Future Directions Of Aluminum Adjuvants
Besides active investigation of aluminum-based combination adjuvants and mechanisms of action, several research groups have reported attempts to develop well-defined aluminum nanoparticle adjuvants, with reduced particle size compared to the available commercial products. If such efforts are successful, aluminum nanoparticles with tunable particle size and even particle shape could potentially offer approaches to optimize biological activity and manufacturing/stability aspects , beyond what is achievable with the traditional aluminum salts. Nevertheless, in most cases the novel adjuvant nanoparticles are not benchmarked to commercial aluminum salts, making it difficult to evaluate benefit and supporting our motivation in writing this review. Other interesting developments which could facilitate delivery of aluminum salt vaccines to resource poor areas include lyophilized thermostable formulations and excipient approaches that enable stability to freezing temperature excursions., Moreover, there are plenty of opportunities for the development of new and improved characterization tools, to attain a better understanding of the binding, release, and stability of aluminum-adsorbed antigens.
Aluminum And Alzheimer Disease
A long-standing hypothesis has been that aluminum is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease. This theory is based on the assumption that a long-term accumulation of aluminum in the brain could produce symptoms like dialysis-associated encephalopathy. The aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration in animal studies also was similar to the pathology observed in human patients with Alzheimer disease. A meta-analysis used to evaluate chronic aluminum-containing antacid use and the risk of Alzheimer disease revealed no association. In another meta-analysis, researchers examined dietary patterns of food consumption high in aluminum and the risk of dementia . This meta-analysis also included 1 study of aluminum in drinking water and 1 study of aluminum-containing dust inhalation. The meta-analysis revealed an increased relative risk of dementia of 2.24 with increased aluminum exposure . The largest meta-analysis of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer disease included a total of 8 studies and a total of 10567 individuals. The follow-up time from the cited studies ranged from 8 to 48 years, and the studies included drinking water and occupational exposures. Regarding the increased risk of Alzheimer disease, the authors of this meta-analysis reported a pooled odds ratio of 1.71, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.35 to 2.18.
Should We Worry About Metals In Vaccines
This article was first published in The Montreal Gazette.
Last time, we explored a specific concern voiced by a reader namely, why we vaccinate babies for adult diseases like Hepatitis B. This week, well look at another vaccine question. Why are there metals in vaccines?
You will no doubt have heard that theres aluminum in vaccines. Aluminum is used as an adjuvant, which means its presence boosts the immune response when you are vaccinated.
You can only become immune to an illness in two ways. The first is to get sick. The bacteria or virus will enter your body, your immune system will identify the infection, fight it off, and produce antibodies to prevent you from ever catching the same disease again. Vaccines are basically pieces of a bacteria or virus that are killed or inactivated in some way. When you get injected with a vaccine, your immune system identifies the virus or bacteria and starts to produce antibodies against it.
In both cases you produce antibodies against the infection, but with vaccines you only have to deal with an inactive fragment and dont have to go through the full illness.
Thimerosal was used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination once a vaccine vial was opened. But the point is somewhat moot now as it has not been used in most vaccines, with the exception of the flu vaccine, since 2001.
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Adjuvants Have Been Used Safely In Vaccines For Decades
Aluminum salts, such as aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, and aluminum potassium sulfate have been used safely in vaccines for more than 70 years. Aluminum salts were initially used in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s with diphtheria and tetanus vaccines after it was found they strengthened the bodys immune response to these vaccines.
Newer adjuvants have been developed to target specific components of the bodys immune response, so that protection against disease is stronger and lasts longer.
In all cases, vaccines containing adjuvants are tested for safety and effectiveness in clinical trials before they are licensed for use in the United States, and they are continuously monitored by CDC and FDA once they are approved.
Does Aluminium In Vaccines Cause Alzheimers
Concerns about a link between aluminium and Alzheimers have existed for decades, but there is no conclusive evidence of this.
Alzheimers Society says that no study or group of studies has been able to confirm that aluminium is involved in the development of Alzheimers disease. It notes that one study suggested aluminium in drinking water may have progressed Alzheimers disease for people who already had the disease, but only when a high dose was consumed.
No convincing relationship between the amount of exposure or aluminium in the body and the development of Alzheimers disease has been established, it said.
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Tlr Agonists And Other Adjuvants
Toll-like receptors , a category of pattern-recognition receptors, are critical to pathogen recognition. This allows for rapid activation of innate immunity, and subsequently, effective adaptive immunity. TLR agonists have been extensively studied as vaccine adjuvants . CpG, Poly I:C, glucopyranosyl lipid A , and resiquimod are agonists for TLR9, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7/8, respectively. These adjuvants have been evaluated in candidate vaccines against SARS CoV .
Immunogenicity And Vaccine Efficacy
Today, diphtheria and tetanus are at historic low rates in the United States. No one has ever studied the efficacy of tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid in a vaccine trial. However experts infer efficacy from protective antitoxin levels. A complete vaccine series has a clinical efficacy of virtually 100% for tetanus and 97% for diphtheria. A complete series is 3 doses for people 7 years or older and 4 doses for children younger than 7.
