Risks Associated With The Vaccine
- In some overseas trials of acellular pertussis, between 0.7 and 2.6 recipients in 10,000 had fits or shock-collapse neither of which cause long-term problems. These reactions have not happened in overseas trials of the vaccine now being used in New Zealand.
- There is no association between the vaccine and sudden unexpected death in infancy .
- Anaphylaxis is very rare.
Immunisation is your choice. If you have questions, talk to your midwife, doctor or practice nurse or call the free helpline 0800 IMMUNE .
How Effective Is The Vaccine
Around 84% of babies are protected once theyve completed 3 doses of vaccine .
Immunising against whooping cough during pregnancy protects about 90% of babies in their first few weeks of life.
Protection wanes over time. People can get whooping cough some years later, even if theyve been immunised or have had it before. Thats why its important for 4 and 11-year-olds to have booster immunisations.
Why Are Whooping Cough Vaccines Important
Whooping cough spreads very easily from person to person. Because it usually starts off like a cold, people who have whooping cough may not know theyre spreading it. And it can be deadly, especially for newborn babies.
Babies who get whooping cough can have dangerous complications, like pneumonia , convulsions , and brain damage. Thats why its especially important for pregnant women to get vaccinated and that people who spend time with babies are up to date on their whooping cough vaccine.
Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent whooping cough.
Whooping cough is caused by a kind of bacteria. Its named for the whoop sound people can make after coughing fits. Learn what whooping cough sounds like.
The early symptoms of whooping cough include:
- Runny nose
Preteens and teens ages 7 through 18
Older children need 1 booster shot of the Tdap vaccine at age 11 or 12 as part of their routine vaccine schedule.
If your child misses the booster shot, talk with your childs doctor about scheduling a catch-up shot.
Adults age 19 and older
If you missed the Tdap booster as a teen, youll need to get a Tdap booster to make sure you have protection from whooping cough.
Pregnant women need 1 booster shot of the Tdap vaccine during each pregnancy.
Talk with your doctor about how to protect your family from whooping cough.
You should not get a whooping cough vaccine if you:
Be sure to tell your doctor before getting vaccinated if you:
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Causes Of Whooping Cough
The Bordetella pertussis bacterium is spread by airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract and is highly infectious. The time from infection to appearance of symptoms is between six and 20 days. A person is infectious for the first 21 days of their cough or until they have had five days of a 10-day course of antibiotics. In countries where immunisation rates are high, the risk of catching whooping cough is low.In Victoria, most reports of whooping cough currently occur in adults over 20 years of age. Recent research has shown that family members, household contacts and carers are the main source of whooping cough infection in babies.
How Can I Get The Whooping Cough Vaccination
The vaccine is available from your GP, though some antenatal clinics also offer it. You may be offered the vaccination at a routine antenatal appointment from around 16 weeks of your pregnancy.
If you are more than 16 weeks pregnant and have not been offered the vaccine, talk to your midwife or GP and make an appointment to get vaccinated.
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Immunisation Against Whooping Cough
In Victoria, the whooping cough vaccine is only available in a number of combined vaccines that also contain protection against other serious and potentially fatal diseases. The type of combined vaccine used for immunisation will depend on the person’s age group. Children need to follow the full schedule of vaccines to be fully protected.In Victoria, immunisation against whooping cough is free for:
- children at two , four and six months of age in the form of a diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis B, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine
- children at 18 months of age in the form of a diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough vaccine
- children at four years of age in the form of a diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and polio vaccine
- adolescents in Year 7 at secondary school adolescents receive a booster dose of diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough vaccine . The dose can also be given by a doctor or at a council community immunisation session
- pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation during every pregnancy, from 20 weeks gestation, pregnant women receive a dose of diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough vaccine
- partners of women in the third trimester of pregnancy, if the partner has not received a whooping-cough-containing booster in the last ten years
- parents or guardians, if their baby is under six months of age and they have not received a whooping-cough-containing vaccine in the last ten years.
How Do I Spot Whooping Cough In My Baby
Be alert to the signs and symptoms of whooping cough, which include severe coughing fits that may be accompanied by difficulty breathing or vomiting after coughing, and the characteristic “whoop” sound.
If you are worried your baby may have whooping cough, contact your doctor immediately.
Read more about whooping cough vaccination in the leaflet Whooping cough and pregnancy from Public Health England.
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Preparations Authorized For Use In Canada
- ADACEL®, Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- ADACEL®-POLIO , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- BOOSTRIX® , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- BOOSTRIX®-POLIO , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- INFANRIX®-IPV , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- INFANRIX®-IPV/Hib , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- INFANRIX hexaTM® , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- PEDIACEL® , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- QUADRACEL® , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
In Canada, pertussis vaccine is only available as an acellular preparation in a combination vaccine. The amount of acellular pertussis antigen present varies by product. Preparations containing higher concentrations of acellular pertussis antigen are administered for primary immunization of infants and young children less than 7 years of age and may be administered as a booster for children 4 years to less than 7 years of age. Preparations containing a lower concentration may also be administered as a booster dose to children 4 years to less than 7 years of age and are the recommended product for older children, adolescents and adults .
