Who Should Not Have The Vaccine
The pneumococcal vaccine used between 1978 and 1983 protected against only 14 types of the pneumococcus. People who received this vaccine do not usually need to get another shot.
- If you think you have already been vaccinated for pneumococcal disease, let your doctor know.
- The polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine is not recommended for children under two years of age.
- You should not have the vaccine if you have a severe allergy to any component of the vaccine.
How Often Should I Be Vaccinated
There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines available for adults: a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine . Adults with kidney disease, kidney failure, or a kidney transplant need to receive both vaccines.
Most healthy adults only need to be vaccinated one time, but some people at high risk, including people with kidney disease, dialysis-treated patients, and people with kidney transplants, need to receive two pneumococcal vaccines initially followed by revaccination in five years. Ask your doctor about your specific circumstances.
Effectiveness Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine
Children respond very well to the pneumococcal vaccine.
The introduction of this vaccine into the NHS childhood vaccination schedule has resulted in a large reduction in pneumococcal disease.
The pneumococcal vaccine given to older children and adults is thought to be around 50 to 70% effective at preventing pneumococcal disease.
Both types of pneumococcal vaccine are inactivated or “killed” vaccines and do not contain any live organisms. They cannot cause the infections they protect against.
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Do Children Need Protection Against Pneumococcal Disease
Yes. Infants and young children in the United States need to be protected against pneumococcal disease. In fact, they are routinely vaccinated for pneumococcal disease because it is part of the standard infant immunization schedule. Pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended for older children and adolescents with kidney disease, kidney failure, or an organ transplant, even if they received the vaccine as infants. If your child hasn’t been vaccinated, talk to your doctor.
How Long Does A Pneumonia Shot Last
- Younger than 2 years old: four shots
- 65 years old or older: two shots, which will last you the rest of your life
- Between 2 and 64 years old: between one and three shots if you have certain immune system disorders or if youre a smoker
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Medical Conditions Resulting In High Risk Of Ipd
Table 1: Medical Conditions Resulting in High risk of IPD
IPD is more common in the winter and spring in temperate climates.
Spectrum of clinical illness
Although asymptomatic upper respiratory tract colonization is common, infection with S. pneumoniae may result in severe disease. IPD is a severe form of infection that occurs when S. pneumoniae invades normally sterile sites, such as the bloodstream or central nervous system. Bacteremia and meningitis are the most common manifestations of IPD in children 2 years of age and younger. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common presentation among adults and is a common complication following influenza. The case fatality rate of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia is 5% to 7% and is higher among elderly persons. Bacterial spread within the respiratory tract may result in AOM, sinusitis or recurrent bronchitis.
Worldwide, pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization estimates that almost 500,000 deaths among children aged less than 5 years are attributable to pneumococcal disease each year. In Canada, IPD is most common among the very young and adults over 65 years of age.
How Long Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Last
For most adults, one dose of the pneumonia vaccine should last a lifetime. In other words, you wont usually need to get another dose. This makes it different to the flu vaccine, which is given every year.
For some people, boosters of the pneumonia vaccine will be needed. This will be the case for people who have underlying health conditions that make them high-risk for pneumonia and related conditions. Your doctor will let you know if you need another vaccine.
If youre somebody who needs top-ups of the pneumonia vaccine, youll be able to receive them for free on the NHS.
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People Who Should Receive The Pneumococcal Vaccine
A number of medical conditions put people at higher risk of pneumococcal disease and people with these conditions require immunisation.
You should speak with your doctor about whether you are at risk.
Pneumococcal immunisation is required for people who have:
- no spleen or have a spleen with poor function
- a weakened immune system includes people with immune deficiency, HIV infection, people receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy, people who have received a transplant or people with a genetic immune deficiency
- leakage of fluid from around the spine and brain
- cochlear implants
It is also required for people who:
- use alcohol to a harmful degree
- were born prematurely .
Managing Fever After Immunisation
Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.
There are a number of treatment options that can reduce the side effects of the vaccine including:
- giving extra fluids to drink and not overdressing if there is a fever
- although routine use of paracetamol after vaccination is not recommended, if fever is present, paracetamol can be given check the label for the correct dose or speak with your pharmacist, .
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How Do I We Get The Vaccine
In Canada, all provinces and territories provide the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, starting at 2 months of age. While the exact schedule will depend on where you live, usually two shots are given between 2 and 11 months of age and a booster at 12-15 months. Children at high risk of disease are given three shots , as well as the booster.
