Monday, September 25, 2023

How Often Do You Need The Meningococcal Vaccine

What Are The Symptoms Of Meningococcal Disease

Meningococcus Vaccine – Why Do College Students Need It?

Signs and symptoms of meningococcal disease include sudden onset of fever, stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and/or mental confusion. A rash may also be present. Changes in behavior such as confusion, sleepiness, and unresponsiveness are important symptoms of illness. Anyone who has these symptoms should be seen by a healthcare provider immediately. In fatal cases, death can occur in as little as a few hours, even with appropriate medical treatment. Less common presentations include pneumonia and arthritis.

Menacwy Vaccination Of Younger Children And Adults At Increased Risk

In certain situations, younger children and adults should receive MenACWY vaccines. Some people are at increased risk for serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease due to

  • Having certain medical conditions
  • Taking specific medications
  • Complement inhibitor
  • Traveling or residing in countries in which serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease is common
  • Working in specific professions or living in specific settings
  • Microbiologist who is routinely exposed to Neisseria meningitidis
  • Military recruit
  • First-year college student living in a residence hall and are not up to date with this vaccine
  • Being a part of a community experiencing a serogroup A, C, W or Y meningococcal disease outbreak
  • Those who remain at increased risk need regular booster doses.

    • For children under the age of 7 years, administer a booster dose 3 years after completion of the primary series and every 5 years thereafter.
    • For children 7 years old or older and adults, administer a booster dose 5 years after completion of the primary series and every 5 years thereafter.

    Nature Of The Disease

    Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. The bacterium is commonly known as meningococcus.

    There are 13 known meningococcal serogroups, distinguished by differences in surface polysaccharides of the bacteriums outer membrane capsule. Globally, serogroups A, B, C, W-135 and Y most commonly cause disease.

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    What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines

    Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the injection, along with headache, fever, or tiredness. Serious problems, such as allergic reactions, are rare.

    The meningococcal vaccines contains only a small piece of the germ, so it can’t cause meningococcal disease.

    How Common Is Meningococcal Disease

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    Meningococcal disease is becoming much less common. Over the past 20 years, the overall incidence of meningococcal disease in the US has declined 10-fold. Twenty years ago in Massachusetts there were 80-100 cases of meningococcal disease per year. In contrast, for the past decade the average is approximately 12 cases per year. Declining rates of meningococcal disease may be due in part to the introduction of meningococcal vaccines as well as other factors such as the decline in cigarette smoking, which may impact susceptibility to this disease.

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    Who Should Have The Vaccine

    In the UK the MenACWY vaccine is given to teenagers as part of the routine NHS schedule. It is usually given to all students in school years 9 or 10 .

    There is a catch-up programme for anyone aged 15 or older who has missed out on MenACWY vaccinination. Young people are entitled to receive the vaccine any time up to their 25th birthday. This includes students aged up to 25 years attending university for the first time, as well as those who are not in higher education. Students of any nationality entering a UK university for the first time who have not had MenACWY vaccine are also eligible up to their 25th birthday.

    The MenACWY vaccine is also recommended for people with some long-term health conditions who are at greater risk of complications from meningococcal disease. This includes people with:

    • asplenia or splenic dysfunction
    • sickle cell anaemia
    • complement disorders

    Risk By Age Group And By Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Status

    Children aged < 2 years

    Children aged < 2 years have the highest incidence of meningococcal cases. The disease occurs most often in infants aged 35 months.

    Adolescents aged 1519 years

    A high number of meningococcal disease cases occurs among adolescents and young adults aged 1524 years, with peak rates of disease occurring in 1820-year-olds. Adolescents and young adults have the highest rate of meningococcal carriage and are thought to play an important role in transmitting the bacteria in a community.4

    Adolescents and young adults in this age bracket who have a higher risk of acquiring the meningococcal bacteria are:

    • people who live in close quarters, such as new military recruits and students living in residential accommodation
    • people who have prolonged contact with a person who is carrying meningococcal bacteria5-7
    • people who are smokers8-10

    Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have much higher incidence rates of meningococcal disease than non-Indigenous Australians.96 This is particularly among children aged < 15 years for the 2 most common meningococcal serogroups: B and W.

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    Adults Age 65 And Older

    Vaccines are especially important for older adults. As you get older, your immune system weakens and it can be more difficult to fight off infections. Youre more likely to get diseases like the flu, pneumonia, and shingles and to have complications that can lead to long-term illness, hospitalization, and even death.

    If you have an ongoing health condition like diabetes or heart disease getting vaccinated is especially important. Vaccines can protect you from serious diseases so you can stay healthy as you age.

    Getting vaccinated can help keep you, your family, and your community healthy.

    On this page, you’ll find answers to common questions about vaccines for adults age 65 and older.

    What Is Meningococcal Vaccine

    This is why you should get your MenACWY vaccine | Dr Ali | Meningitis Now

    Meningococcal vaccines are used to protect against meningococcal disease. Meningococcal disease can lead to serious illnesses, including meningitis and septicaemia . These illnesses can develop quickly over a few hours and can cause serious disability or even death, even among people who are otherwise healthy. Read more about meningococcal disease. During an outbreak of meningococcal disease, a meningococcal vaccination programme may be started to protect people at highest risk of getting or being affected by the infection. Meningococcal vaccines reduce the number of people carrying N. meningitidis bug in the back of their throat, thereby reducing the spread of the bacteria around the community.