For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within Health Canada’s authorized product monographs available through the Drug Product Database. Refer to Table 1 Contents of Immunizing Agents Available in Canada in Part 1 for a list of all vaccines available for use in Canada and their contents.
Whooping Cough Vaccine Brands
The vaccines used in this program are Boostrix® or Adacel®. These vaccines contain a reduced antigen formulation for adults and adolescents combining diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis antigens.
The only absolute contraindication to these vaccines are a history of anaphylactic reaction to any of the vaccine components.
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Is A Booster Shot Needed After The Dtap Shots Are Completed
Everyone — including adults — from age 11 up should receive a booster vaccine, called Tdap. It’s a combined tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis booster vaccine.
If you are pregnant, you should also get the vaccine, preferably between weeks 27 and 36. You need to get the vaccine each time you are pregnant.
Immunogenicity Efficacy And Effectiveness
Immunologic correlates of protection against pertussis are not well-defined, but higher levels of anti-pertussis antibodies seem to be associated with greater protection. In general, acellular pertussis-containing combination vaccines have demonstrated good immunogenicity of their component antigens. Consistently high response to pertussis vaccine has been observed after booster vaccination. Early third trimester Tdap vaccination in pregnancy leads to efficient transplacental transfer of vaccine-derived antibodies to the infant which persist until the infant may begin to be immunized at 2 months of age.
Efficacy and effectiveness
The vaccine efficacy following the primary series with acellular pertussis vaccines is estimated to be about 85%, and approximately 90% following booster immunization. Although the duration of protection afforded by acellular pertussis vaccine is unknown, available data suggests that protection does not significantly decline between the first booster and second booster with an acellular pertussis vaccine. However, a progressive decline in protection has been observed following the second booster dose. Tdap immunization in pregnancy is estimated to provide protection against pertussis in 9 of 10 infants less than 3 months of age.
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Should I Be Concerned About Whooping Cough
Whooping cough is a highly infectious, serious illness that can lead to pneumonia and brain damage, particularly in young babies. Most babies with whooping cough will need hospital treatment, and when whooping cough is very severe they may die.
Research from the vaccination programme in England shows that vaccinating pregnant women against whooping cough has been highly effective in protecting young babies until they can receive their own vaccinations from 8 weeks of age.
In keeping with usual disease patterns, which see cases increasing every 3 to 4 years in England, whooping cough cases have fallen in all age groups since 2012. The greatest fall has been in young babies targeted by the pregnancy vaccination programme.
Cases of whooping cough in older age groups are still high compared to pre-2012 levels. The number of cases was particularly high in 2016, in line with the typical 3- to 4-yearly peak in disease rates.
Babies can be infected by people with whooping cough in these older age groups, so it is still important for pregnant women to be vaccinated to protect their babies.
The Manufacturer’s Leaflet Says There’s No Information On The Use Of Boostrix Ipv In Pregnancy Should It Be Used In Pregnancy
The licence for Boostrix IPV allows for its use in pregnancy when clearly needed, and when the possible benefits outweigh the possible risks.
It is standard practice with most medicines not to test them on pregnant women. This is why the manufacturer’s information leaflet includes this statement, and not because of any specific safety concerns or evidence of harm in pregnancy.
Whooping cough-containing vaccine has been used routinely in pregnant women in the UK since October 2012, and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency is carefully monitoring its safety. The MHRA’s study of around 20,000 women vaccinated with Repevax, the whooping cough vaccine previously offered to pregnant women, found no evidence of risks to pregnancy or pregnancy outcome.
Boostrix is one of the vaccines routinely recommended in the US for immunisation of pregnant women. There have been no reported safety concerns in the US with the use of the vaccine in pregnancy.
There is no evidence of risk to the pregnant woman or unborn child with inactivated vaccines like Boostrix IPV. An inactivated vaccine is one that does not contain “live” vaccine.
Read more about why vaccines are safe and important.
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Symptoms Of Whooping Cough
Whooping cough begins with symptoms similar to those of a cold. These can rapidly progress to include:
- severe cough occurs in bouts
- characteristic ‘whooping’ sound on inhalation
- vomiting at the end of a bout of coughing
- apnoea the child stops breathing for periods of time and may go blue.
A person with these symptoms may also have poor appetite, fatigue and dehydration. The person may appear normal between bouts of coughing. During the recovery, the cough gradually decreases, but can last up to three months.
I Got The Whooping Cough Vaccine As A Child Do I Still Need To Get Vaccinated Again As An Adult
Protection against whooping cough from early childhood vaccines may wear off. That puts adults and adolescents at risk for infection. Thats why its important to receive booster vaccinations to ensure continued immunity from infection.
Adults often have much milder symptoms of whooping cough. But its often the older siblings, parents, and grandparents who transmit whooping cough to babies. It can have lethal consequences.
Its important to follow the CDCs recommended vaccine schedule to ensure the best protection against whooping cough.
Children should receive 5 consecutive doses of the DTaP vaccine at:
- 2 months
- 15 to 18 months
- 4 to 6 years old
Adults whove never been vaccinated should receive one dose of the Tdap vaccine immediately. All adults should get a Tdap shot every 10 years.
