Frequently Asked Questionsexpand All
If you are older than 26, have not been vaccinated, and are at risk of a new HPV infection, you and your health care practitioner can talk about whether you need the HPV vaccine. The vaccine is approved for people through age 45.
If your child has not had all of the shots, he or she does not have to start over. Your child can get the next shot that is due even if the time between them is longer than recommended.
This is also true for you if you have not completed the number of recommended shots. Talk with your health care practitioner if you have questions about getting any shots you missed.
The most common side effect of the HPV vaccine is soreness and redness where the shot is given. There have been no reports of severe side effects or bad reactions to the vaccine.
The HPV vaccine is highly effective when given before a person has sex. The vaccine can reduce the risk of HPV-related genital warts and cancer by up to 99 percent when all recommended shots have been given. It is one of the most effective vaccines you can get.
Yes. If you have had sex, you may already be infected with one or more types of HPV. But the vaccine may still protect you against HPV types you do not have yet.
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Alternatives To Gardasil 9
Gardasil 9 is currently the only vaccine approved in the United States to protect againstcertain diseases caused by human papillomavirus .
In the past, another vaccine called Cervarix was used to prevent two types of HPV . There was also an older version of Gardasil that protected against four types of HPV. Both of these vaccines have been discontinued and are unavailable in the United States. This is because Gardasil 9 is very effective, protects against the largest number of types of HPV, and can protect both men and women from HPV-related diseases.
Who Should Not Get Hpv Vaccine
Tell your doctor about any severe allergies. Some people should not get some HPV vaccines if:
- They have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any ingredient of an HPV vaccine, or to a previous dose of HPV vaccine.
- They have an allergy to yeast .
- They are pregnant.
HPV vaccines are safe for children who are mildly ill, like those with a low-grade fever of less than 101 degrees, a cold, runny nose, or cough. People with a moderate or severe illness should wait until they are better.
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Talk With Your Health Care Provider
Tell your vaccination provider if the person getting the vaccine:
- Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of HPV vaccine, or has any severe, life-threatening allergies
- Is pregnantHPV vaccine is not recommended until after pregnancy
In some cases, your health care provider may decide to postpone HPV vaccination until a future visit.
People with minor illnesses, such as a cold, may be vaccinated. People who are moderately or severely ill should usually wait until they recover before getting HPV vaccine.
Your health care provider can give you more information.
Treatment For Cell Changes Caused By Hpv Infection
Although HPV infection itself cannot be treated, there are treatments for the precancerous cell changes caused by infection with high-risk HPV.
Precancerous cervical cell changes: Most women who have precancerous cervical cell changes are treated with the loop electrosurgical excision procedure , which is a method to remove the abnormal tissue.
Learn more about treatments for abnormal cervical cell changes.
HPV-related cancers: Individuals who develop an HPV-related cancer generally receive the same treatment as patients with tumors at the same site that are not related to HPV infection. However, patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer may receive different treatments than patients whose oropharyngeal cancers are not caused by HPV.
Learn more about treatment options for oropharyngeal cancer, including targeted therapy and new types of treatment such as immunotherapy being tested in clinical trials.
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What Does The Vaccine Not Protect Against
The vaccine does not protect against all HPV types so they will not prevent all cases of cervical cancer. Since some cervical cancers will not be prevented by the vaccine, it will be important for women to continue getting screened for cervical cancer. Also, the vaccine does not prevent other sexually transmitted infections . So it will still be important for sexually active persons to lower their risk for other STIs.
How Long Does It Take To Work
Typically, your body starts building up an immunity about 2 weeks after you get a vaccine. Therefore, Gardasil 9 will start working in your body within a couple weeks of getting the vaccine. In clinical studies, people who received Gardasil 9 had evidence of immune system cells that fight HPV by 1 month after their last dose.
Its important to complete the vaccine series of two to three doses. Although the vaccine starts to build immunity in your body after one dose, the second doses build up your immunity even more. Youll be the most protected by getting the two-dose or three-dose series thats recommended by your doctor or pharmacist.
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Monitoring For Possible Side Effects
Like all vaccines, even old vaccines approved many years ago, the HPV vaccines are continuously monitored for side effects. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Food and Drug Administration review all serious side effects reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System to watch for potential safety concerns that may need further study.
