Saturday, September 30, 2023

How Many Vaccines Are In The Us

Covax: How Many Covid Vaccines Have The Us And The Other G7 Countries Pledged

Here’s how many Americans have been vaccinated for Covid-19 so far

Prime Minister Boris Johnson has announced that the UK will donate more than 100 million doses of Covid vaccine to poorer countries in the next year.

It follows President Biden’s announcement ahead of this weekend’s G7summit that the US will donate 500 million doses.

The donation will be routed through Covax – the international scheme designed to ensure low-income countries aren’t left behind in the fight against Covid.

Pfizer Officially Asks The Fda To Authorize Its Covid Vaccine For Kids Aged 5

The vaccine could be cleared for use in children ages 5 to 11 within a couple of weeks, officials said. The FDA’s independent advisory committee meeting is scheduled for Oct. 26, and the CDC’s independent advisory committee meeting is set for Nov. 2 and 3.

The Pfizer vaccine currently has full approval for use in adults, and the federal government has authorized it for emergency use in children ages 12 to 17.

White House officials said they were announcing the plan to inoculate children ages 5 to 11 before the vaccine was approved for that age group so they could be “operationally ready” to deploy the doses as soon as the approval came.

The Us Starts Giving Covid Boosters To Millions As People In Poor Nations Await Their First Doses

As the United States began to offer Covid booster shots to tens of millions of people, representatives of the World Health Organization continued this week to sound the alarm over the disparity in vaccine access globally, with the worlds poorest countries struggling to get even a first dose into their citizens arms.

Gordon Brown, the former British prime minister who is now the W.H.O.s ambassador for global health financing, said on Thursday that there was a shortfall of 500 million doses in the global South, while 240 million doses were lying unused in the West. The number of excess doses is projected to reach 600 million by the end of the year, Mr. Brown added.

Mr. Brown spoke on the same day the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention endorsed booster shots of the Moderna and the Johnson & Johnson Covid-19 vaccines for tens of millions in the United States.

In Africa, meanwhile, only nine countries had met a target of vaccinating 10 percent of their populations against Covid-19 by the end of September, the W.H.O. reported.

Wealthy countries must let go of reserved doses and cede their place in the queue, allowing Covax and the African Union to buy the vaccines the continent seeks and stands ready to finance, Dr. Matshidiso Moeti, the W.H.O. regional director for Africa, wrote in a Times guest essay last month, referring to the United Nations-backed program to inoculate the world against the coronavirus.

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Where Can I Get Vaccinated

The majority of Australians aged 18 and over are now eligible for a Covid vaccination if they are willing to consider the AstraZeneca vaccine, and provided they do not have a history of some specific health conditions.

In addition to the governments official eligibility checker, which lists some clinics near your location which might have vaccination appointments available, there are a number of other helpful resources that can help you to find somewhere that has appointments open. You can find our page listing these resources here.

Building An Accurate Model

Around Half of Unvaccinated Americans Indicate They Will ...

In March 2021, when weekly data on state COVID-19 vaccinations started to become reliably available from state agencies, my team began to analyze the association between state vaccination rates and the subsequent COVID-19 cases and deaths in each state. Our goal was to build a model that was accurate enough to measure the effect of vaccination within the complicated web of factors that influence COVID19 deaths.

To do this, our model compares COVID-19 incidence in states with high vaccination rates against states with low vaccination rates. As part of the analysis, we controlled for things that influence the spread of the coronavirus, like statebystate differences in weather and population density, seasonally driven changes in social behavior and non-pharmaceutical interventions like stay-at-home orders, mask mandates and overnight business closures. We also accounted for the fact that there is a delay between when a person is first vaccinated and when their immune system has built up protection.

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Who Should Get A Booster Shot

Among Americans initially immunized with an mRNA vaccine, the following groups should receive a single booster dose six months or more after their second dose, the C.D.C. decided:

  • adults over 65.

  • adults who are 50 to 65 with certain medical conditions.

  • those who reside in long-term care settings.

Adults ages 18 to 49 with certain medical conditions and those whose jobs regularly expose them to the virus may choose to get a booster. And recipients of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine should receive a booster shot at least two months after the first dose.

List Of Authorized And Approved Vaccines

National regulatory authorities have granted emergency use authorizations for fifteen vaccines. Six of those have been approved for emergency or full use by at least one WHO-recognized stringent regulatory authority. Biologic License Applications for the PfizerBioNTech and Moderna COVID19 vaccines have been submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration .

