Who Should Get Immunised Against Tetanus
Anyone who wants to protect themselves against tetanus can talk to their doctor about getting immunised.
Tetanus immunisation is recommended for:
- children aged 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 18 months, 4 years, and between 10 and 15 years , for free under the National Immunisation Program
- pregnant women in the third trimester of every pregnancy, as part of the combination vaccine for diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough
- 50 year old people who have not had a tetanus vaccine in the past 10 years
- people aged 65 or more, if they havent had a tetanus vaccine in the past 10 years
- people who are travelling overseas, if they havent had a tetanus vaccine in the past 10 years
- people who have a tetanus-prone wound. This is any wound that is not a clean, minor cut, if they havent had a tetanus vaccine in the past 5 years
- anyone who did not have tetanus vaccines during childhood.
People under 20 years old, refugees and other humanitarian entrants of any age, can get tetanus vaccines for free under the NIP. This is if they did not receive the vaccines in childhood. This is called catch-up vaccination.
What If There Is A Serious Reaction
An allergic reaction could occur after the vaccinated person leaves the clinic. If you see signs of a severe allergic reaction , call 9-1-1 and get the person to the nearest hospital.
For other signs that concern you, call your health care provider.
Adverse reactions should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System . Your health care provider will usually file this report, or you can do it yourself. Visit the VAERS website at or call .VAERS is only for reporting reactions, and VAERS staff members do not give medical advice.
Possible Risks Of Dtap Immunization
The vaccine can cause mild side effects: fever mild crankiness tiredness loss of appetite and tenderness, redness, or swelling in the area where the shot was given.
Rarely, a child may have a seizure, a high fever, or uncontrollable crying after getting the vaccine. But these sorts of side effects are so rare that researchers question whether they’re even caused by the vaccine. Most kids have a few minor or no side effects.
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What Do I Tell My Healthcare Provider If I Get Cut Or Bitten And I Dont Know My Tetanus Vaccine Status
If you dont know when you were last vaccinated, a Tdap or Td booster is recommended if youve been cut or bit by an animal. If you dont know if youve ever been vaccinated, Tdap is preferred.
Its important to be honest with your healthcare provider. If youre not, it could delay your shot and raise your risk of infection.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Diphtheria Vaccination
Most people dont have any severe problems after getting a diphtheria vaccination. Some people may develop mild side effects. These side effects usually go away on their own after a few hours or days.
You or your child may develop:
- Body aches.
- Reactions where your provider gave the shot, such as redness or swelling.
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Why Do You Need Booster Shots
The tetanus vaccine doesnt provide lifelong immunity. Protection begins to decrease after about 10 years, which is why doctors advise booster shots every decade.
A doctor may recommend children and adults get a booster shot earlier if theres a suspicion they may have been exposed to tetanus-causing spores.
For example, if you step on a rusty nail or have a deep cut thats been exposed to infected soil, your doctor may recommend a booster.
Some people shouldnt be vaccinated, including people who:
- had severe reactions to previous doses of the vaccine
- have Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological immune disorder
What Are The Current Vaccine Recommendations
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends tetanus vaccines for people of all ages. Adolescents and adults receive either the Td or Tdap vaccines. These vaccines protect over 95% of people from disease for approximately 10 years. Currently the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends a booster shot every 10 years. Injury or wound management and pregnancy may affect this schedule.
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Is It A Live Vaccine
Nope. Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccines arent live vaccinations.
Types of vaccines that arent live include:
- inactivated vaccines, which contain microbes killed by chemicals, heat, or radiation
- subunits, which contain only part of the microbe
- toxoids, which contain inactivated toxins
- conjugate, which contains a subunit linked to a toxoid
Since the Tdap vaccine isnt live, it cant cause these diseases.
Tdap Vaccine: When To Get It Side Effects And Safety
Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis are infectious bacterial diseases. Without treatment, they can lead to severe complications, and in some instances, they are fatal. The Tdap vaccine protects against all three diseases.
The Tdap vaccine is highly effective. Since the introduction of vaccines, cases of diphtheria and tetanus have dropped by 99% , while cases of pertussis have dropped by 80%.
Doctors can give Tdap as a primary immunization or as a booster vaccine, meaning it tops up the immunity a person already has to an illness.
In this article, we will discuss what the Tdap vaccine is, how safe it is, who should get it, and possible side effects.
Tdap is a booster vaccine. It protects people from the following illnesses.
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How Tetanus Is Treated
If a doctor thinks there’s a chance you could develop tetanus from a wound, but you do not yet have any symptoms, they’ll make sure your wound is thoroughly cleaned. They may also give you an injection of tetanus immunoglobulin.