What Are The Benefits Of The Hpv Vaccines
In women who have never been infected with HPV, the vaccines prevent almost 100% of cases of cervical cancer caused by the HPV types covered by the vaccines.
The HPV9 vaccine also prevents about:
- 78% of cases of anal cancers in men caused by the two main types of HPV
- 90% to 100% of cases of genital warts in men and women caused by 2 other types of HPV
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When To Get The Vaccine
The Gardasil 9 vaccine is FDA-approved for use in people ages 9 through 45 years old.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the Gardasil 9 vaccine for children ages 11 or 12 years old. This helps make sure the person is protected from HPV before becoming sexually active. However, the CDC states that some people may benefit from the vaccine from the ages of 9 through 26 years old.
If youre 26 to 45 years old, Gardasil may still be recommended. This depends on whether youve gotten the vaccine before and your risk factors, such as engaging in unprotected sex .
Talk with your doctor or pharmacist about getting the Gardasil 9 vaccine if youre 26 to 45 years old. They can help you decide if the vaccine is right for you.
Gardasil 9 is currently not recommended for use in adults over the age of 45 years old.
Why Adults Should Get The Hpv Vaccine
HPV infection is extremely common. Most sexually active people will be infected with HPV at some point in life. More than 42 million people in the United States are infected with HPV and most of them donât know it. It spreads easily among infected partners. HPV infection usually causes no symptoms, but can cause genital warts and anal cancer in both women and men. HPV can also cause throat cancer.
In women, HPV infection can cause cells in the cervix to grow abnormally. In a small fraction of women, these HPV-induced changes will develop into cervical cancer. About 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year and about 4,000 women die from the condition.
The HPV vaccine prevents infection by the HPV types responsible for most cervical cancers. Up until 2017, there were two vaccines available . Today, Gardasil 9 is the only available HPV vaccine in the U.S.
Gardasil 9 prevents infection by the same HPV types as Gardasil, plus HPV-31, HPV-33, HPV-45, HPV-52, and HPV-58. Collectively, these types are implicated in 90% of cervical cancers. In October 2018, the FDA approved Gardasil9 for everyone ages 9 through 45
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Few Young Adult Men Have Gotten The Hpv Vaccine
But they should: A cancer found in the throat is now the leading cancer caused by HPV and 80% of those diagnosed are men.
The COVID-19 vaccine isnt having any trouble attracting suitors.
But theres another, older model thats been mostly ignored by the young men of America: the HPV vaccine.
Using data from the 2010-2018 National Health Interview Surveys, Michigan Medicine researchers found that just 16% of men who were 18 to 21 years old had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine at any age. In comparison, 42% of women in the same age bracket had gotten at least one shot of the vaccine.
The CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends two doses of the vaccine at 11 or 12 years old, but Americans can still benefit from the HPV vaccine if they receive it later, as long as they get three doses by age 26.
In the U-M study, however even among those who were vaccinated after turning 18 less than a third of men received all three vaccine doses, and about half of women did.
I dont think that a lot of people, both providers and patients, are aware that this vaccine is actually a cancer-prevention vaccine for men as well as women, Chen says. But HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer can impact anyone and theres no good screening for it, which makes vaccination even more important.
How Long After Receiving The Hpv Vaccine Does It Take For The Vaccine To Work
The immune system takes one to two weeks to generate immunity to vaccines or infections. In the case of HPV vaccine, the first dose generates a primary immune response, so people will have some immunity, but protection can vary from one person to another. The last dose is important because it enhances the memory immune response. A person will have the greatest protection beginning about one to two weeks after receiving their last dose of the vaccine.
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Why Is The Hpv Vaccine Given At Such A Young Age
HPV infections can be spread by any skin-to-skin contact and are usually found on the fingers, hands, mouth and genitals.
This means the virus can be spread during any kind of sexual activity, including touching.
The HPV vaccine works best if girls and boys get it before they come into contact with HPV .
So getting the vaccine when recommended will help protect them during their teenage years and beyond.
Most unvaccinated people will be infected with some type of HPV at some time in their life.
The virus does not usually do any harm because the person’s immune system clears the infection.
But sometimes the infection stays in the body for many years, and then it may start to cause damage.