  • ^Serum Institute of India will be producing the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine for India and other low- and middle-income countries.
  • ^Oxford name: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Manufacturing in Brazil to be carried out by Oswaldo Cruz Foundation.
  • ^ abRecommended interval. The second dose of the PfizerBioNTech and Moderna vaccines can be administered up to six weeks after the first dose to alleviate a shortage of supplies.
  • ^Long-term storage temperature. The PfizerBioNTech COVID-19 vaccine can be kept between 25 and 15 °C for up to two weeks before use, and between 2 and 8 °C for up to five days before use.
  • ^Storage temperature for the frozen Gam-COVID-Vac formulation. The lyophilised Gam-COVID-Vac-Lyo formulation can be stored at 2-8°C.
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    Trial And Authorization Status

    Phase I trials test primarily for safety and preliminary dosing in a few dozen healthy subjects, while Phase II trials following success in Phase I evaluate immunogenicity, dose levels and adverse effects of the candidate vaccine, typically in hundreds of people. A Phase III trial consists of preliminary safety and immunogenicity testing, is typically randomized, placebo-controlled, while determining more precise, effective doses. Phase III trials typically involve more participants at multiple sites, include a control group, and test effectiveness of the vaccine to prevent the disease , while monitoring for adverse effects at the optimal dose. Definition of vaccine safety, efficacy, and clinical endpoints in a Phase III trial may vary between the trials of different companies, such as defining the degree of side effects, infection or amount of transmission, and whether the vaccine prevents moderate or severe COVID19 infection.

    A clinical trial design in progress may be modified as an “adaptive design” if accumulating data in the trial provide early insights about positive or negative efficacy of the treatment. Adaptive designs within ongoing Phase IIIII clinical trials on candidate vaccines may shorten trial durations and use fewer subjects, possibly expediting decisions for early termination or success, avoiding duplication of research efforts, and enhancing coordination of design changes for the Solidarity trial across its international locations.

    Exemptions From Vaccine Mandate

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    Despite their safety and efficacy, vaccines are neither perfectly safe, more perfectly effective. Adverse events, or side effects, are common with inoculations.

    Usually, a recipient will experience soreness at the injection site, a fever, chills or a headache.

    Some people have conditions that make them more prone to serious adverse events, like allergic reactions. These people are largely exempt from being compelled to take vaccines.

    An objection along religious grounds will grant exemption in 48 states and philosophical beliefs in more than a dozen. Some states require proof of membership in a recognized religion while others are satisfied with an affirmation of religious or philosophic opposition.

    The Constitution guarantees Americans the right to believe in religions, but many courts have ruled that there is no constitutional right to either religious or philosophical exemptions.

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    Vaccine Rollout: Maps Of Vaccination Rate By Area

    The federal government releases weekly data for vaccination rates by statistical area 4 regions. By comparing the rates from the first report on 1 August with subsequent reports we can see the areas with the biggest weekly percentage increases in vaccination, and biggest increases since the data was released.

    You can use the dropdown menu to switch between showing the vaccination rate for each area, and the percentage change in vaccination rate for each area:

    Here, you can see the same information in a table, which can be sorted by region name, state or the change in vaccination percentage:

    Vaccine Development: Vaccines Approved For Use And In Clinical Trials

    The speed at which the first COVID-19 vaccines were developed was extraordinary. We have previously looked into the history of vaccine development. The measles vaccine was found relatively rapidly: it took only 10 years from the discovery of the pathogen to the development of the first vaccine. But for typhoid it took more than a century, and for some diseases for which weve known the pathogens for more than a century we still havent found an effective vaccine.

    The development of a vaccine against COVID-19 has been much faster than the development of any other vaccine. Within less than a year several successful vaccines have already been announced and were approved for use in some countries.

    The hope is that even more manufacturers develop vaccines for COVID-19. This will be important because eventually a very large share of the world population needs to receive a COVID-19 vaccine.

    We are on the way to several vaccines against COVID-19 vaccine trackers monitor the progress:

    Several institutions maintain websites on which they list COVID-19 candidate vaccines that are currently being developed:

    Oxford/AstraZeneca, Sinopharm/Beijing, Sinovac, Sputnik V

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    What Is Herd Immunity

    Herd immunity is achieved when a significant proportion of a population becomes immune to an infectious disease, either through vaccination or previous infection, which makes further person-to-person spread unlikely.

    In the cattle analogy made by Malone and Hinman, a community free of infectious diseases because of its high vaccination rate can be viewed as a common. And its existence brings the best interest of the community and the individual motivations into conflict.

    For instance, herd immunity can be achieved without vaccinating 100% of a population. Depending on the disease, the threshold could be as low as 70% inoculated.

    Since the entire population doesnt have to be inoculated, a portion of it will decline vaccination. Individually, the unvaccinated can receive protection from the herd effect though their lack of immunity weakens the communitys protection overall.

    Think of it in terms of a rowboat. If one person stops rowing, the boat will still move, just slightly slower. And this wouldnt be of any consequence to the one person abstaining.

    Should enough people stop rowing, the boat would slow to a crawl, and everyone in the boat would suffer.

    If enough people refuse vaccination before herd immunity can be reached, disease outbreaks occur. Malone and Hinman described this fate as another “tragedy of the commons.”

    They said communities and, more recently, states have avoided it by imposing legal requirements for vaccinations.

