How Does Meningitis Spread
Each form of meningitis spreads differently. Viral and bacterial will spread person-to-person through air droplets, kissing or nasal secretions. Fungal and parasitic are ususally cause by environmental factors.
Viral and bacterial are the most common variants. They are most often spread within communities that live or work together. Dorm living, close contact and shared facilities are some common risk areas.
Some regions of the world are at an increased risk for meningitis. These include the meningitis belt in Africa and Saudi Arabia during the Hajj.
Menacwy Vaccines Are Safe However As With Any Vaccine Side Effects Can Occur
About half of the people who get a MenACWY vaccine have mild problems following vaccination, such as:
- Redness where the shot was given
- Soreness where the shot was given
- Muscle pain
- Feeling tired
If they occur, these reactions usually get better on their own within 1 to 2 days. Serious reactions are possible, but rare.
CDC continually monitors the safety of all vaccines, including MenACWY vaccines. For more information, view the Meningococcal ACWY Vaccine Information Statement.
Submitting Proof Of Vaccination
New students planning to enroll at Texas State must submit proof of meningitis vaccination. Acceptable evidence of vaccination may include any of the following:
- An official immunization record from a government health authority .
- An official immunization record received from school officials, including a record from another state .
- All records must be in English to be approved.
- An activated NetID and password required to submit proof of vaccination.
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Meningococcal Group C Conjugate Vaccine
A Cochrane Review assessed the safety of MenC against group C disease. MenC vaccines were shown to have an excellent safety profile in infants. The events more frequently reported in infants were fever , irritability , crying more than expected , redness at the site of vaccination , tenderness at the site of vaccination and swelling at the site of vaccination . Anaphylaxis was reported at a rate of one per 500,000 doses distributed.
Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine
Potential adverse reactions after meningococcal conjugate vaccines include localised pain, irritability, headache and fatigue. Fever is reported by 25 percent of adolescents who receive MenACWY-D.
The safety of two doses of MenACWY-D was assessed in a phase III trial of infants: dose one was administered at age 9 months and dose two was administered at age 12 months, with or without routine childhood vaccines. The percentage of participants with solicited systemic reactions after MenACWY-D administration alone at age 12 months was lower than after the vaccination at age 9 months , lower than the control groups at age 12 months and lower than when MenACWY-D was administered concurrently with the routine childhood vaccines .
The safety profile of MenACWY-T is very similar to other meningococcal conjugate vaccines.
There is no evidence of an association between meningococcal conjugate vaccines and GBS. An early report in the US of a suspected temporal association between MenACWY-D and GBS was followed by a large retrospective cohort study in the US that found no evidence of an increased risk of GBS following administration of MenACWY-D. If indicated, meningococcal conjugate vaccines may be administered to individuals with a history of GBS.
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Menacwy Vaccination Of Younger Children And Adults At Increased Risk
In certain situations, younger children and adults should receive MenACWY vaccines. Some people are at increased risk for serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease due to
- Having certain medical conditions
Those who remain at increased risk need regular booster doses.
- For children under the age of 7 years, administer a booster dose 3 years after completion of the primary series and every 5 years thereafter.
- For children 7 years old or older and adults, administer a booster dose 5 years after completion of the primary series and every 5 years thereafter.
Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals. Review of meningococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious meningococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, conjugate meningococcal vaccines are in limited use. Information on vaccination schedules in other countries can be found on the World Health Organization website. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional general information.
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What Is Meningitis Or Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease, often called meningitis, is a relatively rare but serious disease caused by the swelling of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. These illnesses are often severe and include infections of the lining of the brain and spinal cord and bloodstream infections . In 2013, there were 550 cases of meningococcal disease reported in the United States. Meningococcal disease is seasonal, most often occurring in January and February. Teens and young adults ages 16-23 have the highest incidence of disease, which is why the CDC recommends that all children ages 11-18 receive a meningitis vaccine.
How To Take Menveo
Use Menveo exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
This vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle. You will receive this injection in a doctor’s office or clinic setting.
Meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended if:
- you’ve been exposed to an outbreak of meningococcal disease
- you are in the military
- you work in a laboratory and are exposed to meningococcal bacteria
- you live in a dormitory or other group housing
- you live in or travel to an area where meningococcal disease is common
- you have a medical problem affecting your spleen, or your spleen has been removed
- you have HIV
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What Are The New York State School Requirements For Meningitis Vaccines
Starting with the 2016-17 school year, New York State students entering grades seven and twelve will be required to have been administered adequate doses of the meningococcal meningitis vaccine for school entry. All New York state requirements related to school entry will apply. Learn more about New York States current immunization requirements for school entry.