If you have not been fully immunised for tetanus, or you’re not sure whether you have, you may be given a dose of the tetanus vaccine. You may also be given antibiotics.
Tetanus immunoglobulin is a medicine containing antibodies that prevent the tetanus toxin working, stopping its effects on the nerves. It provides immediate, but short-term, protection from tetanus.
If you develop symptoms of tetanus, you’ll usually need to be admitted to a hospital intensive care unit , where you may be given several different treatments. These could include tetanus immunoglobulin, antibiotics, and medicine to help muscle stiffness and spasms.
Most people who develop symptoms of tetanus do recover, but it can take several weeks or months.
Is The Td Vaccine Safe
Yes. Side effects of the Td vaccine are mild and last for only few days after getting the shot. Mild pain, swelling and redness are common at the spot where the shot was given. A few people may get a mild fever, lose their appetite or feel tired for a day or two after the shot. You should always discuss the benefits and risks of any vaccine with your doctor/nurse practitioner.
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How Does Tdap Protect Newborns
When you get vaccinated during pregnancy, your body creates antibodies to fight the disease, and those antibodies are passed to your developing baby. The antibodies will help protect your baby for a short time after they are born until they can get vaccinated themselves. Getting Tdap during pregnancy also makes it less likely that you will have whooping cough during the time when your baby is most at risk.
Who Should Avoid Getting The Tdap Vaccine
Although the risk of having a severe allergic reaction to a Tdap vaccine is very low, certain people should avoid getting the Tdap vaccine, including:
- people who have had a previous life threatening allergic reaction to any vaccine containing tetanus, diphtheria, or pertussis
- people who were in a coma or had seizures within 7 days of a childhood dose of DTP or DTaP, or a previous dose of Tdap
- anyone under the age of 7 years old
Talk with your doctor if you have seizures or another condition that affects the nervous system.
Also, let your doctor know if youve ever had Guillain-Barré syndrome or if youve ever experienced severe pain or swelling after any previous vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, or pertussis.
A healthcare professionals office such as a pediatrician, family practitioner, or community health clinic is usually the best place to receive a Tdap vaccine.
These vaccines may also be available for adults at:
- health departments
- other community locations, such as schools and religious centers
You can also reach out to federally funded health centers as well as your state health department to learn where to get a vaccine near you.
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Dtpa Vaccines In Pregnant Women
Vaccination with dTpa during pregnancy does not increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies have excluded any association with stillbirth, pre-eclampsia, fetal distress, low birth weight or neonatal renal failure.49-55
There may be a small risk of significant injection site reactions after repeat vaccine doses in some women who have dTpa vaccines during successive, closely spaced pregnancies. However, a retrospective study of more than 29,000 women who received dTpa vaccine during pregnancy looked at acute adverse events, including fever, allergy and injection site reactions. The risk of these events was similar in women who had received a tetanus-containing vaccine in the previous 5 years and women who had received a dose more than 5 years previously.55
When Should Adults Be Vaccinated With Tdap
The CDC recommends the Tdap vaccine for all adults ages 19 and older who have never received the vaccine, especially:
- Health care workers who have direct contact with patients
- Caregivers of infants under 1 year old, including parents, grandparents, and babysitters
- Pregnant women in their third trimester , even if they have previously received Tdap vaccine this can protect a newborn from whooping cough in the first months of life.
- New mothers who have never received the Tdap
- People who travel to countries where pertussis is common
You may be given the Tdap vaccine if you have a severe cut or burn and have never received a dose before. Severe cuts or burns raise your risk for tetanus.
The Tdap vaccine can be given any time of the year. Only one shot is needed. It may be given with other vaccinations. Tdap can be given regardless of the interval since the last Td vaccine was given.
The Tdap vaccine can be used safely for those ages 65 and over, according to 2013 CDC recommendations.
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Are There Any Special Situations I Should Be Aware Of
Tetanus shots are for more than routine prevention. They can also help prevent infection when you get cut.
If your wound is minor and clean , youd only need a booster if its been more than 10 years since your last one. Either a Tdap or Td shot can be used.
For some injuries, such as puncture wounds or animal attacks, you may need a tetanus shot sooner. In these situations, a Tdap or Td vaccine is recommended if its been more than 5 years since your last booster.
What Are The Dangers Of Whooping Cough For Babies
Whooping cough can be serious for anyone, but for your newborn, it can be life-threatening. Up to 20 infants die each year from whooping cough in the United States. About half of babies younger than 1 year who get whooping cough need treatment in the hospital. The younger the baby is when they contract whooping cough the more dangerous it is.