Unvaccinated children between 15 months and 5 years old should also get the vaccine. Your doctor or public health unit can tell you the number of shots your child will need and when.
All unvaccinated children and adolescents who are at high risk of serious infection should receive both the conjugate and the polysaccharide vaccine. The polysaccharide vaccine is at given at age 2 or later, with a booster 5 years after the first.
Patients In Health Care Institutions
Residents of long-term care facilities should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Recommendations for Use for information about pneumococcal vaccination of individuals at increased risk of IPD. Refer to Immunization of Patients in Health Care Institutions in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of patients in health care institutions.
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Who Should Get Prevnar 13 And Pneumovax 23
Prevnar 13 was developed for infants and children. The CDC recommends that all infants and children younger than 2 years of age get Prevnar 13. Prevnar 13 involves a series of four doses of the vaccine given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and sometime between 12 and 15 months of age.
Pneumovax 23 is the vaccine used in adults. It does not work in infants and children under 2 years old.
Most adults do not need a pneumococcal vaccine until they reach the age of 65. Once a person turns 65 years old, the CDC recommends Pneumovax 23.
The same is true for any adult who smokes or has one or more of these chronic illnesses:
Chronic heart disease
Chronic lung disease, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic liver disease
What Causes Pneumonia
There are two main kinds of pneumonia, one caused by viruses and the other caused by bacteria. One type of bacteria is called Streptococcus pneumoniae . When these bacteria invade the lungs, they cause bacterial pneumonia. Most cases of bacterial pneumonia are caused by pneumococcus. These bacteria also attack different parts of the body. They can attack the blood cells and cause a serious infection called bacteraemia. They can also cause meningitis. Meningitis is a serious infection of the fluid and lining of the central nervous system. Pneumonia, bacteraemia or meningitis can cause death, particularly in people with high-risk medical conditions and the elderly. Healthy people often have pneumococcal bacteria in their mouths and upper respiratory systems. In most people, the bacteria will not cause serious illness. But in some people with high-risk medical conditions, the bacteria can cause disease when they get into the lungs or blood.
Pneumococcal pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis are serious. Also, the pneumococcus bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin and others.
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Groups At Risk Of Ipd
People who are immunocompromised and unable to mount an adequate immune response to pneumococcal capsular antigens have the highest risk of IPD.2,4,34 This includes people with asplenia.
Greater risk and/or severity of IPD
- excessive alcohol consumption
- certain non-immunocompromising chronic medical conditions2,34,42,43
Indigenous populations in developed countries, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, have a disproportionately high burden of IPD
Young children and elderly people have the highest incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease .37,38,45 Disease burden is also disproportionately high in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.1,2
Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines
Pneumococcal vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines, with the exception of a different formulation of pneumococcal vaccine . There should be at least an 8 week interval between a dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and a subsequent dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, and at least a 1 year interval between a dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine and a subsequent dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine refer to Immunocompromised persons for information regarding administration of pneumococcal vaccines to HSCT recipients. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections. Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.
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Who Should Get Immunised Against Pneumococcal Disease
Anyone who wants to protect themselves against pneumococcal disease can talk to their doctor about getting immunised.
Pneumococcal immunisation is recommended for:
- infants and children aged under 5 years
- non-Indigenous adults aged 70 years and over without medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 5 years living in Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 50 years and over without medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease
- infants under 12 months diagnosed with certain medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease
- people over 12 months with certain medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease
There are two types of pneumococcal vaccine provided free under the National Immunisation Program for different age groups and circumstances:
Refer to the NIP schedule for vaccine dosage information. Your doctor or vaccination provider will advise if you or your child have a specified medical risk condition.
Refer to the pneumococcal recommendations in the Australian Immunisation Handbook for more information.
What Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Do
Pneumonia is a serious condition that attacks the lungs, causing coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing. It often requires hospitalisation, and can be life-threatening especially for the elderly or for people with weakened immune systems.
Pneumonia can be caused by viruses and fungi, but its usually caused by a bacterial infection. This is why both types of the pneumonia vaccine work by generating antibodies to kill pneumococcal bacteria. Once youve had the vaccine, your body will be able to use these antibodies to quickly fight off the bacteria strains that cause pneumonia.