When Will I Get My Pap And Hpv Test Results
Usually, it takes 1 to 3 weeks to get Pap and HPV test results. Most of the time, test results are normal.
If you do not get the results of your Pap and HPV tests 3 weeks after the test, call your doctors office to get the results. If the doctor or nurse tells you to schedule another appointment to follow up on abnormal results, be sure to go to the appointment.
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Gardasil 9 Vaccine Side Effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Gardasil 9:hives difficulty breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.
You may feel faint after receiving this vaccine. Some people have had seizure like reactions after receiving this vaccine. Your doctor may want you to remain under observation during the first 15 minutes after the injection.
Developing cancer from HPV is much more dangerous to your health than receiving the vaccine to protect against it. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.
Common Gardasil 9 side effects may include:
pain, swelling, or redness where the shot was given or
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.
Do I Need To Pay For Hpv Immunisation
Vaccines are free for people who are eligible under the NIP. See the NIP Schedule to find out which vaccines you or your family are eligible for.
Eligible people get the vaccine for free, but your health care provider may charge a consultation fee for the visit. You can ask this when you make your appointment.
If you are over 15 years old when you get your first dose of HPV vaccine, you will need 3 doses, not 2 doses, to provide the best protection. You will need to pay for one of these doses because only 2 doses are covered under the NIP.
If you are not eligible for a free vaccine, you may need to pay for it. The cost depends on the type of vaccine, the formula and where you buy it from. Your health care provider can give you more information.
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When Should You Be Vaccinated
The vaccines are given 2 or 3 times over a 6- to 12-month period. The timing of doses is important to make sure the vaccines are as effective as possible. If all doses of the vaccine are not given, or they are not given at the right time, you may not get the full benefit of the vaccine.
The vaccines are most effective if theyre given before a person becomes sexually active because their risk of infection will be lower. The vaccines are also more effective in young teens when the immune system is most responsive to the vaccine.
The Hpv Vaccine: Access And Use In The Us
The human papillomavirus vaccine is the first and only vaccination that helps protect individuals from getting many different types of cancer that are associated with different HPV strains. The vaccine protects young people against infection from certain strains of HPV, the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Since HPV vaccines were first introduced in the U.S. in 2006 there have been changes in the range of protection they offer and the dosing regimen. The vaccines were originally recommended only for girls and young women and were subsequently broadened to include boys and young men. This factsheet discusses HPV and related cancers, use of the HPV vaccines for both females and males, and insurance coverage and access to the vaccines.
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Diseases Attributed To Hpv Infection
Worldwide, approximately 70% of cervical cancers contain HPV-16 DNA.64
Prevalence of HPV-16 and HPV-18 in Australia
Australian data collected between 2005 and 2015 indicate that HPV-16 and HPV-18 are detected in approximately 77% of all cervical cancers. It is estimated that an extra 15.9% of cervical cancers are attributable to HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58.65-67
In Australia, cervical cancer ranked 23rd of cancers contributing to the overall cancer disease burden in 2011. Cervical cancer occurs predominantly in women who are unscreened or underscreened through the National Cervical Screening Program.68
Incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer
In 2014, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer in Australia was 6.8 per 100,000. The mortality rate was 1.7 deaths per 100,000 women.69
The prevalence of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18, detected when cervical samples collected for cytology were tested for HPV DNA, was similar in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women and non-Indigenous women.57
However, the incidence rate of cervical cancer in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women is more than 2 times that in non-Indigenous Australian women. This indicates that fewer Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women participate in cervical screening programs. It also suggests a greater prevalence of cofactors for cervical cancer, such as:69,70
- earlier and more pregnancies
- lower socioeconomic status
Other anogenital cancers
What Happens During Pap And Hpv Tests
Your doctor or nurse can do a Pap test in the exam room of a doctors office. You will lie down on your back on an exam table. You will place your feet on either side of the table in footrests . Your doctor or nurse will put a tool called a speculum into your vagina and will open it to see your cervix.
Your doctor or nurse will use a special stick or soft brush to take a few cells from the surface of and inside your cervix and vagina. Your doctor or nurse will put the cells on a glass slide or in a small container and send them to a lab for testing. If your doctor or nurse orders an HPV test, the cells taken for your Pap test are tested for HPV at the same time.
Pap and HPV tests usually last about 5 minutes. You may have some spotting afterward.
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