Rare Side Effects Of Meningococcal Immunisation
There is a very small risk of a serious allergic reaction to any vaccine. This is why you are advised to stay at the clinic or medical surgery for at least 15 minutes following immunisation in case further treatment is required.
If any other reactions are severe and persistent, or if you are worried, contact your doctor for further information.
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Who Needs To Get Vaccinated For Meningitis
Its especially important for you to keep all of your meningitis vaccinations up-to-date if you fall into a high-risk category for getting the disease. High-risk categories include:
- Certain Ages. Infants less than one-year-old and young adults between the ages of 16 and 21 are the most likely to develop meningitis. Its most important to have all boosters and available vaccinations at these ages.
- Crowded Settings. Large group settings like college campuses are where outbreaks of meningitis are the most common. Get your vaccines up-to-date before entering into these settings for extended periods of time.
- Certain underlying conditions. Some underlying medical conditions can increase your chance of getting meningitis. These include HIV and other conditions that weaken your immune system. Not having a spleen also places you at higher risk.
- Work that involves meningitis-causing agents. Microbiologists and any other researchers that regularly come into contact with the bacteria and viruses that cause meningitis are consistently at risk.
- Travel to certain areas. Some areas in the world like sub-Saharan Africa have higher rates of meningitis and the pathogens that cause it. Check with your doctor before traveling to new parts of the world.
Who Should Receive A Meningitis Vaccine
Meningitis vaccination is recommended for individuals over 11-years-old. This includes both the A, C, W and Y immunization and the B vaccination.
Travellers or others who could be exposed to meningitis should also be vaccinated this includes:
- Travellers to the meningitis belt in Africa
- Travellers going to Hajj in Saudi Arabia
- Individuals who work in confined conditions
- Healthcare workers
- College or other students
If you have not been vaccinated, or are unsure of your vaccination history, Passport Health can help. We keep meningitis vaccinations in-stock and ready for your trip or need. Call to schedule your appointment or book online now.
Some regions are more likely to have meningitis due to environmental or other factors. These higher risk zones include:
In Canada, dorms, schools or other areas with long-term close contact are sites of infection. Many educational centers now require proof of meningitis vaccination for enrolling.
Meningitis vaccinations are available at all Passport Health clinics. Call or make your appointment online now to schedule your appointment today.
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Variations From The Vaccine Data Sheets
The MenACWY-D data sheet states that the vaccine is indicated for use in individuals aged 9 months to 55 years. The Ministry of Health recommends that this vaccine can be used in adults aged over 55 years.
The data sheet states that MenACWY-D should be given as a single dose for individuals aged 2 years and older. The Ministry of Health recommends that two doses are given to individuals at high risk of meningococcal disease , with booster doses every five years. If the first MenACWY-D dose was given before age 7 years, give a booster after three years then five-yearly.
A history of GBS is listed as a precaution in the MenACWY-D data sheet. However, there is no evidence of an association between meningococcal conjugate vaccines and GBS . The Ministry of Health advises that, if indicated, MenACWY-D may be administered to individuals with a history of GBS.
The MenC data sheet states that the first dose of vaccine is not be given earlier than age 8 weeks. However, the Ministry of Health recommends that MenC may be given from age 6 weeks to infants at high risk of meningococcal disease .
The 4CMenB data sheet states that the vaccine is indicated from age 2 months or older. However, the Ministry of Health recommends that 4CMenB can be given from age 6 weeks to infants at high risk of meningococcal disease .
How Can I Protect My Child From Meningitis
Get vaccinated! Keeping up to date with recommended immunizations is the best defense against meningococcal disease. The CDC recommends that all teens and young adults ages 11-18 receive the meningitis vaccine, and some children as young as 6 weeks old who are at increased risk. Prevention is always best when it comes to vaccine-preventable diseases. Learn more about the meningitis vaccine for infants, children, teens and young adults.
Maintaining healthy habits, like getting plenty of rest, not sharing cups or water bottles, and not coming into close contact with people who are sick, can also help.
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You Or Your Child Have Had A Life
- If you have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction after a previous dose of MenACWY or MenB vaccine, do not get another dose of that type of vaccine.
- Do not get a meningococcal vaccine if you have a severe allergy to any part of that vaccine. Your or your childs doctor can tell you about the vaccines ingredients.
