that logic to its anticipated result.
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The Hpv Vaccine: Access And Use In The Us
The human papillomavirus vaccine is the first and only vaccination that helps protect individuals from getting many different types of cancer that are associated with different HPV strains. The vaccine protects young people against infection from certain strains of HPV, the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Since HPV vaccines were first introduced in the U.S. in 2006 there have been changes in the range of protection they offer and the dosing regimen. The vaccines were originally recommended only for girls and young women and were subsequently broadened to include boys and young men. This factsheet discusses HPV and related cancers, use of the HPV vaccines for both females and males, and insurance coverage and access to the vaccines.
Whats The Hpv Vaccine
The HPV vaccine helps protect you against certain types of HPV that can lead to cancer or genital warts. Also known by the brand name Gardasil 9, the HPV vaccine protects against:
HPV types 16 and 18 the 2 types that cause 80% of cervical cancer cases.
HPV types 6 and 11, which cause 90% of genital warts cases.
Another 5 types of HPV that can lead to cancer of the cervix, anus, vulva/vagina, penis, or throat.
The HPV vaccine is given in a series of shots. For people ages 15-45, the HPV vaccine is 3 separate shots. The second shot is given 2 months after the first, and the third shot is given 4 months after the second shot. So, in all, it takes about 6 months to get all 3 shots.
For people ages 9-14, you only need to get 2 shots. The second shot is given 6 months after the first shot.
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Question: What Do I Need To Do If I Want To Be Vaccinated With The 9
Answer: Clinical studies have assured both efficacy and safety of the 9-valent HPV vaccine after receiving GARDASIL® or CERVARIX® longer than a year. However, there are some studies that ensure vaccine safety even though it has been given in less than 12 months after the administration of GARDASIL® or CERVARIX®.
In conclusion, the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines are aimed at protecting against high-risk HPV type 16 and 18, resulting in less chance of developing precancerous changes, defined as Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or cervical dysplasia. CIN is characterized by a premalignant condition of the cervix and usually detected by screening with cytological test and HPV testing. If left untreated, CIN can develop into invasive cervical cancer. However, the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines can only minimize the chance of developing high grade CIN e.g. CIN II-III, there are still some possibilities of developing low grade lesion e.g. CIN I. In addition, they do not prevent the infection of other HPV strains that possibly cause other diseases. Therefore, the novel 9-valent HPV vaccine covers broader spectrum, targeting 9 HPV strains grouped in high-risk HPV that most commonly cause cervical cancer and other cancers as well as genital warts. Nevertheless, individual benefits obtained from the 9-valent HPV vaccine should be further discussed among different females.
Who Should Get The Vaccine And When Should They Get It
All kids who are 11 or 12 years old should get the HPV vaccine, though it may be given as young as 9 years. The vaccine is more effective and the immune system responds more strongly when given at this age.
Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females up to age 26 for all males up to age 21 and for males age 22-26 who meet certain health conditions or who request it. Talk to your healthcare provider about what doses you may need.
Women and girls who are breastfeeding may get the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women or girls.
Two doses of the vaccine are needed for those who start the series between ages 9 and 14 and have a healthy immune system. Those who start at age 15 through 26 need three doses. Anyone with a compromised immune system should get three doses, even if they are 9 through 14.
HPV vaccine is not required to attend school in Washington, but you can ask for it at the same time as the required school vaccines are being given.
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Will The Vaccine Help If I Already Have Hpv
The vaccine won’t cure any HPV infection you already have. However, there are many strains of HPV, so you should still get the vaccine to protect you against other strains you may not have been exposed to yet.
If you have already had sex but don’t know if you have HPV, you should still get the HPV vaccine. HPV infection usually happens soon after someone has sex for the first time, but a person might not have been exposed to any or all of the HPV types that are in the vaccine. Anyone in the age groups recommended for vaccination is likely to get some protection from the vaccine.