Tuesday, May 30, 2023

How To Get Rabies Vaccine

Does An Animal Have To Be Destroyed To Be Tested For Rabies

Woman forced to get rabies vaccine after Health Dept. admits bat was “lost”

Yes, the only proven test is to examine the brain for the rabies virus. Blood tests have proven not to be reliable. Because rabies is so serious, the test needs to be as accurate and reliable as possible.

What if the owner of an animal who has bitten someone refuses to have it evaluated for rabies?

In situations where the owner refuses to have an animal evaluated for rabies, you should contact local law enforcement officials.

What To Do If You Think Your Dog Has Rabies

If you believe your dog has rabies, Wigfall advises isolating your dog immediately to a kennel or room and having no further contact until you call your veterinarian.

They will be able to advise on your next steps and may even choose to transport your dog to an assessment facility themselves to minimize the risk of injury to others. As the disease is zoonotic, extreme caution and care must be taken when handling dogs suspected of having rabies.

Richardson says that you should never come in contact with your dogs saliva if you suspect rabies transmission has occurred. Once you get your dog out of the house, its critical to disinfect any areas your dog may have infected, particularly with saliva. You can use a 1:32 dilution of household bleach solution to inactivate the virus quickly.

If you witness your vaccinated dog getting bitten by an animal that could be rabid, Richardson says you should take them to your veterinarian immediately for a booster vaccine. This helps to strengthen the dogs immunity to rabies and reduces the chances of the virus developing. Do not wait for symptoms, as it will be too late.

Are Rabies Immune Globulin And Rabies Vaccine Safe

Yes, both of these products are very safe. It is much safer to get immunized with these products than to get rabies. People usually have only minor reactions that may last a couple of days after being immunized.

RabIg is prepared from donated human blood that is tested for safety. All blood donors are screened for exposure to viruses such as HIV and hepatitis. Each blood donation is also tested for the presence of blood-borne viruses before being used to make RabIg. Many chemical and physical steps are included when preparing RabIg. These steps include inactivating and removing viruses and bacteria that can cause disease. The final preparation of RabIg undergoes more testing to ensure that there are no known infectious viruses present. However, there is an extremely small risk of passing some blood-borne infections through the use of RabIg. Since blood screening and testing began, there have been no reports of blood-borne infections such as HIV, hepatitis B or hepatitis C in people who received RabIg.

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When To Administer The Rabies Vaccine

Timing of the first rabies vaccination depends on state and city guidelines, hospital policy, and species. For dogs, it is typically first administered to puppies 12 to 16 weeks of age and then repeated in 1 year. Some vaccines are approved for subsequent 1-year use and some for 3-year use. However, regardless of the age of the patient or labeled vaccine duration, the first 2 vaccinations must be 1 year apart. Check your individual hospital protocol, local ordinances, and vaccine manufacturer to determine an appropriate rabies vaccine schedule for dogs in your practice.

When Is The Vaccine Given

Rabies: Overview and More

Your healthcare provider will tell you how many doses of the vaccine you need. He or she will give you an injection schedule. Plan to get all of the doses on the days they are scheduled, especially the first 2 doses. Do not put off getting the injections or try to schedule them all for the same day. Tell your provider if you think anything may keep you from getting all the doses as scheduled. He or she may be able to help you find ways to stay on schedule. The following is a common dosing schedule:

  • Booster doses may be needed over time if you stay at high risk for rabies. You are at increased risk for rabies if:
  • Your work involves handling animals that can carry rabies.
  • You work in a rabies laboratory.
  • You often go into caves where bats live.
  • You often travel to a country where rabies is common.
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    Is The Rabies Vaccine Safe

    Yes. Some people have mild pain, swelling, redness or itching for a few days where the needle was given. A few people may have headaches, loss of appetite, stomach pain, muscle aches or dizziness. Serious side effects are rare. You should always discuss the benefits and risks of any vaccine with your doctor.

    Learn To Recognize Adverse Reactions

    Short-term reactions include vomiting, facial swelling, fever, lethargy, circulatory shock, loss of consciousness and even death. Reactions occurring days or months after vaccination can be difficult to recognize. They include:

    • Fibrocarcinomas at the injection site
    • Pica
    • Behavioral changes

    If you suspect a health or behavior problem may be connected to a vaccine, you may have to convince your vet. Its common to hear it couldnt be the shot or a reaction like that is impossible. Even the drugs manufacturer (to whom you should immediately report the reaction giving them the brand and lot# may deny the connection.

    Insist on seeing the products package insert, viewable on-line or from your vet. Also know that long-term reactions arent usually documented or even studied.

    Note: a vaccine reaction, especially one supported by your vet, may entitle you to compensation for medical expenses from the drug manufacturer.

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    Bitten Or Scratched By A Potentially Infected Animal

    Post exposure rabies vaccines are recommended to all individuals who have been potentially exposed to the rabies virus or Australian bat lyssavirus following a bite or scratch from:

    • a bat
    • an animal in a country where rabies is found.

    Reports of exposure should be made prior to commencing any treatment with rabies immunoglobulin or rabbies vaccine, as soon as possible.