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Vaccination Of Specific Populations
Persons with inadequate immunization records
Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. There are no established serologic correlates for protection against pertussis. Refer to Immunization of Persons with Inadequate Immunization Records in Part 3 for additional general information.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
The strongest safety and effectiveness data are from the third trimester. This option may not allow sufficient time for the development and transfer of maternal antibodies before delivery. Late immunization will not provide protection for most preterm births. There may be fewer clinical opportunities to offer vaccination in late pregnancy compared to earlier vaccination.
Infants born prematurely
Patients/residents in health care institutions
Residents of long-term care facilities should receive all routine immunizations appropriate for their age and risk factors, including acellular pertussis-containing vaccine. Refer to Immunization of Patients in Health Care Institutions in Part 3 for additional general information.
Persons with chronic diseases
Persons new to Canada
Tetanus / Diphtheria / Pertussis
Tetanus booster vaccines are available in two forms. The traditional Td vaccine protects against tetanus and diphtheria. The Tdap vaccine protects against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis . CDC recommends that after the initial childhood DTP/DTaP series, everyone get a booster every 10 years, starting with a Tdap. After that, boosters can be in the form of a plain Td vaccine unless the person needs extra pertussis protection. For example, women who become pregnant should get another Tdap booster with each pregnancy.
Occupational Health offers both Td and Tdap vaccines at no charge for faculty and staff.
Tetanus is a serious disease causing stiffness of the neck and jaw muscles, and can be fatal. The tetanus germ usually enters the body through a contaminated cut or wound.
Diphtheria causes a severe illness characterized by a thick coating of the nose, throat, and airway, and is spread by contact with infected persons.
Pertussis causes an illness characterized by severe coughing fits. Pertussis is spread by respiratory droplets from infected persons. Infants who have not yet completed their childhood vaccination series are the most susceptible to pertussis infection. For these tiny people, the condition can be life threatening.
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Flu Vaccines For Older Adults
Flu short for influenza is a virus that can cause fever, chills, sore throat, stuffy nose, headache, and muscle aches. Flu is very serious when it gets in your lungs. Older adults are at a higher risk for developing serious complications from the flu, such as pneumonia.
The flu is easy to pass from person to person. The virus also changes over time, which means you can get it again. To ensure flu vaccines remain effective, the vaccine is updated every year.
Everyone age 6 months and older should get an annual flu vaccine, but the protection from a flu vaccine can lessen with time, especially in older adults. Still, you are less likely to become seriously ill or hospitalized because of the flu if you get the vaccine. A flu vaccine is especially important if you have a chronic health condition such as heart disease or diabetes.
You should get your vaccine ideally by the end of October each year so you are protected when the flu season starts. It takes at least two weeks for the vaccine to be effective. However, if you have not received your flu vaccine by the end of October, its not too late as flu season typically peaks in December or January. As long as the flu virus is spreading, getting vaccinated will help protect you.
How Does A Person Contract Tetanus
C. tetani bacteria exist nearly everywhere in the environment, and they can pose a threat when they enter the bloodstream.
Open wounds of any kind, including burns and punctures, are potential entry points. People can also get tetanus through insect bites, dental infections, surgery, and intravenous drug use.
Newborns can get tetanus if they are born in unsanitary conditions.
According to the
Treatment depends on the severity of the wound and whether a person has received a tetanus shot. It typically focuses on preventing or managing complications.
A doctor who suspects tetanus will thoroughly cleanse the wound and administer antibiotics to prevent further infection.
A person may also require medication to control muscle spasms and a treatment called human tetanus immune globulin.
There is no cure for tetanus, but it is possible to manage the symptoms.
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When To Seek Medical Help
Tetanus is an emergency. If a person has a wound that may have come into contact with the bacteria, they should receive medical care.
Any wound that has been exposed to a contaminant such as dirt, feces, or manure requires medical attention.
Sufficient wound care is key in preventing tetanus it is important to disinfect all wounds as soon as possible.
Tetanus is a serious bacterial infection that can be fatal. Various vaccines provide immunity against the bacteria, though this protection is temporary.
The bacteria are common in the environment, so
What Are The Tdap And Td Vaccines
Tdap and Td are shots given to protect you and others around you from tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis . These are severe infections caused by bacteria. Tetanus bacteria are found in dirt, manure, and dust. The bacteria enter the body through open skin, such as puncture wounds and burns. Diphtheria and pertussis bacteria are spread from person to person.
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Pertussis Vaccines Used In Australia
Acellular pertussiscontaining vaccines registered in Australia contain 2 or more purified components of Bordetella pertussis:
- The 2-component vaccine has pertussis toxin and filamentous haemagglutinin .
- The 3-component vaccines also include pertactin .
- The 5-component vaccines also include 2 fimbrial antigens.