In regard to pertussis, there has been an overall increasing trend in reported cases since the 1980s. In spite of this, pertussis affects many fewer people today than before pertussis-containing vaccines became widely available in the 1940s. There are several reasons to help explain why we are seeing more cases recently:
- Increased awareness
- More circulation of the bacteria
- Waning immunity
The acellular pertussis vaccines now used in the United States do not protect for as long as the prior whole cell pertussis vaccine. CDC is looking into whether molecular changes to may also be contributing to the resurgence.
In studies demonstrating the efficacy of the pertussis component for children who get all 5 doses on schedule, DTaP fully protects:
- 98% of children within the year following the last dose
- About 71% of children 5 years after getting the last dose of DTaP
In studies demonstrating the efficacy of the pertussis component, Tdap fully protects:
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Health Effects Of Aluminum
The health effects of aluminum have been studied however, few have been shown to result from aluminum exposure. Kidney dialysis patients have developed disorders of the brain and bones due to the aluminum content in intravenous fluids and antacids following years of dialysis. Both disorders have decreased in occurrence due to improvements to dialysis systems. The bone disease was due to poor absorption of phosphate in the presence of high quantities of aluminum. Children taking large amounts of aluminum-based medications have also been found to suffer from this bone disorder.
It has been suggested that some diseases involving the brain, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are caused by aluminum accumulation in brain tissues. However, studies have not consistently found increased levels of aluminum leading some to hypothesize that the aluminum accumulation may be the result of tissue damage rather than the cause of disease.
Other Study Limitations Beyond Altered Images
- Assumption that immune changes in mice brain adequately represent the underlying mechanism of autism in humans is unproven
- Mice used for these studies were not strains associated with autism
- Mice received 6 vaccine doses earlier in development then humans and over a few days compared to human vaccine which is scheduled over months
- For ease of experiment, injections were subcutaneous not intramuscular
- In the FDA study , the authors point out that intramuscular injection results in a depot effect with different kinetics than other routes of aluminum administration
Read more on the limited quality of the Li et al. paper at Science Blogs
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No Evidence Aluminium In Vaccines Causes Alzheimer’s Disease
Aluminium in vaccines can cause Alzheimers disease.
No link between Alzheimers disease and the small amount of aluminium found in some vaccines has been established.
Our readers have asked us to check claims that aluminium used in a new Covid-19 vaccineor any other vaccinecan cause Alzheimers disease. This is not correct.
Small amounts of aluminium have been used in vaccines for almost 100 years. If any Covid-19 vaccines are developed using aluminium, this will not cause Alzheimers disease.
Which Infant And Childhood Vaccines Have Aluminum
which infant and childhood vaccines have aluminum
In Canada, many infant and childhood vaccines have ingredients to help the vaccine to be more effective. In the first 6 months of life, infants receive more aluminum in their diet than from vaccines. Aluminum is used in vaccines as an adjuvant and has been safely used in vaccines for over 70 years. You can read more about vaccine safety and aluminum content in vaccines here.
The amount of aluminum in vaccines is very small and regulated by Health Canada to meet the World Health Organizations standards. A list of the ingredients in each vaccine can be found in the vaccines product monograph on Health Canada’s Drug Product Database.
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Why Is Aluminum In Some Vaccines
Aluminum salts are incorporated into some vaccine formulations as an adjuvant. An adjuvant is a substance added to some vaccines to enhance the immune response of vaccinated individuals. The aluminum salts in some U.S. licensed vaccines are aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, alum , or mixed aluminum salts. For example: aluminum salts are used in DTaP vaccines, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and hepatitis B vaccines.
Aluminum adjuvant containing vaccines have a demonstrated safety profile of over six decades of use and have only uncommonly been associated with severe local reactions. A study conducted by FDA determined that the risk to infants posed by the total aluminum exposure received from the entire recommended series of childhood vaccines over the first year of life is extremely low. This study provided additional scientific information confirming that the benefits of aluminum-containing vaccines administered during the first year of life outweigh any theoretical concerns about the potential effect of aluminum on infants. Of note, the most common source of exposure to aluminum is from eating food or drinking water.
Are Other Adjuvants Used In Fda
Yes. Cervarix, a vaccine to prevent cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus types 16 and 18, includes AS04 in its formulation. AS04 is a combination of aluminum hydroxide and monophosphoryl lipid A . MPL is a purified fat-like substance. The manufacturer no longer markets Cervarix in the United States.
One vaccine for the prevention of H5N1 influenza, commonly referred to as avian influenza or bird flu, contains the adjuvant AS03, an oil-in-water emulsion. The AS03 adjuvant is made up of the oily compounds, D,L-alpha-tocopherol and squalene, and an emulsifier, polysorbate 80, which helps ingredients mix together and keep them from separating, and water containing small amounts of salts. The vaccine is not commercially available, but included within the U.S. governments National Stockpile if public health officials determine it is needed.
Fluad, a vaccine for the prevention of seasonal influenza in adults 65 years of age and older, includes MF59, also an oil-in-water emulsion of squalene oil.