    Treatment will vary depending on the type of exposure, previous vaccine history and any treatments that may have been commenced overseas at the time of the exposure. You may also need rabies immunoglobulin injected into the area around the bite or scratch to give you immediate protection.

    Make Sure Your Dog Gets The Correct Vaccine

    Ask The Expert: Rabies Surge Vaccine Program

    If youre vaccinating a puppy, make sure your vet administers a one-year vaccine initially and a three-year vaccine thereafter.

    The one-year and three-year vaccines are virtually identical medically but not under the law. A one-year shot must be followed by re-vaccination a year later.

    Note: the one-year shot is not safer than the three-year .

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    My Pet May Have Rabies

    If you suspect your pet already has rabies:

    • put your pet in a quiet, dark area by itself
    • call your veterinarian right away.
    • keep your pet away from people or other animals
    • if your pet has bitten you or another person, call your local public health unit

    If you suspect your pethas come into contact with a rabid animal, call your local veterinarian.

    He or she will ask for information to help determine if your pet may have been exposed.

    Your veterinarian may vaccinate your pet within 7 days if:

    • he or she finds that your pet may have been exposed to rabies
    • the animal your pet was exposed to cant be found and tested for rabies
    • tests show the animal your pet was exposed to does have rabies

    Who Should Get The Rabies Vaccine

    The rabies vaccine is not given routinely. It is administered to people at high risk of exposure to rabies, such as laboratory staff who handle the rabies virus, those working in quarantine stations, animal handlers, veterinary surgeons and field workers who are likely to be bitten by infected wild animals, certain port officials, and bat handlers.

    Rabies vaccination may also be recommended where there is limited access to prompt medical care for those living in areas where rabies affects the local animals, for those travelling to such areas for longer than one month, and for those on shorter visits who may be exposed to unusual risk of being bitten by a rabid animal.

    The vaccine is also given to prevent rabies in people bitten by an animal suspected to have rabies, whether or not the person has been previously immunised .

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    Will I Have To Pay For The Rabies Vaccine

    You’ll usually have to pay for the rabies vaccine if you need it for protection while travelling.

    The vaccine course involves 3 doses. Each dose usually costs around £40 to £60, with a full course typically costing around £120 to £180.

    If you need the vaccine because there’s a risk you could be exposed to rabies through your job, your employer should be able to provide it for you free of charge. Ask your employer or occupational health provider about this.

    If you regularly handle bats in a voluntary role, you should speak to a GP to see if you are eligible for a free vaccine.

    What Are The Possible Reactions After Rabies Immune Globulin And Rabies Vaccine

    Nobivac 1

    Common reactions to RabIg may include soreness and stiffness of local muscles where the immunization was given. Fever, skin reactions and allergic reactions may also occur.

    Some immune globulins may be associated with a risk of thrombosis within 24 hours of receiving them, especially when large volumes are given. The risk of thrombosis is increased in those:

    • 45 years of age and older
    • With a history of thrombosis or
    • With risk factors for thrombosis

    Common reactions to rabies vaccine may include soreness, redness, swelling and itching where the vaccine was given. Headache, fever, muscle or joint soreness, nausea, dizziness and fatigue may also occur.

    For more information on Reye Syndrome, see HealthLinkBC File #84 Reye Syndrome.

    It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any immunization because there is a rare possibility, less than 1 in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. Should this reaction occur, your health care provider is prepared to treat it. Emergency treatment includes administration of epinephrine and transfer by ambulance to the nearest emergency department. If symptoms develop after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.

    It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your health care provider.

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    Why Should I Have My Animals Vaccinated

    • Vaccinating pets prevents them from getting rabies and is one of the most effective ways in preventing rabies exposure in people.
    • If your dog, cat, or ferret is not vaccinated, and is bitten by a stray or wild animal, the pet needs to be confined and observed for six months. This strict confinement of a pet could cost a significant amount of money and could harm the animal physiologically. If the pet develops signs of rabies while in confinement, it must be euthanized to be tested for rabies.
    • The health risk, stress, and financial burden of a pet potentially being exposed to rabies are significantly less if the pet is vaccinated. Rabies vaccines for pets are an inexpensive way to protect people and other animals. It is worth spending a few dollars to vaccinate your pet instead of spending thousands of dollars on confinement and the potential tragedy of losing your pet.

    People Who Are Travelling

    You should consider being vaccinated against rabies if you’re travelling to an area of the world where rabies is common and:

    • you plan to stay for a month or more, or there’s unlikely to be quick access to appropriate medical care
    • you plan to do activities that could put you at increased risk of exposure to animals with rabies, such as running or cycling

    It takes up to 4 weeks to complete the vaccine course, so you need to start it at least 1 month before you plan to leave.

    Pregnant women are advised to have the rabies vaccine if the risk of exposure to rabies is thought to be high and there’s limited access to medical care.

    Use the TravelHealthPro website to find out if there’s a risk of rabies in the country you’re travelling to.