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    Who Should Not Get The Meningococcal Vaccine Or Should Wait To Get It

    • You should not get the vaccine if you have had an allergic reaction to the vaccine or any component of the vaccine, such as thimerosal . Tell your healthcare provider if you have any severe allergies.
    • You should wait to get the vaccine if you are sick or have a fever of 101°F or higher.
    • You should talk to your healthcare provider first if you are a pregnant or breastfeeding woman. Your provider will tell you if you should wait to get the vaccine until after you deliver or stop breastfeeding. He or she can talk to you about the possible risks from the vaccine. You may still need to get the vaccine if your risk for meningitis is high.

    Complications Of Meningococcal Disease

    Meningococcal infections can progress rapidly to serious disease or death in previously healthy people. The overall mortality risk for IMD is high , even if the person receives appropriate antibiotic therapy.

    Around one-third of children and adolescents who survive IMD develop permanent sequelae. These can include:84

    • limb deformity
    • deafness
    • neurologic deficits

    Around 3040% of people who survive IMD have long-term consequences or disabilities. Patients and caregivers can also have psychological symptoms due to these sequelae.92-94

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    Are There Any Adults Who Should Not Get The Meningococcal Vaccine

    You shouldn’t get either type of meningococcal vaccine if you:

    • Are moderately or seriously ill wait until you recover.
    • Have had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose
    • Had a severe reaction to any part of the vaccine

    If you are pregnant or have other concerns, ask your doctor which meningitis vaccine is right for you.

    Young People Eligible For The Menacwy Vaccine

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    Young people born between 2 July 1996 and 1 July 2002 should have already been offered the vaccine by their GP or in school. If for any reason they missed out they are still eligible for the vaccine from their GP. If you aren’t planning to go to university, it is still important to get the vaccine. You only need to get the MenACWY vaccine once.If you haven’t yet received the vaccine, you can ask your GP.

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    Interchangeability Of Meningococcal Vaccines

    MenACWY vaccines

    If possible, complete the primary course of MenACWY vaccination with the same vaccine brand. If this is not possible, use an alternative brand following the dose recommendations by age. See Recommended dose schedules.

    People can receive booster doses of MenACWY vaccine using any brand. Menveo or Nimenrix are preferred to Menactra in people aged 2 years.

    MenB vaccines

    Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable. Use the same vaccine to complete the vaccination course.

    The only absolute contraindications to meningococcal vaccines are:

    • anaphylaxis after a previous dose of any meningococcal vaccine
    • anaphylaxis after any component of a meningococcal vaccine

    Previous meningococcal disease, regardless of the serogroup, is not a contraindication to receiving any meningococcal vaccine.

    Previous vaccination with the strain-specific MenB vaccine used in New Zealand is not a contraindication to receiving either Bexsero or Trumenba.

    Previous vaccination with a quadrivalent polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine is not a contraindication to receiving any MenACWY vaccine. See People who have previously received a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Laboratory workers or Travellers.

    Is Meningococcal Disease Serious

    Meningococcal meningitis and bloodstream infections can be very serious, even deadly. The infections progress quickly. Someone can go from being healthy to very ill in 48 hours or less. Even if they get treatment, about 10 to 15 out of 100 people with meningococcal disease will die from it. Long-term disabilities from having meningococcal disease include loss of limbs, deafness, nervous system problems, and brain damage.

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    Are Students In College At Risk For Meningococcal Disease

    In the 1990s, college freshmen living in residence halls were identified as being at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Meningococcal disease and outbreaks in young adults were primarily due to serogroup C. However, following many years of routine vaccination of young people with quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine , serogroup B is now the primary cause of meningococcal disease and outbreaks in young adults. Among the approximately 9 million students aged 18-21 years enrolled in college, there are an average of 20 cases and 2-4 outbreaks due to serogroup B reported annually.

    Although incidence of serogroup B meningococcal disease in college students is low, college students aged 18-21 years are at increased risk compared to non-college students. The close contact in college residence halls, combined with certain behaviors , may put college students at increased risk.

    Is there a vaccine against meningococcal disease?

    Yes, there are 2 different meningococcal vaccines.

    Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People

    How often will I need to get a COVID-19 vaccine?

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 months to 19 years are strongly recommended to receive MenACWY vaccine

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 months to 19 years are strongly recommended to receive MenACWY vaccine.

    The dose schedule for MenACWY vaccine depends on the vaccine brand and the persons age when they start the vaccine course.

    Infants aged < 9 months can receive 2 of the 3 MenACWY brands . Infants and children aged 9 months to 2 years can receive any of the 3 MenACWY vaccine brands, following the age-appropriate dosing schedule.

    For all people aged 2 years, a single dose of MenACWY vaccine is recommended. In this age group, it is preferable to receive either Menveo or Nimenrix, rather than Menactra. If Menveo and Nimenrix are unavailable, Menactra can be given.