Heplisav-B, a vaccine for the prevention of infection caused hepatitis B virus in adults 18 years of age and older, includes CpG 1018, an adjuvant based on synthetic DNA sequences.
Shingrix, a vaccine for the prevention of shingles in adults 50 years of age and older, includes AS01B. AS01B is made of up MPL, a purified fat-like substance, and QS-21 which is purified from the bark of the Quillaja saponaria evergreen tree native to central Chile.
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Mechanism Of Action Of Aluminum Adjuvants
Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant also activates the complement cascade., The activation involves predominantly the alternative pathway with minor contributions from the classical and lectin pathways, and results in the release of C3a and C5a, as well as formation of the membrane attack complex . C3a and C5a may contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of injection, whereas MAC can be inserted into the membrane of macrophages and induce activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Complement activation plays a critical role in the humoral immune response and activation of complement may be an important, but underappreciated, mechanism underlying the immune-enhancing effect of aluminum adjuvants.
How To Detoxify From Vaccinations & Heavy Metals
October 7, 2014 by Michael EdwardsLast updated on: December 15, 2015
If you choose to vaccinate , its time to detoxify. This is not an article intended to debate the efficacy of vaccinations, but merely to address the toxicity from vaccinations and advise on elimination of the toxins.
Regardless of what your position on vaccinations is, any rational person cannot deny that the ingredients in vaccines are toxic. In fact, almost every single ingredient in any immunization is toxic to the human body. Besides the vitamins and minerals, nobody in their right mind would drink a concoction with any one or combination of most of the vaccine ingredients . Most vaccinations are directly injected into our bodies, allowing the ingredients to directly enter the bloodstream, which rationally, seems like an even more dangerous approach.
If anyone can tell me why in the heck they put artificial colors into vaccines, I would love to read about it in comments. Does anyone really care what color an immunization is?
Obviously this sort of cocktail going into the bloodstream can slow things down. You are introducing heavy metals, preservatives, and a host of other inorganic compounds, most of which are not even found in nature, directly into the blood stream. Much of the vaccine material will not leave the body without assistance, especially with a typical modern lifestyle and diet.
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Adsorption Of Antigens To Aluminum Adjuvants
Aluminum adjuvants are composed of nanoscale primary particles .2). The AH nanoparticles are elongate, approximately 4×2×10nm in size, whereas the AP nanoparticles are plate-like with a diameter of approximately 50nm., These nanoparticles form loosely connected porous aggregates that vary in size from 1 to about 20µm depending on the adjuvant, the method used for measurement of particle size, and the experimental conditions. Exposure to shear forces and ultrasonication decreased the size of the aggregate adjuvant particles,, whereas suspension of adjuvants in saline increased aggregation and the size of the aggregates., The ability of the aggregates to dissociate and reaggregate upon mixing contributes to the even distribution of adsorbed antigens in vaccine formulations. The primary nanoparticles that make up the aggregates provide a very large surface, estimated at 514m2/g for AH , when measured by water adsorption using gravimetric infrared spectroscopy. A much smaller surface area was reported for Alhydrogel and Rehydragel LV , but this was determined by nitrogen adsorption which significantly underestimates the surface area as a result of dehydration of the samples and collapse of the aggregates. During storage at room temperature, aluminum adjuvants become more ordered because of deprotonation and dehydration. This aging process reduces the surface area and resulted in a modest reduction of adsorptive capacity over a period of 15 months.
The Role Of Mercury In Vaccines
Mercury is found in a compound called thimerosal, which is used in some vaccines as a preservative. Thimerosal can help prevent dangerous contamination from bacterial and fungal growth.
Some vaccines come in multi-dose vials. Each time a new needle is put into a vial, some microbes may get into the vial and contaminate the vaccine. Thimerosal helps prevent growth of microbes in these situations. Sometimes, thimerosal is used during the vaccine manufacturing process and is removed later in the process so that only small amounts remain in the actual vaccination.
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Products Used In The Manufacture Of The Vaccine
Unlike food products or other drug product listings, substances used in the production of a vaccine may also be listed under excipients, even though they are not added to the vaccine. However, many of the items listed do not actually remain in the finished vaccine. If they do, they will often be present in trace amounts.
Antibiotics are used during the manufacturing process of some vaccines to stop bacteria growing and contaminating the vaccine. However, antibiotics which commonly cause allergic reactions are not used in vaccines. Traces of five antibiotics may be found in some of the vaccines used in the UK. These are neomycin, streptomycin, polymyxin b, gentamicin and kanamycin. People with a known allergy to any of these antibiotics should ask for expert advice before receiving these vaccines.
Antibiotics are used in the manufacture of the following vaccines used in the UK:
Other non-routine vaccines, such as yellow fever vaccine, may also contain egg proteins. Those with egg allergy should always ask about egg protein content before receiving a vaccine.
Yeast is used in the production of the HPV vaccine used in the UK. Department of Health advice is that the HPV vaccine can be given to yeast allergy sufferers because the final product does not contain any yeast.
In the UK the product information leaflets of the following vaccines state that latex is used in the packaging:
Formaldehyde and Glutaraldehyde