Im Not A College Student Do I Still Need This Vaccine
The meningitis vaccine âis also a good idea for travelers who go to certain parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the so-called meningitis belt,â Schaffner says. Itâs also recommended for anyone with a damaged spleen, people whose spleen has been removed, people with terminal complement component deficiency , anyone who might have been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak, and microbiologists who routinely work with meningococcal bacteria.
William Schaffner, MD, president, National Foundation for Infectious Diseases professor, chairman, department of preventive medicine, professor of medicine, division of infectious diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
CDC: âMeningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know.â
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Route Site And Needle Size
Administer meningococcal conjugate and serogroup B meningococcal vaccines by the intramuscular route. The preferred site for infants and young children is the vastus lateralis muscle in the anterolateral thigh. The preferred injection site in older children and adults is the deltoid muscle. Use a needle length appropriate for the age and size of the person receiving the vaccine.
Individuals At Increased Risk
The meningococcal vaccines are recommended for other individuals at risk, as described in non-shaded rows in Table 13.4.
There are areas of the world where the risk of meningococcal disease is increased. Nevertheless, the risk to travellers to the developing world has been estimated as being less than one in a million per month. Recurrent epidemics of meningococcal disease occur in the sub-Saharan meningitis belt, from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east, usually during the dry season . Epidemics are occasionally identied in other parts of the world, including in Europe and the Americas. Generally, countries outside of Africa experience smaller outbreaks, but case-fatality rates can be high.
The preferred vaccines for travel would be based on the epidemiology of the country. For website sources for information about meningococcal vaccines for travellers, see the WHO website. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine is a requirement for pilgrims to the Hajj.
Before moving into communal living situations
Funded circumstances are in the shaded rows
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Common And Local Adverse Events
Conjugate meningococcal vaccines
Injection site reactions occur in up to 59% of vaccinees. Fever is reported in up to 5% of recipients and systemic reactions, such as headache and malaise, are reported in up to 60% of recipients.
Mild reactions, including injection site reactions , occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Irritability occurs in up to 80% of infants and fever in up to 9% when other vaccines were administered. Headaches and malaise occur in up to 10% of older children and adults. These reactions last no more than a few days.
Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccines
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration, sleepiness and irritability. Higher rates of fever have been observed with simultaneous administration of 4CMenB vaccine and routine infant vaccines therefore, routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen or separating 4CMenB vaccination from routine vaccination schedule has been proposed for preventing fever in infants and children up to three years of age.
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration and irritability.
Your Child Can Get Menacwy And Menb Vaccines At The Same Time
Your childs doctor can give both types of meningococcal vaccines during the same visit, but preferably in different arms. If you choose for your child to get a MenB vaccine, the preferred timing is between 16 and 18 years old. So its possible your child will get this vaccine and the MenACWY booster dose at the same visit.
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Can I Get This Vaccine Privately
Yes. A variety of pharmacies, travel clinics and private GP practices offer this vaccine. Prices vary, so you may wish to contact more than one provider before making your choice. Expect to pay at least £100 per dose .
Some GP surgeries may be able to help, so you may wish to ask at your GP surgery first. However, NHS contracts may prevent GPs being able to offer private treatment to their own patients.
Vaccines For Meningococcal Disease
There are a number of vaccines available which protect against different types of meningococcal disease. There is no one vaccine that can protect against all of the types of meningococcal disease. Different vaccines are required to protect against the most common types of meningococcal disease one to protect against meningococcal group A,C,W & Y disease, and another vaccine to protect against meningococcal group B disease. There is also a separate vaccine available to protect against meningococcal group C disease.
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What Are The Different Types Of Vaccines For Meningitis B
In the United States, two types of meningitis B vaccines are Food and Drug Administration -approved Bexsero and Trumenba.
To receive FDA approval, both vaccines had to undergo clinical trials showing their safety and effectiveness. Both vaccines work in a similar way but use different proteins to stimulate your immune response.
Bexsero is produced by GlaxoSmithKline. Its administered in two 0.5 milligram doses, 1 month apart.
Before approval, safety data was reviewed from 3,139 subjects in clinical trials in the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, the United Kingdom, Poland, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy. Additional safety information was collected from 15,351 people who received Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sponsored vaccines at universities.
Trumenba is produced by Pfizer and is administered in two to three doses. For the three-dose schedule, the second dose is administered 1 to 2 months after the first, and the third vaccine is given 6 months after the first dose. For the two dose schedule, the second dose is given at 6 months after the first.
Before the FDA approved Tremenba, reviewers examined
People who have the highest chance of getting meningitis B include:
In the U.S. meningitis B vaccine isnt available yet for infants younger than 1 year old but is administered in the United Kingdom as part of the National Health Service vaccination schedule.