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Why Is Pneumococcal Vaccine Important
Pneumococcal vaccine can prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by 23 types of the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. These 23 types account for approximately nine out of 10 cases of pneumococcal disease. The vaccine is recommended for people with certain medical conditions listed below, and people 65 years of age and older. About eight out of 10 cases occur in these high- risk groups. The vaccine protects about 50 to 80 per cent of people against pneumococcal infection. Vaccination also makes the disease milder for those who may catch it. This pneumococcal vaccine has been used in Canada since 1983.
Immunisation Against Pneumococcal Disease For Adults
Adult immunisation against pneumococcal disease is available free of charge under the National Immunisation Program Schedule for:
- any person with certain serious medical risk conditions
- all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 50 years or older
- people aged from 70 years.
Some medical risk conditions for which it is recommended to receive pneumococcal immunisation do not qualify for free immunisation under the National Immunisation Program. Speak to your doctor or immunisation provider for further information about the vaccine and its cost.
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Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. Review of pneumococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present, as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious pneumococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is in limited use. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are new to Canada.
Indication For Pneumovax 23
PNEUMOVAX®23 is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of pneumococcal disease caused by the 23 serotypes contained in the vaccine .
PNEUMOVAX 23 is approved for use in persons 50 years of age or older and persons aged 2 years who are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease.
PNEUMOVAX 23 will not prevent disease caused by capsular types of pneumococcus other than those contained in the vaccine.
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Are You 65 Or Older Get Two Vaccinations Against Pneumonia
- By Gregory Curfman, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Former Editor-in-Chief, Harvard Health Publishing
ARCHIVED CONTENT: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date each article was posted or last reviewed. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.
If you or a loved one is age 65 or older, getting vaccinated against pneumonia is a good idea so good that the Centers for Disease Control now recommends that everyone in this age group get vaccinated against pneumonia twice.
This new recommendation is based on findings from a large clinical trial called CAPiTA, which were published today in The New England Journal of Medicine.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, sometimes just called pneumococcus, is a common bacterium that can cause serious lung infections like pneumonia. It can also cause invasive infections of the bloodstream, the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord , and other organs and tissues. Older individuals are especially prone to being infected by Pneumococcus, and these infections are often deadly.
The dark spots are pneumonia-causing Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria isolated from the blood of an infected person.
One caveat is that while PCV13 is effective in preventing pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae, it does not prevent pneumonia caused by viruses or other bacteria.
Do I Need To Pay For Pneumococcal Immunisation
Vaccines covered by the National Immunisation Program are free for people who are eligible. See the NIP Schedule to find out which vaccines you or your family are eligible to receive.
Eligible people get the vaccine for free, but your health care provider may charge a consultation fee for the visit. You can check this when you make your appointment.
If you are not eligible for free vaccine, you may need to pay for it. The cost depends on the type of vaccine, the formula and where you buy it from. Your immunisation provider can give you more information.
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Who Should Get The Pneumococcal Vaccine
CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all children younger than 2 years old and all adults 65 years or older. In certain situations, other children and adults should also get pneumococcal vaccines.
Regarding this, is pneumococcal vaccine necessary?
Available Pneumococcal VaccinesPCV13 protects against the 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria that cause the most severe illness among children and adults. It is recommended for routine use among children younger than 5 years of age and adults 65 years of age and older.
Secondly, should I get Prevnar 13 or Pneumovax 23? Pneumovax 23 protects against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria, while Prevnar 13 protects against 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria. In most cases, the CDC recommends that you get both vaccines at some point in your life.
Regarding this, who should not get a pneumonia shot?
Not everybody needs to get a pneumonia vaccine. If you’re a healthy adult between ages 18 and 50, you can probably skip the vaccine. Also, you shouldn’t get it if you’re allergic to what’s in the vaccine.
Who should get the Prevnar 13 vaccine?
Pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for at-risk individuals who are age two through 64 years of age. For adults age 50 and older, the PREVNAR 13® vaccine is approved to help prevent pneumococcal pneumonia. If you’re 65 or older, PREVNAR 13 may be covered by Medicare at no cost to you.
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Contraception And Family Planning
Who do I see: Family Planning Clinic/Practice NurseAdvice: Find out more information about Ealing Family Planning Clinics. Contraception and family planning appointments are available at various times every day. For a GP or a Practice Nurse, please request an appointment using eConsult, or contact reception on 020 8567 4315 to make an appointment. Routine appointments within 2 4 weeks. You can also attend our walk-in Well Woman clinic, 7-7:30pm, Thursday evenings.
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