Unfortunately, whooping cough is still very common, and the prevalence is growing in developing countries. Its very contagious and is easily transmitted. Whooping cough is difficult to identify and treat because it can be confused with the common cold.
For these reasons, its critical for people of all ages to maintain immunity by getting vaccinated.
Yes. Getting sick and recovering from whooping cough doesnt provide lifelong protection. That means you can still get whooping cough and transmit it to others, including babies.
The vaccine significantly reduces your risk of acquiring or transmitting the infection.
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Who Else Is The Vaccine Recommended For
Pregnant women should get a whooping cough booster vaccination from 16 weeks’ gestation onwards. At this time, the mother can pass her immunity on to the baby, helping protect them until they are old enough to be vaccinated themselves.
At age 45, adults are eligible for combined tetanus, diphtheria and whooping cough vaccine if they have not previously received four doses of tetanus vaccine.
At age 65, adults are eligible for combined tetanus, diphtheria and whooping cough vaccine, which will replace the existing combined tetanus and diphtheria vaccine from late August 2020 as stocks of the latter run out.
Other adults can receive booster vaccinations for a cost. Immunisation is recommended if:
- your work involves regular contact with infants
- you live with or care for infants under 12 months of age even if the baby has been fully immunised.
Boosters should also be considered for other people who are vulnerable to whooping cough and at high risk of severe illness or complications .
Do Adults Need Whooping Cough Vaccine
Whooping cough infections tend to affect babies more often and more severely than other people. However, older children and adults can also contract this illness.
Getting the whooping cough vaccine will lower your chances of getting the disease. In turn, this will help prevent you from passing the disease on to infants and other people around you.
The Tdap vaccine also reduces your risk of contracting diphtheria and tetanus.
However, the vaccines protective effects wear off over time.
Thats why the
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Which Vaccines Do You Recommend During Pregnancy
I recommend two vaccines for pregnant parents: The first is the flu vaccine, and the second is pertussis .
The flu vaccine should be given to expecting parents as soon possible .
The antibodies generated by the flu shot will also circulate to the baby during pregnancy and protect the baby in early life. This is really important since the baby cant get the flu shot before they are 6 months old, and we dont have very effective treatments to care for those babies who become very ill with the flu.
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What Are The Risks Of Dtap And Tdap
The risks of DTaP, Tdap, and other common vaccines are low. The most common side effect is redness or soreness on the part of the body where you got the shot. You may feel out of sorts or have a low-grade fever.
Allergic reactions to vaccines can be serious, but they are rare. The risk to your health from getting tetanus, diphtheria, or pertussis is higher than the risk of a reaction to the vaccines.
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Where Can I Learn More
- Talk to your immunizing health care provider.
- Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a serious infection of the airways caused by pertussis bacteria.
- The bacteria are easily spread by coughing, sneezing, or close face-to-face contact.
- Pertussis starts like a common cold with symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, mild fever, and a mild cough. Over the next two weeks, the cough gets worse, leading to severe, repeated, and forceful coughing spells that often end with a whooping sound before the next breath.
- The cough of pertussis can last several months and occurs more often at night.
- The cough can make a person gag or spit out mucus and make it hard to take a breath.
- In babies, pertussis can cause periods of apnea in which their breathing is interrupted.
- Pertussis can cause pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, or death. These complications are seen most often in infants.
- About 1 in 170 infants who get pertussis may die.
What Is The Difference Between Tdap And Dtap Immunizations
There are two different types of vaccines for whooping cough, known by their shortened initialisms, Tdap and DTaP.
Both contain inactivated forms of the toxin produced by the bacteria that cause the three diseases that make up the vaccine itself. Inactivated means the substance no longer produces disease, but does trigger the human body to create antibodies in order to provide immunity against the toxins themselves.
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Whats The Difference Between The Whooping Cough Vaccine For Children Compared With The Vaccine For Adults
Two types of vaccines are available for whooping cough. Both are proven to be effective in preventing the disease.
The vaccines contain an inactivated form of the bacterial toxin, which allows us to form antibodies and build an immunity. This means that if were exposed to the bacteria, were very unlikely to get sick.
The DTaP vaccine is recommended for children under age 7.
The Tdap vaccine is recommended for:
- children ages 7 and older
Both vaccines protect against three diseases:
Tdap contains a lower concentration of diphtheria and pertussis toxoids than DTaP. Both vaccines have similar possible side effects, which are generally mild and go away on their own.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that people of all ages get the whooping cough vaccines.
If youve never got the DTap or Tdap vaccine, you should get vaccinated as soon as possible. Unvaccinated adults should receive one dose of the Tdap vaccine. This should be followed by a Tdap shot every 10 years.
Pregnant women should receive a single dose of Tdap during the third trimester of each pregnancy.
Its vital that people ages 65 and older get vaccinated, especially if theyve never received a dose of Tdap.
Currently, Boostrix is the only Tdap vaccine the Food and Drug Administration has approved for people who are age 65 and older.
However, healthcare providers may decide to offer vaccination with the Tdap vaccine that they have available.