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    Who Should Not Get The Rabies Vaccine Or Should Wait To Get It

    • Tell your healthcare provider if you had a severe allergic reaction to the rabies vaccine or to another vaccine. If you are getting the vaccine before exposure, do not get another dose. After exposure, you need to get all the doses even if you are at risk for an allergic reaction. Your healthcare provider may need to take extra precautions before you get another dose.
    • Tell your provider about all of your allergies. Also tell him or her if you have a disease that affects your immune system or you have cancer. Tell him or her if you are taking medicines that affect your immune system or any cancer treatment drug or radiation. Tell him or her if you are ill. You may need to wait to get the vaccine until you feel better.

    Why Can A Healthy Domestic Dog Cat Or Ferret Be Held For Ten Days

    Rabies: Vaccine, Symptoms and Treatment for Virus

    Studies have shown that dogs, cats, and ferrets only shed the rabies virus in their saliva for a short period of time before they develop symptoms. If the animal has not developed symptoms by the tenth day after the exposure then the animal would not have been shedding the virus at the time of the exposure.

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    Human Rabies Immune Globulin

    Human rabies immune globulin is infiltrated around the site of the bite, and provides rapid passive immune protection with a half-life of approximately 21 days. It is administered only once, on the first day of the PEP regimen . No more than the recommended dosage of HRIG should be given because excessive HRIG can partially suppress active production of antibody. If the HRIG was not administered on Day 0, it may be administered up to and including Day 7 of the PEP regimen. Beyond Day 7, HRIG is not indicated, as the patientâs antibody response to the vaccine occurs in that timeframe.

    • The recommended dosage of HRIG is 20 IU/kg body weight for all ages including children.
    • Infiltrate as much of the HRIG as possible into and around the bite wound.
    • Administer the remaining HRIG intramuscularly at a site distant from the first vaccination site, generally in the quadriceps or deltoids.
    • If there is no wound, such as following a bat-in-the-bedroom exposure, then administer the entire dose of HRIG in the quadriceps or deltoids.

    People At Risk Through Their Work

    Vaccination is also recommended for anyone at risk of being exposed to rabies through their job , such as:

    • people who regularly handle bats
    • people who handle imported animals, such as workers at animal quarantine centres
    • laboratory workers who handle rabies samples

    If you think this applies to you, speak to your employer or occupational health provider. If you regularly handle bats in a voluntary role, speak to a GP about the rabies vaccine.

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    Why Is The Rabies Vaccine Important

    Though its rare in the United States, people who get rabies almost always die. In the United States people are most likely to get rabies from wild animals. Rabies is more common in other countries.

    If youve been bitten by an animal that could have rabies, or are at risk of coming in contact with rabies, its very important to get the vaccine.

    Simultaneous Administration With Other Vaccines

    Prevention / Treatment

    Data are not available regarding the concurrent administration of rabies vaccines with other vaccines. Based on expert opinion, live vaccines given by nasal or oral route and essential inactivated vaccines, may be administered at the same time as rabies vaccines. Vaccines should be provided at different injection sites using separate needles and syringes.

    If rabies immunoglobulin is administered, this may interfere with the response to live vaccines. Refer to Blood Products, Human Immunoglobulin and Timing of Immunizations, and Timing of Vaccine Administration chapters in Part 1.

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    Travel To The United States

    If youre travelling to the United States with your dog, you need an up-to-date vaccination certificate signed by your veterinarian to enter the U.S. and return to Canada.

    You must wait 30 days after your dog is vaccinated before you can cross the border.

    If your dog is less than 4 months old, it wont be admitted into the United States.

    In some parts of the U.S., the risk of your pet being exposed to rabies may be higher than in Ontario.

    Other pets may have different requirements. Check your destinations requirements and/or speak with your veterinarian before traveling.

    What You Need To Know

    1. What is rabies?

    Rabies is a serious disease. It is caused by a virus. Rabies is mainly a disease of animals. Humans get rabies when they are bitten by infected animals.

    At first there might not be any symptoms. But weeks, or even years after a bite, rabies can cause pain, fatigue, headaches, fever, and irritability.

    These are followed by seizures, hallucinations, and paralysis. Rabies is almost always fatal.

    Wild animals – especially bats – are the most common source of human rabies infection in the United States. Skunks, raccoons, dogs, and cats can also transmit the disease.

    Human rabies is rare in the United States. There have been only 39 cases diagnosed since 1990. However, between 16,000 and 39,000 people are treated each year for possible exposure to rabies after animal bites. Also, rabies is far more common in other parts of the world, with about 40,000 – 70,000 rabies-related deaths each year. Bites from unvaccinated dogs cause most of these cases.

    Rabies vaccine can prevent rabies.

    2. Rabies vaccine

    Rabies vaccine is given to people at high risk of rabies to protect them if they are exposed. It can also prevent the disease if it is given to a person after they have been exposed.

    Rabies vaccine is made from killed rabies virus. It cannot cause rabies.

    3. Who should get rabies vaccine and when?

    Preventive Vaccination

    The pre-exposure schedule for rabies vaccination is 3 doses, given at the following times:

    Vaccination After an Exposure

    4. Tell your doctor if…

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