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 months to 19 years are strongly recommended to receive a course of MenB vaccine.

    The dose schedule for MenB vaccine depends on the brand and the persons age when they start the vaccine course.

    People aged 29 years should receive 2 doses of Bexsero, 8 weeks apart.

    People aged 10 years can receive 2 doses of either MenB vaccine:

    • 2 doses of Bexsero, with 8 weeks between doses, or
    • 2 doses of Trumenba, with 6 months between doses

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    Symptoms Of Meningococcal Disease

    Neisseria meningitidis can cause invasive meningococcal disease , which usually presents as meningitis and septicaemia. Septicaemia, either on its own or with meningitis, can be particularly severe. N. meningitidis can also cause other localised infections, although these are less common, including:74,84

    • pneumonia

    The clinical manifestations of meningococcal septicaemia and meningitis may be non-specific.

    They can include:85

    • rash
    • headache
    • vomiting

    Not all symptoms or signs may be present at disease onset.

    The characteristic rash of meningococcal disease does not disappear with gentle pressure on the skin, but the rash is not always present.

    IMD can also present atypically as:

    These atypical presentations are more common among certain serogroups, especially serogroup W.

    What Happens After The Immunization

    Your child might have a fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness at the injection area. Check with your doctor to see if you can give either acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain or fever and to find out the right dose.

    A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad on the injection site may help reduce soreness, as can moving or using the arm.

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    Can The Meningococcal Vaccine Cause Meningococcal Disease

    The short answer is no. There are actually four meningococcal vaccines licensed in the U.S. None of the vaccines contains live bacteria.

    The vaccines contain antigens — substances that trigger the body’s immune system and cause it to make antibodies. These antibodies then protect the body by attacking and killing the bacteria if it should invade your system.

    The first vaccine — meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine or MPSV4 — was approved in 1978. It’s made with the antigens contained in the outer polysaccharide or sugar capsule that surrounds the bacterium.

    The meningococcal conjugate vaccine or MCV4 was approved in 2005. It uses antigens taken from the polysaccharide capsule and then bound to a separate protein that targets the body’s immune cells. This makes it easier for the body’s immune system to see and recognize the antigens.

    One type of MCV4, Menveo, is licensed for use in people ages 2 to 55. Another version, Menactra, is approved for those 9 months to 55 years old. MPSV4 is the only vaccine licensed for use in people over 55 as well as people 2 to 55. Both vaccines protect against four types of meningococcal disease.

    What Are The Side Effects


    About half of people who get a MenACWY vaccine have mild side effects following vaccination:

    • Redness or pain where they got the shot
    • Fever

    These reactions usually get better on their own within 1 to 2 days, but serious reactions are possible.

    Following a MenB shot, more than half of people who get the vaccine will have mild problems:

    • Soreness, redness, or swelling where you got the shot
    • Tiredness

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    Schedule For Children Who Are More Likely To Get Meningitis

    Younger kids will need a vaccine if they’re at a greater risk of getting meningitis because they:

    • Have complement component deficiency, a rare immune system disease
    • Have spleen damage or had their spleen removed
    • Live in an area that had a meningitis outbreak
    • Take drugs that affect their immune system
    • Travel to a country where meningitis is common

    For these cases, doctors strongly recommend MenACWY for kids ages 2 months to 10 years. The number of doses and boosters your child needs depends on their health, age, and how long they stay at risk for the disease. For example, a child with spleen damage will be at risk longer than someone who travels for a week to a country where meningitis is common. Check with your doctor to find out what your child needs.

    Doctors also recommend that kids ages 10 and older with these risks get the standard doses of MenB.

    Common And Local Adverse Events

    Conjugate meningococcal vaccines

    Men-C-ACYW vaccines

    Injection site reactions occur in up to 59% of vaccinees. Fever is reported in up to 5% of recipients and systemic reactions, such as headache and malaise, are reported in up to 60% of recipients.

    Men-C-C vaccines

    Mild reactions, including injection site reactions , occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Irritability occurs in up to 80% of infants and fever in up to 9% when other vaccines were administered. Headaches and malaise occur in up to 10% of older children and adults. These reactions last no more than a few days.

    Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccines

    4CMenB vaccine

    Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration, sleepiness and irritability. Higher rates of fever have been observed with simultaneous administration of 4CMenB vaccine and routine infant vaccines therefore, routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen or separating 4CMenB vaccination from routine vaccination schedule has been proposed for preventing fever in infants and children up to three years of age.

    MenB-fHBP vaccine

    Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration and irritability.

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    Where Can I Find These Vaccines

    Your clinician is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child.These vaccines are part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, vaccines for children and teens are regularly available at

    • Pediatric and family practice offices
    • Community health clinics

    If your clinician does not have these vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.

    Vaccines may also be available at

    • Pharmacies
    • Health departments
    • Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers

    Federally funded health centers can also provide services if you do not have a regular source of health care. Locate one near youexternal iconexternal icon. You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get vaccines in your community.

    When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local registry, if available. This helps clinicians at future encounters know what vaccines you or your child have already received.

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