    Vaccine Candidates In Human Trials

    Assessing the COVID

    The table below shows various vaccine candidates and the phases which they have completes so far. Current phases are also shown alongwith other details.

    COVID19 candidate vaccines in Phase IIII trials
    COVID19 candidate vaccines in Phase IIII trials
    Vaccine candidates,

    Homologous prime-boost vaccination

    In July 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a joint statement reporting that a booster dose is not necessary for those who have been fully vaccinated.

    In August 2021, the FDA and the CDC authorized the use of an additional mRNA vaccine dose for immunocompromised individuals.

    Heterologous prime-boost vaccination

    Some experts believe that heterologousprime-boost vaccination courses can boost immunity, and several studies have begun to examine this effect. Despite the absence of clinical data on the efficacy and safety of such heterologous combinations, Canada and several European countries have recommended a heterologous second dose for people who have received the first dose of the OxfordAstraZeneca vaccine.

    In February 2021, the Oxford Vaccine Group launched the Com-COV vaccine trial to investigate heterologous prime-boost courses of different COVID-19 vaccines. As of June 2021, the group is conducting two phase II studies: Com-COV and Com-COV2.

    Heterologous regimes in clinical trial

    First dose

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    Encouragement By Public Figures And Celebrities

    Many public figures and celebrities have publicly declared that they have been vaccinated against COVID19, and encouraged people to get vaccinated. Many have made video recordings or otherwise documented their vaccination. They do this partly to counteract vaccine hesitancy and COVID19 vaccine conspiracy theories.


    Elizabeth II and Prince Philip announced they had the vaccine, breaking from protocol of keeping the British royal family‘s health private.Pope Francis and Pope Emeritus Benedict both announced they had been vaccinated.

    Media personalities

    Dolly Parton recorded herself getting vaccinated with the Moderna vaccine she helped fund, she encouraged people to get vaccinated and created a new version of her song “Jolene” called “Vaccine”. Several other musicians like Patti Smith, Yo-Yo Ma, Carole King, Tony Bennett, Mavis Staples, Brian Wilson, Joel Grey, Loretta Lynn, Willie Nelson, and Paul Stanley have all released photographs of them being vaccinated and encouraged others to do so. Grey stated “I got the vaccine because I want to be safe. We’ve lost so many people to COVID. I’ve lost a few friends. It’s heartbreaking. Frightening.”


    Magic Johnson and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar released photographs of themselves getting vaccinated and encouraged others to do the same Abdul-Jabbar said, “We have to find new ways to keep each other safe.”

    Specific communities

    Vaccine Rollout: International Comparison

    In the following two charts you can see how Australias vaccine rollout compares with other countries, in terms of doses administered per 100 people.

    This first chart adjusts for the fact that countries started administering vaccines on different dates. It shows how Australia compares to select countries at equivalent points in their vaccine rollouts.

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    Chart: How Many Shots From Each Vaccine Manufacturer Have Been Administered

    The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines require two doses, and the Johnson & Johnson vaccine requires only one for the recipient to be fully vaccinated. For the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, a second shot should be administered about three or four weeks after the first, depending on which of the vaccines was given.

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    What Share Of The Population Has Been Fully Vaccinated Against Covid

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    The following chart shows the share of the total population that has been fully vaccinated against COVID-19. This represents the share that have received all doses prescribed by the vaccination protocol. If a person receives the first dose of a 2-dose vaccine, this metric stays the same. If they receive the second dose, the metric goes up by 1.

    This data is only available for countries which report the breakdown of doses administered by first and second doses.

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    Vaccinations In The Us Military

    On August 9, 2021, all servicemembers received a memo explaining that, under a plan endorsed by President Biden and by military leadership, COVID-19 vaccination would become mandatory within about a month. About a third of active U.S. military service members had already been vaccinated as of late April and about two-thirds had already been vaccinated by the time the memo was sent.

    The U.S. Navy had been the fastest to begin vaccination in early 2021. As of April 22, 2021, considering active military personnel who had received at least one dose, the U.S. Navy had the highest percentage at 51%, the at 36%, the Air Force/Space Force at 34%, and the Army at 27%. By late May, at least 58% of active military personnel had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.

    As of April 9, 2021, 39% of U.S. Marines to whom the military offered the vaccine had refused it. The highest rate of refusal was at Camp Lejeune in North Carolina, where 57% of Marines had refused the vaccine.

    On August 23, 2021, the Pfizer-BioTech vaccine got its full FDA approval, prompting vaccinations be required for all active duty, reserve, and National Guard troops starting August 25. By the time the vaccination requirement order was sent out, only 68% of active-duty troops were fully vaccinated.

    How Is Each State Doing

    Some jurisdictions have been more efficient than others at administering their doses from the federal government.

    *Includes doses provided to Palau, Micronesia and the Marshall Islands.

    There are many reasons for variation among the states and territories, including demand for the vaccine, lags in data reporting and other logistical challenges. State progress varies by age group as well.

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